The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Jim McDonnell (sheriff)
James McDonnell is an American law enforcement official who served as the 32nd Sheriff of the County of Los Angeles in California. McDonnell was elected as L. A. County's 32nd sheriff on November 4, 2014, defeating former Undersheriff Paul Tanaka, he replaced interim sheriff John Scott on December 2014, when he was sworn in. He served as the Chief of Police in Long Beach and before that in the Los Angeles Police Department, reaching the rank of Assistant Chief. McDonnell grew up in a working-class neighborhood in Massachusetts, he graduated from Saint Anselm College in Goffstown, New Hampshire, where he received a Bachelor of Science in Criminal Justice. He received a Master's degree in Public Administration from the University of Southern California. McDonnell began his law enforcement career as twenty-one-year-old graduate from the Los Angeles Police Academy in 1981. During his 28 years of work in the LAPD, he held every rank except Chief of Police and served as second in command to Chief William Bratton.
He was considered a frontrunner for the position but Charlie Beck was appointed instead of him. While at the LAPD McDonnell was viewed as an ambassador who helped the department connect with Los Angeles' diverse communities and political leaders as Bratton's chief of staff and second-in-command; as a candidate for Chief in 2002, McDonnell presented a plan for community-based policing, adopted by Bratton and served as the foundation to overhaul and reform the LAPD. While working for the LAPD, he held a variety of assignments in patrol, vice, organized crime and other divisions. In the 1990s as a commander, he gained attention for his efforts to revitalize the LAPD's senior lead officer program and to build the LAPD forerunner to the Compstat computer crime-mapping system along with helping implement the consent decree. In March 2010, McDonnell was appointed as the police chief of Long Beach, replacing former Chief Anthony Batts, who left to become the chief of the Oakland Police Department, over objections by some in the department who preferred a chief from the department.
As police chief, McDonnell dealt with a large increase in officer-involved shootings and a 20% decrease in sworn officers from 1,000 to 800. McDonnell oversaw a 20% drop in violent crime and has been credited with improving community relations with the police, helping drastically reduce gang activity, trying to improve racial diversity in the department. After McDonnell's election on November 4, 2014, Deputy Chief Robert Luna was selected to replace him to become the 26th Police Chief of Long Beach. Luna was considered a frontrunner for the position before McDonnell was appointed and became the department's first Latino police chief. McDonnell has said he would work with district attorney Jackie Lacey to send some prisoners with mental health problems to psychiatric institutions rather than jail. McDonnell has stated that a new facility would be built to replace the dilapidated Men's Central Jail, he has expressed support for a civilian oversight commission to supplement the new inspector general in monitoring the department but has stated that he is still evaluating whether the inspector general should have subpoena power and access to personnel records.
He was sworn in on December 1, 2014 and became the first person from outside of the sheriff's department to be elected to the office of Sheriff in over 100 years. Jim McDonnell was the first incumbant sheriff in over 100 years to lose the position of sheriff in over 100 years. Alex Villanueva succeeded him following the November 2018 general election in California. June 2014November 2014 McDonnell is married to Kathy McDonnell, they have two daughters and Megan. Campaign website
Belmont Shore, Long Beach, California
Belmont Shore is a neighborhood in Long Beach, California. It is home to many shops, restaurants and business offices. Livingston Drive and 2nd Street form the heart of Belmont Shore, from Bluff Park on the west to Alamitos Bay and Naples Island on the east; the eastern border on Alamitos Bay Beach is an inland beach that faces Naples Island across a channel. 2nd Street and the fifteen intersecting side streets make up the business district of Belmont Shore. The neighborhood features Spanish-style homes from the 1920s and 1930s, older houses remodeled and expanded into contemporary styles, numerous large contemporary houses, sections of multifamily apartment buildings; the business district is represented by the Belmont Shore Business Association and the residents are represented by the Friends of Belmont Shore and the Belmont Shore Residents Association. The southern coast of Belmont Shore is a south-facing Pacific Ocean beach that lies just inside the Long Beach breakwater. Due to the presence of the Federal breakwater, this beach experiences little surf, is not as popular for beachgoing during the summer months as are the nearby beaches of Seal Beach or Huntington Beach, for example.
The area offshore of the ocean beach is, popular with kitesurfers and boaters. Each summer, the portion of Bay Shore Avenue south of 2nd Street, at the eastern end of Belmont Shore, is closed to traffic from 9 am until 5 pm and is converted into a pedestrian and bicycle-only zone. At the intersection of 54th Place and Ocean Boulevard, at the southeastern corner of Belmont Shore, lies the entrance to the Peninsula, a narrow, mile-long neighborhood of Long Beach surrounded by water on both sides, the Alamitos Channel at the far end; the Leeway Sailing and Aquatics Center on Alamitos Bay in Belmont Shore is a youth sailing program founded in 1929. The city claims; the US Sailing Center is located on the Alamitos Bay Peninsula in Long Beach. The Sailing Center offers a wide range of programs for High School and Olympic sailors in addition to programs for at-risk youth through local help groups, Learn-to-Sail classes for all ages and disabled sailing opportunities through the Sailing Center's own Disabled Sailing Association.
The Belmont Shore Car Show is the largest one-day annual car. The car show is held in September; the Long Beach Sea Festival has ocean- and beach-related events in Belmont Shore. The festival was first staged 50 years ago with a handful of events; the Sea Festival offers around 100 events, ranging from sand castle building, to free Moonlight Movies on the Beach, to boat racing. Since its inception in August 1964, the Congressional Cup has grown into one of the major international sailing events. Now held in April, it is the only grade 1 match race regatta held in the United States; the one-on-one race format is the same as the America's Cup, many of the winners of the Congressional Cup have gone on to win the America's Cup as well. The event is held in the waters off Belmont Shore with spectator areas on the Belmont Veterans Memorial Pier. Kitesurfing is popular in Belmont Shore because of steady side-onshore winds, large open bodies of water and good launch areas. Belmont Shore residents are zoned to Long Beach Unified School District schools: Lowell Elementary Will Rogers Middle School Woodrow Wilson Classical High School List of cities in Los Angeles County, California Belmont Shore Business Association Belmont Shore Residents Association
Sergeant is a rank in many uniformed organisations, principally military and policing forces. The alternate spelling, "serjeant", is used in The Rifles and other units that draw their heritage from the British Light Infantry, its origin is the Latin "serviens", "one who serves", through the French term "sergent". The term "sergeant" refers to a non-commissioned officer placed above the rank of a corporal and a police officer below a lieutenant or, in the UK, below an inspector. In most armies the rank of sergeant corresponds to command of a squad. In Commonwealth armies, it is a more senior rank, corresponding to a platoon second-in-command. In the United States Army, sergeant is a more junior rank corresponding to a four-soldier fireteam leader. More senior non-commissioned ranks are variations on sergeant, for example staff sergeant, first sergeant and sergeant major. Many countries use sergeant rank, whether in English or using a cognate with the same origin in another language; the equivalent rank in Arab armies is "raqeeb", meaning "overseer" or "watcher".
In medieval European usage, a sergeant was any attendant or officer with a protective duty. Any medieval knight or military order of knighthood might have "sergeants-at-arms", meaning servants able to fight if needed; the etymology of the term is from Anglo-French sergant, serjant "servant, court official, soldier", from Middle Latin servientem "servant, soldier". A "soldier sergeant" was a man of what would now be thought of as the "middle class", fulfilling a junior role to the knight in the medieval hierarchy. Sergeants could fight either as heavy to light cavalry, or as well trained professional infantry, either spearmen or crossbowmen. Most notable medieval mercenaries fell into the "sergeant" class, such as Flemish crossbowmen and spearmen, who were seen as reliable quality troops; the sergeant class was deemed to be'worth half of a knight' in military value. A specific kind of military sergeant was the serjeant-at-arms, one of a body of armed men retained by English lords and monarchs.
The title is now given to an officer in modern legislative bodies, charged with keeping order during meetings and, if necessary, forcibly removing disruptive members. The term had civilian applications quite distinct and different from the military sergeant, though sharing the etymological origin - for example the serjeant-at-law an important and prestigious order of English lawyers. "Sergeant" is the lowest rank of sergeant, with individual military entities choosing some additional words to signify higher ranking individuals. What terms are used, what seniority they signify, is to a great extent dependent on the individual armed service; the term "sergeant" is used in many appointment titles. In most non-naval military or paramilitary organizations, the various grades of sergeant are non-commissioned officers ranking above privates and corporals, below warrant officers and commissioned officers; the responsibilities of a sergeant differ from army to army. There are several ranks of sergeant, each corresponding to greater experience and responsibility for the daily lives of the soldiers of larger units.
Sergeants are team leaders in charge of an entire team of constables to senior constables at large stations, to being in charge of sectors involving several police stations. In country areas, sergeants are in charge of an entire station and its constabulary. Senior sergeants are in specialist areas and are in charge of sergeants and thus act as middle management. Sergeant is a rank in both the Royal Australian Air Force; the ranks are equivalent to the Royal Australian Navy rank of petty officer. Although the rank insignia of the RAAF rank of flight sergeant and the Australian Army rank of staff sergeant are identical, flight sergeant in fact outranks the rank of staff sergeant in the classification of rank equivalencies; the Australian Army rank of staff sergeant is now redundant and is no longer awarded, due to being outside the rank equivalencies and the next promotional rank is warrant officer class two. Chief petty officers and flight sergeants are not required to call a warrant officer class two "sir" in accordance with Australian Defence Force Regulations 1952.
The rank of sergeant exists in all Australian police forces and is of higher ranking than a constable or senior constable, but lower than an inspector. The sergeant structure varies among state police forces two sergeant ranks are classed as non-commissioned officers: Sergeant. A brevet sergeant is less senior than a sergeant. New South Wales Police Force has the additional rank of incremental sergeant; this is an incremental progression, following appointment as a sergeant for seven years. An incremental sergeant rank is less senior than a senior sergeant but is more senior than a sergeant. Upon appointment as a sergeant or senior sergeant, the sergeant is given: A warrant of appointment under the commissioner's hand and seal. A navy blue backing A navy blue nameplate A silver chinstrap positioned above his peaked cap on his headdress, replacing a black chinstrap. Within the New South Wales Police Force, sergeant is a team leader or supervisory rank
Long Beach Airport
Long Beach Airport is three miles northeast of downtown Long Beach, in Los Angeles County, California. It was called Daugherty Field; the National Plan of Integrated Airport Systems for 2011–2015 categorized it as a primary commercial service airport. Federal Aviation Administration records say the airport had 1,413,251 passenger boardings in calendar year 2008, 1,401,903 in 2009 and 1,451,404 in 2010. Located near the Los Angeles County and Orange County borders, Long Beach Airport serves the Los Angeles MSA. Due to its close proximity to the busier and larger Los Angeles International Airport twenty miles away, the airport sees more domestic commercial passenger, cargo and general aviation activity; the airport's placement near many residential areas has made the airport have one of the country's strictest ordinances limiting airport noise. It is the 10th busiest airport in California based at 1.4 million. As of May 2018 JetBlue operates the most airline flights out of Long Beach. Air cargo carriers, including FedEx and UPS use LGB. 57,000 tons of goods are carried each year.
The Boeing Company maintains maintenance facilities for Boeing and McDonnell Douglas/Douglas aircraft at Long Beach, produced the C-17 through 2015. Gulfstream Aerospace operates a completion/service center. Airline flights are restricted, but there are many charters, private aviation, flight schools, law enforcement flights, advertising blimps, planes towing advertising banners, etc. Long Beach airport is one of the busiest general aviation airports in the world, with 398,433 aircraft movements in 2007; the Long Beach Airport has an aggressive noise abatement program, with three full-time noise specialists. Under Long Beach municipal law, the city can criminally prosecute the aircraft's owner and the pilots for breaking the noise ordinance; as the airport continues to grow and air traffic increases, so do the complaints about loud and low flying aircraft. The airport produces a monthly complaint report. Long Beach Airport has one terminal in Streamline Moderne style, a historical landmark and was renovated in early 2013.
Long Beach Transit Routes 102, 104, 111, 176 serve the airport. Wardlow Road runs from the airport to the Los Angeles County/Orange County border, where it becomes Ball Road and crosses the north edge of the Disneyland Resort; the first transcontinental flight, a biplane flown by Calbraith Perry Rodgers, landed in 1911 on Long Beach's sandy beach. From 1911 until the airport was created, planes used the beach as a runway. Barnstormer Earl S. Daugherty had leased the area that became the airport for air shows, stunt flying, wing walking and passenger rides, he started the world's first flight school in 1919 at the same location. In 1923 Daugherty convinced the city council to use the site to create the first municipal airport. Douglas "Wrong Way" Corrigan used to fly out of Daugherty Field. Before his infamous flight from Brooklyn, New York, to Ireland in 1938, he had flown from Long Beach to New York. After authorities refused his request to continue on to Ireland, he was supposed to return to Daugherty Field, but a claimed navigational error routed him to Ireland.
He never publicly acknowledged having flown there intentionally. In the 1940s and 1950s the only airline nonstops from Long Beach Airport were to Los Angeles, San Diego, sometimes Catalina Island. Jet schedules began in 1968. In 1980 the only jets were Pacific Southwest Airlines flights to SFO. In 1981 a new airline based in Long Beach, Jet America, began nonstop MD-80s to Chicago and, in 1982, to Dallas-Fort Worth; that year Alaska Airlines began nonstop Boeing 727s to Seattle. In 1983 American Airlines introduced nonstops to Chicago O'Hare and Dallas-Fort Worth, United Airlines began nonstops to Denver. In 1984 United scheduled two Boeing 767-200s a day nonstop to Denver, the largest passenger airliners to serve LGB. Between 1990 and 1992 Continental, Delta, TWA, USAir ended service to LGB, American Airlines left in early 2006. Alaska Airlines ended mainline service, ended codeshare service in 2015. Delta Connection and American Eagle regional jet flights continue at LGB. In February 2016 Southwest Airlines announced plans to begin service to the airport with an initial 4 available slots.
To attract the United States Navy, the City of Long Beach built a hangar and an administrative building and offered to lease it to the Navy for $1 a year for the establishment of the Naval Reserve Air Base. On May 10, 1928, the U. S. Navy commissioned the field as a Naval Reserve Air Base. Two years the city built a hangar and administrative building for the United States Army Air Corps as well. Significant developments to the little city airport began only after the city built hangars and administrative facilities for the Army and Navy in 1928-30; as a Naval Reserve Air Base the mission was to instruct and drill Naval Reserve personnel. A ground school was offered three nights a week at the base and two nights a week at the University of California in Los Angeles until 1930, when ground school was continuously offered at the base. On April 9, 1939, training in night flight began, shortly thereafter its facilities began to be used by fleet aircraft as well. Wit
Los Angeles Unified School District
The Los Angeles Unified School District is the largest public school system in the U. S. state of California and the 2nd largest public school district in the United States. Only the New York City Department of Education has a larger student population. During the 2016–2017 school year, LAUSD served around 734,641 students, including 107,142 students at independent charter schools and 69,867 adult students. During the same school year, it had 33,635 other employees, it is the second largest employer in Los Angeles County, after the county government. The total school district operating budget for 2016–2017 is $7.59 billion. The school district consists of Los Angeles and all or portions of several adjoining Southern California cities. LAUSD has its own police force, the Los Angeles School Police Department, established in 1948 to provide police services for LAUSD schools; the LAUSD enrolls a third of the preschoolers in Los Angeles County, operates as many buses as the Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority.
The LAUSD school construction program rivals the Big Dig in terms of expenditures, LAUSD cafeterias serve about 500,000 meals a day, rivaling the output of local McDonald's restaurants. The LAUSD has been criticized in the past for crowded schools with large class sizes, high drop-out and expulsion rates, low academic performance in many schools, poor maintenance and incompetent administration. In 2007, LAUSD's dropout rate was 26 percent for grades 9 through 12, but more there are signs that the district is showing improvement, both in terms of dropout and graduation rates. An ambitious renovation program intended to help ease the overcrowded conditions has been completed; as part of its school-construction project, LAUSD opened two high schools in 2005 and four high schools in 2006. Los Angeles Unified School District is governed by a seven-member Board of Education, which appoints a superintendent, who runs the daily operations of the district. Members of the board are elected directly by voters from separate districts that encompass communities that the LAUSD serves.
The district's current superintendent is Austin Beutner. The district's former superintendents are Ramon Cortines; the Board of Education selected King for superintendent in January 2016. Vivian Ekchian became acting superintendent until the Board election of Beutner in May 2018. Cortines was appointed acting superintendent after the school board decided to buy out the contract of David L. Brewer III, a former Navy Vice-Admiral who served as head of the Navy's Education and Training Division and was in charge of the SeaLift Command. From 2001 until his retirement in October 2006, the district was led by former Governor of Colorado and Democratic Party chairman Roy Romer; the six current members of Board of Education include George McKenna, Board President Monica Garcia, Scott Schmerelson, Board Vice President Nick Melvoin, Kelly Fitzpatrick-Gonez, Richard Vladovic. District 5 is vacant following the resignation of Dr. Ref Rodriguez in July 2018. In the March 2015 Los Angeles City Council and School Board elections, voters approved Charter Amendment 2, which allows the Los Angeles Unified School District Board of Education to change their election dates to even-numbered years.
It will take effect with the March 2020 Primary election and the runoff in November 2020. Every LAUSD household or residential area is zoned to an elementary school, a middle school and a high school, in one of the eight local school districts; each local school district is run by an area superintendent and is headquartered within the district. The Los Angeles Unified School District was once composed of two separate districts: the Los Angeles City School District, formed on September 19, 1853, the Los Angeles City High School District, formed in 1890; the latter provided 9–12 educational services, while the former did so for K-8. On July 1, 1961 the Los Angeles City School District and the Los Angeles City High School District merged, forming the Los Angeles Unified School District. On January 31, 1957, a DC7B crashed into the schoolyard of Pacoima Junior High School in Pacoima in the San Fernando Valley of Los Angeles, California following a midair collision with a US military plane, resulting in the deaths of the four crew members aboard the DC-7B, the pilot of the Scorpion jet, two students on the ground, a third died three days later.
Additionally seventy-eight students suffered injuries which ranged from minor to life-threatening. The annexation left the Topanga School District and the Las Virgenes Union School District as separate remnants of the high school district; the high school district changed its name to the West County Union High School District. LAUSD annexed the Topanga district on July 1, 1962. Since the Las Virgenes Union School District had the same boundary as the remaining West County Union High School District, on July 1, 1962 West County ceased to exist. In 1963, a lawsuit, Crawford v. Board of Ed. of Los Angeles was filed to end segregation in the district. The California Supreme Court required the district to come up with a plan in 1977; the board returned to court with what the court of appeal years would describe as "one of if not the most drastic plan of mandatory student reassignment in the nation." A desegregation busing plan was developed to be implemented in the 1978 school year. Two lawsuits to stop the enforced busing plan, both title
Bakersfield Police Department
The Bakersfield Police Department is the agency responsible for law enforcement within the city of Bakersfield, California, in the United States. It has over 400 officers and staff, covering an area of 131 square miles serving an urban population of more than 450,000; the current chief of the department, since 2016, is Lyle Martin. The department protects the city, split between two areas and six zones or beats with stations in each area aside from the main department headquarters. A lieutenant commands each zone; the department administration is made up of the chief of department, two assistant chiefs, four captains and eleven lieutenants. The department headquarters are located at 1601 Truxtun Ave; the west area station is located at 1301 Buena Vista Rd. The east area station is located at East 11th St; the south side sub-station is located at 106 East White Ln. The department shooting range is located on Truxtun Ave. with the K-9 training school next door to the range. The department training academy is located on Norris Rd in conjunction with the Kern County Sheriff's Department.
"The Bakersfield Police Department is committed to professional service which improves community safety and the quality of life by developing partnerships that promote efficient and innovative crime prevention and law enforcement service." The Bakersfield Police Department traces its origin back to the incorporation of the City of Bakersfield in 1898. On January 13, 1898 the Bakersfield City council instituted the Bakersfield City Marshal's Office with Thomas A. Baker as its first Marshal; the police department was itself incorporated on February 27, 1915 with Jacob Horace Dupes as Chief of police. Robert B. Powers was hired as a motorcycle patrolman in 1928, he made Chief of police of the department in 1933, instituted a number of reforms and on-the-job training. His first major action was during the California Agricultural Strike 1933. From May to Oct 1938 a murder case consumed his time - that of Mathias Warren, father to Earl Warren, soon to be was Attorney General governor, in time, supreme court judge.
In June 1939 Powers took the stance of supporting an initiative to get women on the police force if they were college educated and paid well. On July 3, 1941, the Bakersfield Police Department accepted its first female officer with the hiring of Mary Holman Dodge. In 1944-5 Powers was appointed to a wartime state committee on law enforcement under Governor Earl Warren. Powers was a strong voice in determining successive chiefs through to 1966. In 1968, the department accepted its first African-American into its ranks by the hiring of Irma Carson. In August 1973, the department established the Bomb Squad unit with one operator in order to deal with the emerging threat of explosive ordnance in the city. Today, the squad consists of two robots. In June 1988, the department started its K-9 unit, consisting of 5 working dogs. On February 8, 1994, the Bakersfield Police Activities League was established for at risk youth in the city. In June 1999, the department made city history with the promotion of Eric L. Mattlock as the first African-American chief of police for Bakersfield.
On July 8, 2003, the Bakersfield Police Department started a School Resource Officer program by assigning a small detail to local city elementary schools. In July 2003, the BPD investigated one of Bakersfield's most high profile crimes; the killing of two adults and three children in their own home sparked international media coverage and an investigation that would cross the entire United States. The BPD was able to solve the case and make an arrest of one of the victims husband, Vincent Brothers. On May 15, 2007, Brothers was convicted of the crime of murder in the first degree; the conviction was due to the efforts of the investigations bureau of the Bakersfield Police Department. In April 2010, the BPD promoted its first female in the departments history to the rank of Captain with the promotion of Hajir Nuridin. In 2013, BPD began the deactivation of their motor traffic enforcement unit; the reasoning was the amount of injuries that were being incurred by motor traffic enforcement officers who were involved in numerous traffic collisions.
BPD is now the largest law enforcement agency in the United States to no longer an active Motorcycle Traffic Enforcement Unit. The BPD uses a standard paramilitary rank structure. Administration Animal Control Patrol Service Technician Parking Enforcement Public Relations Officer School Resource Officer Reserve Unit Training Patrol Traffic Investigations Internal Affairs Narcotics Vice Electronic Crimes Unit Homeland Security Unit Off Road Unit Auto Theft Unit GHOST Unit Warrant/Fugitive Unit Special Enforcement Unit K-9 Unit Civil Disturbance Team Bomb Squad SWAT Crime Analysis Unit Crime Lab Crime Prevention Office Communication Center Records and Reports Evidence\Property Room Police Chaplain Citizen Volunteer Police Activities League Explorer Post RIP The Bakersfield Police Department employs the latest in uniforms and vehicles; the badge of the department is a gold-colored metal shield surmounted by an eagle, with blue enamel panels stating the name of department, rank of the holder, badge number.
In the center is an enameled seal of the State of California. This design, common in the Central Valley, is based on the 1923 Series 5 badge of the Los Angeles Police Department; the BPD basic patrol uniform consists of Flying Cross brand B Class uniform in midnight navy blue. Patrol officers, during spring-summer seasons, are authorized to wear either white or navy blue polo shirts with the department badge embroidered. 5.11 Tactical shorts in midnig