Western false front architecture
Western false front architecture or false front commercial architecture is a type of commercial architecture used in the Old West of the United States. Used on two-story buildings, the style includes a vertical facade with a square top hiding a gable roof; the goal for the architecture is to project an image of stability and success, while in fact a business owner may not have invested much in a building that might be temporary. Four defining characteristics have been suggested: the front façade of the building "rises to form a parapet which hides most or nearly all of the roof" the roof "is always a front gable, though gambrel and bowed roofs are found" "a better grade of materials is used on the façade than on the sides or rear of the building" and "the façade exhibits greater ornamentation than do the other sides of the building."The N. P. Smith Pioneer Hardware Store in Bend, Oregon is an example where the owner ran a store or other business on the ground floor and lived upstairs. There were many false front buildings constructed in the Bend, Oregon area between 1900 and 1910.
However, the Smith hardware store is the only surviving example in downtown Bend. Media related to Western false front architecture at Wikimedia Commons
Wyatt Berry Stapp Earp was an American Old West lawman and gambler in Cochise County, Arizona Territory, a deputy marshal in Tombstone. He worked in a wide variety of trades throughout his life and took part in the famous Gunfight at the O. K. Corral, during which lawmen killed three outlaw Cochise County Cowboys, he is erroneously regarded as the central figure in the shootout, although his brother Virgil was Tombstone city marshal and deputy U. S. marshal that day and had far more experience as a sheriff, constable and soldier in combat. Earp was a professional gambler and buffalo hunter, he owned several saloons, maintained a brothel, mined for silver and gold, refereed boxing matches, he spent his early life in Iowa. In 1870, he married Urilla Sutherland who contracted typhoid fever and died shortly before their first child was to be born. During the next two years, Earp was arrested for stealing a horse, escaped from jail, was sued twice, he was arrested and fined three times in 1872 for "keeping and being found in a house of ill-fame".
His third arrest was described at length in the Daily Transcript, which referred to him as an "old offender" and nicknamed him the "Peoria Bummer", another name for loafer or vagrant. By 1874, he arrived in the boomtown of Kansas where his reputed wife opened a brothel. On April 21, 1875, he was appointed to the Wichita police force and developed a solid reputation as a lawman, but he was fined and dismissed from the force after getting into a fistfight with a political opponent of his boss. Earp left Wichita, following his brother James to Dodge City, Kansas where he became an assistant city marshal. In the winter of 1878, he went to Texas to track down an outlaw, he met John "Doc" Holliday whom Earp credited with saving his life. Earp moved throughout his life from one boomtown to another, he left Dodge City in 1879 and moved with brothers James and Virgil to Tombstone, where a silver boom was underway. The Earps clashed with an informal community of outlaws known as the Cowboys. Wyatt and their younger brother Morgan held various law-enforcement positions which put them in conflict with Tom McLaury, Frank McLaury, Ike Clanton, Billy Clanton who threatened to kill the Earps on several occasions.
The conflict escalated over the next year, culminating in the gunfight at the O. K. Corral on October 26, 1881 in which the Earps and Doc Holliday killed three of the Cowboys. In the next five months, Virgil was ambushed and maimed, Morgan was assassinated. Wyatt, Warren Earp, Doc Holliday, others formed a federal posse which killed three of the Cowboys whom they thought responsible. Wyatt was never wounded in any of the gunfights, unlike his brothers Virgil and Morgan or his friend Doc Holliday, which only added to his mystique after his death. Earp was always looking for a quick way to make money. After leaving Tombstone, he went to San Francisco where he reunited with Josephine Marcus, she became his common-law wife, they joined a gold rush to Idaho where they owned mining interests and a saloon. They open a saloon during a real estate boom in San Diego, California. Back in San Francisco, Wyatt raced horses again, but his reputation suffered irreparably when he refereed the Fitzsimmons vs. Sharkey boxing match and called a foul which led many to believe that he fixed the fight.
They moved to Yuma, Arizona before joining the Nome Gold Rush in 1899. He and Charlie Hoxie paid $1,500 for a liquor license to open a two-story saloon called the Dexter and made an estimated $80,000; the couple left Alaska and opened another saloon in Tonopah, the site of a new gold find. Around 1911, Earp began working several mining claims in Vidal, retiring in the hot summers with Josephine to Los Angeles, he made friends among early Western actors in Hollywood and tried to get his story told, but he was portrayed only briefly in one film produced during his lifetime: Wild Bill Hickok. Earp died on January 13, 1929, he was known as a Western lawman and boxing referee. He had a notorious reputation for both his handling of the Fitzsimmons–Sharkey fight and his role in the O. K. Corral gunfight; this only began to change after his death when the flattering biography Wyatt Earp: Frontier Marshal was published in 1931. It created his reputation as a fearless lawman. Since Earp has been the subject of numerous films, television shows and works of fiction which have increased both his fame and his notoriety.
Long after his death, he admirers. His modern-day reputation is that of deadliest gunman of his day. Wyatt Berry Stapp Earp was born on March 19, 1848, the fourth child of Nicholas Porter Earp and his second wife, Virginia Ann Cooksey, he was named after his father's commanding officer in the Mexican–American War, Captain Wyatt Berry Stapp, of the 2nd Company Illinois Mounted Volunteers. Some evidence supports Wyatt Earp's birthplace as 406 South 3rd Street in Monmouth, though the street address is disputed by Monmouth College professor and historian William Urban. Wyatt had seven siblings: James, Martha, Baxter Warren and Adelia. In March 1849 or in early 1850, Nicholas Earp joined about 100 other people in a plan to relocate to San Bernardino County, where he intended to buy farmland. Just 150 miles west of Monmouth on the journey, their daughter Martha became ill; the family stopped and Nicholas bought a n
Boot Hill Museum
Boot Hill Museum is an American historical museum located in Dodge City, Kansas. A non-profit entity, the mission of the museum is to preserve the history of the Old West with emphasis on Dodge City. There are over 20,000 artifacts including more than 200 original guns. In addition to its historical and educational focus, the museum provides entertainment for visitors in the form of simulated gunfights and saloon shows; the Kansas Cowboy Hall of Fame is housed in the museum complex. The museum is named after the Boot Hill Cemetery, which sits on the northeast corner of the museum complex. "Boot Hill" was a common name for cemeteries used to bury gunslingers in the American West. The term refers to the fact that these men had "died with their boots on" – in other words, in a violent manner, whether in a gunfight or even by hanging. On July 6, 1992, the "dry goods store" portion of the museum caught fire, it has since been rebuilt. In July 2010, a local resident was badly burned by a flash fire during a Bull Fry and Bash event at the museum.
Following this accident, new fryers were purchased as a safety measure. Dodge City has embarked on a plan to develop a Heritage District, of which expanding the Boot Hill Museum will be a particular focus; the expansion of the museum would highlight the old heritage of the town, but the Heritage District will include a water park, additional hotels, new restaurants, an RV park. Britz, Kevin. "'Boot Hill Burlesque': The Frontier Cemetery as Tourist Attraction in Tombstone and Dodge City, Kansas". Journal of Arizona History. Arizona Historical Society. ASIN B00E428MGY. Boot Hill Museum – official site
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
The American frontier comprises the geography, history and cultural expression of life in the forward wave of American expansion that began with English colonial settlements in the early 17th century and ended with the admission of the last mainland territories as states in 1912. A "frontier" is a zone of contact at the edge of a line of settlement; the leading theorist Frederick Jackson Turner went deeper, arguing that the frontier was the defining process of American civilization: "The frontier," he asserted, "promoted the formation of a composite nationality for the American people." He theorized it was a process of development: "This perennial rebirth, this fluidity of American life, this expansion westward...furnish the forces dominating American character." Turner's ideas since 1893 have inspired generations of historians to explore multiple individual American frontiers, but the popular folk frontier concentrates on the conquest and settlement of Native American lands west of the Mississippi River, in what is now the Midwest, the Great Plains, the Rocky Mountains, the Southwest, the West Coast.
In 19th- and early 20th-century media, enormous popular attention was focused on the Western United States in the second half of the 19th century, a period sometimes called the "Old West" or the "Wild West". Such media exaggerated the romance and chaotic violence of the period for greater dramatic effect; this inspired the Western genre of film, which spilled over into television shows and comic books, as well as children's toys and costumes. This era of massive migration and settlement was encouraged by President Thomas Jefferson following the Louisiana Purchase, giving rise to the expansionist philosophy known as "Manifest destiny"; as defined by Hine and Faragher, "frontier history tells the story of the creation and defense of communities, the use of the land, the development of markets, the formation of states." They explain, "It is a tale of conquest, but one of survival and the merging of peoples and cultures that gave birth and continuing life to America." Through treaties with foreign nations and native tribes, political compromise, military conquest, establishment of law and order, the building of farms and towns, the marking of trails and digging of mines, the pulling in of great migrations of foreigners, the United States expanded from coast to coast, fulfilling the dreams of Manifest Destiny.
Turner, in his "Frontier Thesis", theorized that the frontier was a process that transformed Europeans into a new people, the Americans, whose values focused on equality and optimism, as well as individualism, self-reliance, violence. As the American frontier passed into history, the myths of the West in fiction and film took a firm hold in the imagination of Americans and foreigners alike. In David Murdoch's view, America is exceptional in choosing its iconic self-image: "No other nation has taken a time and place from its past and produced a construct of the imagination equal to America's creation of the West." The frontier line was the outer line of European-American settlement. It moved westward from the 1630s to the 1880s. Turner favored the Census Bureau definition of the "frontier line" as a settlement density of two people per square mile; the "West" was the settled area near that boundary. Thus, parts of the Midwest and American South, though no longer considered "western", have a frontier heritage along with the modern western states.
In the 21st century, the term "American West" is most used for the area west of the Great Plains. In the colonial era, before 1776, the west was of high priority for politicians; the American frontier began when Jamestown, Virginia was settled by the English in 1607. In the earliest days of European settlement of the Atlantic coast, until about 1680, the frontier was any part of the interior of the continent beyond the fringe of existing settlements along the Atlantic coast. English, French and Dutch patterns of expansion and settlement were quite different. Only a few thousand French migrated to Canada. Although French fur traders ranged through the Great Lakes and mid-west region they settled down. French settlement was limited to a few small villages such as Kaskaskia, Illinois as well as a larger settlement around New Orleans; the Dutch set up fur trading posts in the Hudson River valley, followed by large grants of land to rich landowning patroons who brought in tenant farmers who created compact, permanent villages.
They created a dense rural settlement in upstate New York. Areas in the north that were in the frontier stage by 1700 had poor transportation facilities, so the opportunity for commercial agriculture was low; these areas remained in subsistence agriculture, as a result by the 1760s these societies were egalitarian, as explained by historian Jackson Turner Main: The typical frontier society therefore was one in which class distinctions were minimized. The wealthy speculator, if one was involved remained at home, so that ordinarily no one of wealth was a resident; the class of landless poor was small. The great majority were landowners, most of whom were poor because they were starting with little property and had not yet cleared much land nor had they acquired the farm tools and animals which would one day ma
Bartholemew William Barclay "Bat" Masterson was a U. S. Army scout, professional gambler, journalist known for his exploits in the 19th-century American Old West. Born to a working-class Irish family in Quebec, Masterson moved to the Western frontier as a young man and distinguished himself as a buffalo hunter, civilian scout, Indian fighter on the Great Plains, he earned fame as a gunfighter and sheriff in Dodge City, during which time he was involved in several notable shootouts. By the mid-1880s, Masterson moved to Denver and established himself as a "sporting man", he took an interest in prizefighting and became a leading authority on the sport, attending every important match and title fight in the United States from the 1880s until his death in 1921. He moved to New York City in 1902 and spent the rest of his life there as a reporter and columnist for the New York Morning Telegraph, he became a close friend of President Theodore Roosevelt and was one of the "White House Gunfighters" who received federal appointments from Roosevelt, along with Pat Garrett and Ben Daniels.
By the time of his death in 1921, Masterson was known throughout the country as a leading sports writer and celebrity. He is remembered today for his connection to many of the Wild West's most iconic people and events, his life and likeness are depicted in American popular culture. Masterson was born on November 26, 1853, at Henryville, Quebec, in the Eastern Townships of what was known as Canada East, he was baptized under the name Bartholomew Masterson. Masterson was the second child of Thomas Masterson, born in Canada to an Irish family, Catherine McGurk, born in Ireland; the other six Masterson children were Edward John, James Patrick, Nellie E. Thomas, George Henry, Emma Anna "Minnie"; the children were raised on farms in Quebec, New York and Missouri until the family settled near Wichita, Kansas. In his late teens and brothers, Ed and Jim, left their family's farm to hunt buffalo on the Great Plains. In July 1872, Ed and Bat Masterson were hired by a subcontractor named Raymond Ritter to grade a five-mile section of track for the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Railroad.
Ritter skipped out without paying the Masterson brothers all of the wages to which they were entitled. It took Masterson nearly a year, but he collected his overdue wages from Ritter, at gunpoint. On April 15, 1873, Masterson learned that Ritter was due to arrive in Dodge City, Kansas aboard a Santa Fe train and that Ritter was carrying a large roll of cash; when Ritter's train pulled in, Masterson entered the car alone and confronted him and marched him out onto the rear platform of the train, where he forced him to hand over the $300 owed to him, his brother Ed, a friend named Theodore Raymond. A loud cheer went up from a large crowd which had witnessed the event. Masterson was once again engaged in buffalo hunting on June 27, 1874, when he became an involuntary participant in one of the Wild West's most celebrated Indian fights: a five-day siege by several hundred Comanche warriors led by Quanah Parker at a collection of ramshackle buildings in the Texas panhandle known as Adobe Walls. Masterson was one of just 28 hunters.
The Comanche suffered the most losses during the battle, though the actual number killed is not known, with reports ranging from a low of 30 to a high of 70. The defenders of Adobe Walls lost only four men. After being fought to a standstill, Quanah Parker and his followers rode off. In August 1874, Masterson signed on as a U. S. Army scout with Colonel Nelson Miles, leading a force from Fort Dodge to pursue Comanche and Apache war parties across the Cherokee Strip and into Texas; the force was engaged to recover four sisters — ranging in age from 9 to 15 —, captured by a group of Cheyenne Dog Soldiers. The sisters were part of a family, attacked outside of Ellis, Kansas, on September 11, 1874, while migrating to Colorado Territory, their parents and two older sisters had been killed and scalped. All four sisters were recovered alive by Miles' force over a period of about six months. Masterson's first gunfight took place on January 1876, in Sweetwater, Texas, he was attacked by a soldier, Corporal Melvin A. King, real name Anthony Cook because he was with a woman named Mollie Brennan, accidentally, or not, hit by one of King's bullets and was killed.
King died of his wounds. Masterson recovered. Masterson soon settled in Dodge City. On June 6, 1877, Masterson tried to prevent the arrest of Robert Gilmore, known to the locals as "Bobby Gill." Masterson managed to wrap his arms about the girth of the 315 pound city marshal, Lawrence Edward "Larry" Deger, thereby permitting Gill to escape. Masterson was pistol-whipped by the lawman; the following day, Masterson was fined $25 for disturbing the peace. Bobby Gill, the cause of Masterson's fine, was assessed only $5. During July 1877, Masterson was hired to serve as under-sheriff to Sheriff Charles E. Bassett. Bassett was prohibited by the Kansas State Constitution from seeking a third consecutive term. With the job up for grabs, Masterson decided to run for the office. Masterson's opponent turned out to be Larry Deger. On November 6, 1877, Masterson was elected county sheriff of Ford
Robert Clay Allison was a cattle rancher, cattle broker, sometimes gunfighter of the American Old West. He fought for the Confederacy in the Civil War. Allison had a reputation for violence, having survived several one-on-one knife and gunfights, as well as being implicated in a number of vigilante jail break-ins and lynchings. A drunken Allison once rode his horse through town nearly naked—wearing only his gunbelt. Most reports stated that he was not only dangerous to others but himself accidentally shooting himself in the foot. Robert Allison was born on September 2, 1841, he was the fourth of the nine children of Jeremiah Scotland Allison and his wife, Mariah Ruth Allison. His father was a Presbyterian minister. Allison helped on the family farm near Waynesboro, until the American Civil War began when he was 21. On October 15, 1861, he enlisted with the Confederate States Army in Captain W. H. Jackson's artillery battery. Three months however, he was medically discharged due to an old head injury hindering his ability to serve.
On September 22, 1862, Allison re-enlisted, this time in the 9th Tennessee Cavalry Regiment, where he served under the Confederate "Wizard of the Saddle," General Bedford Forrest. He surrendered at Gainesville, Alabama—along with Forrest's men—on May 4, 1865. After being held as a prisoner of war and the others were paroled on May 10, allowed to return home. Once back home, Allison was involved in several violent confrontations. A popular – apocryphal – story relates that a corporal from the 3rd Illinois Cavalry arrived at the Allison family's farm with the intention to seize it. After a confrontation and the breaking of his mother's vase, Allison took a rifle from the house and killed the man. Whatever the reason, Clay Allison, along with his brothers Monroe and John. In the New Mexico towns of Cimarron and Elizabethtown, Allison began to develop a reputation as a dangerous man during the Colfax County War. In the fall of 1870, a man named Charles Kennedy was being held in the local jail in Elizabethtown, accused of going mad and suspected in the disappearance of several strangers and his own son.
A mob, led by Allison, broke into the jail, took Kennedy from his cell, hung him. When Kennedy's house was searched, the bodies of those missing, were found. Allison cut off the man's head and carried it in a sack for 29 miles to Cimarron, where he placed it on display on a pole in front of the St. James Inn, he believed himself fast with a gun, but this changed when he was outdrawn in a friendly competition with Mason Bowman. Bowman and Allison became friends, Bowman helped Allison to improve his'fast-draw' skills. On January 7, 1874, Allison killed a gunman named Chunk Colbert, known to have fought and killed seven men by this time. After first racing their horses and Allison entered the Clifton House, an inn located in Colfax County, New Mexico, where they sat down together for dinner. Colbert had quarreled with Allison years earlier, as Allison had physically beaten Colbert's uncle, Zachary Colbert, when he tried to overcharge Allison for a ferry ride across the Brazos River. During their meal, Colbert drew his pistol and attempted to shoot Allison.
He fired one shot. Asked afterward why he had accepted a dinner invitation from a man to try to kill him, Allison replied, "Because I didn't want to send a man to hell on an empty stomach." Allison's reputation as a gunman grew. On October 30, 1875, Allison is alleged to have led a lynch-mob to kill Cruz Vega, suspected of murdering the Reverend F. J. Tolby, a Methodist circuit-rider; the mob hanged the man from a telegraph pole near Cimarron. On November 1, Vega's family members, led by his uncle Francisco Griego, began making threats of revenge, they went to the Lambert Inn, where they confronted Allison and accused him of taking part in the lynching. Griego reached for his revolver but Allison was faster and shot Griego twice, killing him. On November 10, Allison was charged with the murder of Francisco Griego, but after an inquiry, the charge was dropped and the shooting was ruled self-defense. In December 1876, Allison and his brother, rode into Las Animas, where they stopped at a local saloon.
Constable Charles Faber of Bent County told the Allisons they needed to surrender their pistols, as an ordinance made it illegal to carry weapons inside the town limits. When the Allisons refused, Constable Faber left, he returned with them to the saloon. When the posse stepped inside, someone yelled, "Look out!" The constable and his men promptly opened fire. John Allison was hit three times. Clay Allison fired four shots; the two deputized men fled. Both Allison brothers were arrested and charged with manslaughter, but the charges were dismissed as the constable had initiated the gunfight. In March 1877, Allison sold his ranch to John, he relocated to Missouri. Allison moved to Hays City, where he established himself as a cattle broker; when he first arrived in Dodge City, Kansas on business, his reputation had preceded him. Dodge City was a cattle town, Wyatt Earp was the deputy marshal at the time. One time, several cowboys working for Allison were purportedly mistreat