Black Combe is a fell in the south-west corner of the Lake District National Park, just four miles from the Irish Sea. It lies near the west coast of Cumbria in the borough of Copeland and more in the ancient district of Millom, it stands in isolation, some 10 miles away from any higher ground. Black Combe is a Marilyn and, at 600m, it is only 10m short of being a Hewitt. Sub-tops include Stoupdale Head, Swinside Fell and Stoneside Hill; the first two but not the last two are included in the index of Wainwright's The Outlying Fells of Lakeland and thus in lists of "Outlying fells". (All four sub-tops are shown on Wainwright's map of the fell in that bookThe view from Black Combe is unique, a result of its isolated position to the south and west of the main Lake District fells. William Wordsworth claimed that "the amplest range of unobstructed prospect may be seen that British ground commands." Half the view is the glittering sea, with the Isle of Man seen to the west, the hills of Wales and Scotland seen as shadowy silhouettes.
On the seaward side views extend from the Cumbrian coast, from Criffel, 49 miles to the north, a mountain on the Scottish coast near Dumfries, round to the Isle of Man, 45 miles due west round to Snowdon which may be seen on days of exceptionally good visibility, 85 miles to the south, to the coast of Lancashire. On the landward side. To the east and south the Pennine Hills, the Forest of Bowland and Blackpool Tower are visible. Closer by, there are good views over the Duddon Estuary and the new wind farm just offshore. Black Combe is easy to see across Morecambe Bay as the most westerly outlying fell of the Lake District National Park; the name of the Cumberland View public house in Morecambe reflects the fact that Black Combe used to stand in the historical county of Cumberland. It can be seen from the top end of the Wirral peninsula, between the turbines of the new Burbo Bank Offshore Wind Farm. Visible in views of Black Combe from the south and east is the large, dark-coloured glacial corrie, known as Blackcombe, from which the fell's name is derived.
Such corries are known as combes in English place names, a word cognate with the Welsh word cwm. Adjacent to Blackcombe is a lighter-coloured corrie called Whitecombe. Black Combe was one of the five stations in Cumberland used by the Ordnance Survey to measure the angles of Principal Triangles for their initial survey of Britain in the years up to and including 1809; the other stations were Scilly Banks, High Pike and Cross Fell. The Black Combe Walking Festival takes place annually in June and the Black Combe fell race takes place in early March; the Swinside, or Sunken Kirk, stone circle is on the eastern flanks of Swinside Fell, in the north east of Black Combe. The rocks of Black Combe were formed during the Ordovician period 460 million years ago. Faulting has exposed an inlier of mudstones from the Skiddaw Group; these rocks mudstones and occasional sandstones or greywackes, were formed in deep seas when occasional slides of coastal sediments were redeposited at greater depth. The nearby Millom Park includes Millom Rock Park, open to the public at all times.
Walks to the top of the fell begin at Whicham to the south. A more challenging and interesting route begins at Beckside Farm on the A595 road and follows Whitecombe Beck before ascending the Horse Back ridge; this ridge separates Blackcombe and Whitecombe on the eastern side of the fell, gives good views into both combes. The summit plateau is a flat peat-covered area. There is a Triangulation Pillar on the top, surrounded by rough drystone wall which forms a wind shelter. 1286 feet due south from the peak is a lesser peak upon which stands a large cairn, visible with the naked eye from Millom and the surrounding area. Between this cairn and the top, in a shallow valley, lies a small tarn. Black Combe is the subject of a chapter of Wainwright's book The Outlying Fells of Lakeland. While most of the chapters of that book describe single circular, Black Combe is treated to the summits in the main Pictorial Guide to the Lakeland Fells: the author describes three distinct ascent routes and a circuit of White Combe to the east
Blake Fell is a hill in the Western part of the English Lake District. It is the highest point of the Loweswater Fells, an area of low grassy hills with steep sides overlooking the lake of Loweswater; the fell overlooks the village of Loweswater, from which it can be climbed. An alternative route is from the Cogra Moss reservoir on its western slopes; because the Loweswater Fells are a separate geographical unit, Blake Fell is a Marilyn. It is located in the Parish of Lamplugh; the Western Fells occupy a triangular sector of the Lake District, bordered by the River Cocker to the north east and Wasdale to the south east. Westwards the hills diminish toward the coastal plain of Cumberland. At the central hub of the high country are Great Gable and its satellites, while two principal ridges fan out on either flank of Ennerdale, the western fells in effect being a great horseshoe around this long wild valley. Blake Fell and the other Loweswater Fells form the extremity of the northern arm; the Loweswater Fells have been compared to the digits of a hand, radiating out south westward from the "palm" centred on Loweswater village.
From the west these are Burnbank Fell, Blake Fell, Gavel Fell, Hen Comb and Mellbreak, the "thumb". Blake Fell is the highest hill in this group, the summit area being a long ridge running southwest along the "finger"; this begins above the shore of Loweswater, rising steeply through the mixed forestry of Holme Wood to the craggy height of Loweswater End. Atop the rise is Carling Knott, the north eastern summit; the ridge dips the landscape changing from rock outcrop to grass, before the final ascent to Blake Fell. A transverse ridge now connects northwards to Burnbank Fell, in truth an outlier of Blake Fell, but given separate status by Alfred Wainwright in his influential Pictorial Guide to the Lakeland Fells. Southward is the narrow grassy col of Fothergill Head, providing a much more tenuous link to Gavel Fell; the western slopes are wooded with conifers and contoured by forest roads. In addition to Carling Knott, Blake Fell has a number of other subsidiary tops. Descending south west from the summit are High Pen, Low Pen and Kelton Fell.
Beyond lie the West Cumberland plain. Standing aloof from these tops, but still within Blake Fell's orbit, is Knock Murton; this is a steep sided fell, forested on the western flank and with sufficient prominence that it is only excluded from the list of Marilyns in its own right. Blake Fell extends a western ridge over the prominent top of Sharp Knott and the wooded High Howes, falling to the village of Lamplugh; these tops are recognised in some guidebooks. Drainage from the western slopes flows via Sharp Knott Fother Gill to Cogra Moss; this is a reservoir sitting in the deep valley between Blake Fell and Knock Murton, a reed rimmed waterbody held back by a substantial dam at the western end. Known as Arlecdon Reservoir, it has a depth of around 30 feet; the waters from this flank of the fell join the River Marron and the Derwent. The eastern face of Blake Fell flows either to Loweswater or to its outfall, ensuring that all of the drainage runs to the River Derwent; the summit of Blake Fell is representative of the Kirkstile Formation, laminated mudstone and siltstone typical of the Skiddaw fells.
The rougher terrain of Carling Knott is an outcropping of the underlying Loweswater Formation, composed of greywacke sandstone turbidities. Knock Murton and Kelton Fell bear the scars of mining activity, having been the site of extensive haematite workings. Between 1853 and their closure in 1914 these mines produced anything up to 60,000 tons of ore per year. A railway, the Rowrah and Kelton Fell Line, was built up the valley between the two hills, the line of which can still be traced. A further working, the Croasdale Iron Mine, operated to the south of Kelton Fell; the summit is a grassy dome decorated with a large cairn, the meeting point of paths from the various ridges. Westwards there is no higher ground to interrupt the sea view. To the east is a fine array of hills stretching from Binsey in the north to Grike in the south; the North Western Fells across Crummock Water are fine, although much better seen from Loweswater End. From Loweswater village a direct line can be taken up Carling Knott, or a more southerly approach made via High Nook Beck.
From the west, Lamplugh or Felldyke provide good access, lying at either end of a network of footpaths. These connect to the track alongside Cogra Moss which can be used to gain the high ground via Low Pen. Knock Murton can be ascended from the head of the reservoir
Ros Hill known as Ros Castle due to the 3,000-year-old Iron Age hill fort on its summit, is a hill in the county of Northumberland in northern England. It is the highest point of a low range of hills stretching from Alnwick to Berwick-upon-Tweed — the Chillingham Hills. Other tops of the Chillingham Hills include Dod Law and Doddington Northmoor. However, Ros Hill is higher than these and towers over the surrounding landscape with enough relative height to make it a Marilyn. Ros Hill is situated just with its famous herd of cattle. Due to the wide enclosure of the cattle there are no paths on the western slopes, the eastern slopes are featureless moor, so the best ascent option is to park at the summit of the minor road that crosses Hepburn Moor just to the south of the summit, giving a walk just over half a mile long and taking about half an hour; the summit is marked by a trig point and nearby there is a rather unusual walk-in toposcope built into the wall with four separate plaques. The view is panoramic and extensive, on a clear day, a total of seven castles can be seen from the summit, including the one on Holy Island.
There is a view over the cattle park. Ros Hill preserves the Brittonic element rhos,'moor, promontory'. Ros Castle Pictures and historical notes for Ros Castle
Dale Head is a fell in the north-western sector of the Lake District, in northern England. It is 753 metres or 2,470 feet above sea level and stands north of Honister Pass, the road between Borrowdale and Buttermere; the North-Western Fells occupy the area between the rivers Derwent and Cocker, a broadly oval swathe of hilly country, elongated on a north-south axis. Two roads cross from east to west. Dale Head is the highest. Dale Head is the apex of two hill ridges; the principal ridge descends from Dale Head to the north-east and forms several other fells, each given a chapter by Alfred Wainwright in his Pictorial Guides to the Lakeland Fells. These are Maiden Moor and Catbells; this ridge overlooks Derwent Water. The other ridge includes the fells of Hindscarth and Robinson. Dale Head is named for its position at the head of the Newlands Valley; this stretches away due north for three and a half miles before debouching into the floodplain of the Derwent between Derwentwater and Bassenthwaite Lake.
The eastern wall of the valley is formed by the High Spy to Catbells ridge, separating it from Borrowdale. Entering on the western side are a series of side valleys which drain the main mass of the North Western Fells; the source of Newlands Beck does not however flow from the apex of Dale Head as might be supposed from the name. Instead it has its birth at the eastern top, High Scawdel; the northern face of the fell forming the dalehead is ringed with crags. The main faces are Dalehead Crags and Great Gable; the southern flank of the fell running down to the summit of the Honister Pass road has much gentler slopes, although there is outcropping rock on either side. Buckstone Hows and Yew Crag overshadow the road. From the top of the pass Gatesgarthdale Beck runs north west to Buttermere while Hause Gill flows east to Seatoller and Borrowdale. Across the road is Grey Knotts in the Western Fells; the ridge to Hindscarth departs north west from the summit of Dale Head, soon narrowing into the fine and airy Hindscarth Edge.
Both slopes are rocky, that to the south being known as Molds. Far Tongue Gill descends from the north of a tributary of Newlands Beck. Although High Scawdel stands east of the main summit, the high ground takes a great loop to the south around the head of Newlands Beck, it drives north to the depression at Wilson's Bield before climbing to the summit of High Spy. The rest of the North Western Fells bear no tarns worthy of the name. On the northern slope near the source of Newlands Beck is Dalehead Tarn, while the smaller Launchy Tarn lies near the top of High Scawdel. Dalehead Tarn is a shallow pool providing a popular stopping place for walkers, its varied flora include water horsetail and bogbean. Launchy Tarn may have been formed by overgrazing and erosion of the underlying peat. Dale Head stands at the junction of the two main Lakeland geological systems, the Skiddaw slates to the north and the Borrowdale Volcanics to the south. On the northern flanks are outcrops of the Buttermere Formation, olistostrome of disrupted sheared mudstone and sandstone.
Southward march the Borrowdale series beginning with the plagioclase-phyric andesite lavas of the Birker Fell Formation, visible near the summit. The fell has seen extensive mining history. Dale Head Mine was driven below the northern crags for several levels still being visible. Long Work was another copper mine a little further down the valley, worked for malachite and pyrite from Elizabethan times. On the southern flank of the fell, centred on the head of the pass, are the Honister Quarries; these are an extensive system of underground quarries, worked for Green Slate. The earliest extant records date from 1728 and since huge caverns have been carved out on either side of the pass; the Yew Crag workings on the Dale Head side were operated until 1966, operations on the slopes of Grey Knotts continuing. In 1887 work began to drive a tunnel right under Dale Head into Newlands Valley, connecting with a proposed tramway to join the railway at Keswick; the scheme was abandoned after opposition from landowners.
The main workers accommodation at the mine is now the Honister Hause Youth Hostel. The summit is marked by a cairn standing on the brink of the northern face. There is a fine end-on view of the Newlands Valley to the north, backed by Skiddaw. All around are rank upon rank of fells, of the major Lakeland ranges only the High Street group not being visible. One of the most popular ascent routes of Dale Head begins from the summit of Honister Pass, where there is a car park and a youth hostel; the route ascends directly alongside a fence for 2 kilometres and would take the average walker some 45 or 50 minutes. Longer routes begin at Little Town in the Newlands Valley, climbing either via Dalehead Tarn or the old access track to Dale Head Mine. From Borrowdale a start can be made at either Seatoller or Longthwaite, ascending first to Launchy Tarn and High Scawdel
Old Man of Coniston
The Old Man of Coniston is a fell in the Furness Fells in the English Lake District. It is 2,634 feet high, lies to the west of the village of Coniston and the lake, Coniston Water; the fell is sometimes known by the alternative name of Coniston Old Man, or The Old Man. The mountain is popular with tourists and fell-walkers with a number of well-marked paths to the summit; the mountain has seen extensive slate mining activity for eight hundred years and the remains of abandoned mines and spoil tips are a significant feature of the north-east slopes. There are several flocks of sheep that are grazed on the mountain; the Old Man was the highest point in the historic county of Lancashire. This assertion rests upon its being higher than Swirl How. There appears to be some uncertainty in the current literature over whether the height of Swirl How is 802 or 804 m after resurveying. If modern measurement has not added 2 m to its rival, the Old Man of Coniston is the highest point in the Furness Fells, the twelfth most prominent mountain in England.
The Coniston Fells form the watershed between Coniston Water in the east and the Duddon valley to the west. The range begins in the north at Wrynose Pass and runs south for around 10 miles before petering out at Broughton in Furness on the Duddon Estuary. Alfred Wainwright in his influential Pictorial Guide to the Lakeland Fells took only the northern half of the range as Lakeland proper, consigning the lower hills southward to a supplementary work The Outlying Fells of Lakeland. Guidebook writers have chosen to include the whole range in their main volumes; the central part of the Coniston range can be likened to an inverted'Y' with Brim Fell at the connecting point of the three arms. The main spine of the ridge runs north over Swirl How and Great Carrs and south west to Dow Crag and the lower hills beyond; the third arm is a truncated spur, running only half a mile to the summit of the Old Man before tumbling away south eastward to the valley floor. This ridge end position gives the fell a sense of isolation and increased stature, with steep faces on three sides.
To the west is the deep trench containing Goat’s Water. This elongated tarn contains trout and char. Enclosed by high ground, it has an outlet to the south through a field of boulders; this is one of the headwaters of Torver Beck, which passes a disused quarry near the Tranearth climbing hut, keeping the workings topped up via an artificial but picturesque waterfall. The stream issues into Coniston Water to the south of Torver village; the southern and eastern flanks of The Old Man are composed of rough ground pockmarked by slate quarries. One of these quarries, Bursting Stone, is still operating to produce an olive green slate. Across the southern slopes runs the Walna Scar Road; this was the original trade route between Coniston village and the settlements of the Duddon Valley and is a public restricted byway. The first section rising steeply from Coniston is a metalled road, maintained to provide access to the quarry; this leads to a carpark at an altitude of a popular starting point for climbs.
Beyond here motor vehicles are prohibited, but the track continues to its summit at 2,000 ft, crossing the ridge to the south of Dow Crag. Coniston Old Man has no connecting ridges other than that to Brim Fell, but a discernible rib falls due east via Stubthwaite Crag and Crowberry Haws. Below the tourist route path, this rib climbs again to The Bell, a fine rocky top with excellent views of the lake and village. Nestling beneath the northern face of The Old Man, cradled between it and Raven’s Tor, is Low Water; this fine corrie tarn has been dammed in the past to provide water for the quarries, but all of its water now issues via a fine cascade of falls into the Coppermines Valley. This area, shared with the neighbouring fells of Brim Fell and Wetherlam, is scarred by historic copper and cobalt mining in the latter half of the 19th century; the summit of the fell carries a combined slate platform and cairn. The popularity of this climb has resulted in the resident sheep being quite tame, they show no fear in rifling unwatched bags for food.
The extensive view from the summit on a clear day includes much of the southern Lake District, Morecambe Bay, Blackpool Tower, Winter Hill in the Pennines, the Lancashire coast and the Isle of Man. The highlight is the close-up view of Dow Crag; the fell is climbed from Coniston village via Church Beck and the mines. Alternatives include the south ridge and the path to Goat’s Water, both ascending from the Walna Scar Road; the carpark at the top of the metalled section provides a headstart for these routes. The Walna Scar Road can be reached from Torver, or from Seathwaite in the Duddon Valley, although the latter results in an indirect climb via Dow Crag. Coniston copper mines are reputed to be some of the largest copper mines in Britain, with a vertical distance of around 2,000 ft. On the Coniston Old Man itself, slate replaced copper, over several hundred years, the Old Man Slate Quarries & Mines became some of the largest in England; the Old Man slate quarries were believed to have started in the 12-13th centuries, although there is little evidence on site of this.
By the 1500s the quarries, working a kind of volcanic slate silver-grey in colour, were well established. The earliest major working shortly after this period was at Low Water Quarry, where slate was prized in an opencast manner from cuttings near the summit, Scald Kop Quarry, where a large cavern was formed from slate extraction on the surface, the Saddlestone Quarry
Sighty Crag is a hill in the southern part of the Kielder Forest region in northern England, a region which includes its fellow Marilyns of Peel Fell and Larriston Fells. It is separated from its higher and more shapely counterpart, Peel Fell, by the low valley in which sits the village of Kielder; the summit is marked by a wind-worn outcrop of fell sandstone. The hill is situated in a remote part of northern Cumbria, although the Northumberland border runs over the north top just 600m from the top, it is four miles from the nearest road, making any walk to the summit and back at least eight miles long. Though not high, in terms of distance from civilisation it is the remotest Marilyn in the whole of England. List of Marilyns in England
The Forestry Commission is a non-ministerial government department responsible for forestry in England. It was also responsible for Forestry in Wales and Scotland, however on 1 April 2013 Forestry Commission Wales merged with other agencies to become Natural Resources Wales, whilst two new bodies were established in Scotland on 1 April 2019; the commission was set up in 1919 to expand Britain's forests and woodland after depletion during the First World War. To do this, the commission bought large amounts of former agricultural land becoming the largest land owner in Britain; the Commission is divided into three divisions: Forestry England, Forestry Commission and Forest Research. Over time the purpose of the Commission broadened to include many other activities beyond timber production. One major activity is scientific research, some of, carried out in research forests across Britain. Recreation is important, with several outdoor activities being promoted. Protecting and improving biodiversity across England's forests are part of the Forestry Commission's remit.
The Commission received criticism for its reliance on conifers the uniform appearance of conifer forests and concerns over a lack of biodiversity. Protests from the general public and conservation groups accompanied attempts to privatise the organisation in 1993 and 2010. Prior to the setting up of separate bodies for Scotland the Forestry Commission managed 700,000 hectares of land in England and Scotland, making it the country's biggest land manager; the majority of the land was in Scotland, 30% of the landholding is in England. Activities carried out on the forest estate include maintenance and improvement of the natural environment and the provision of recreation, timber harvesting to supply domestic industry, regenerating brownfield and replanting of harvested areas. Afforestation was the main reason for the creation of the commission in 1919. Britain had only 5% of its original forest cover left and the government at that time wanted to create a strategic resource of timber. Since forest coverage has doubled and the commission's remit expanded to include greater focus on sustainable forest management and maximising public benefits.
Woodland creation continues to be an important role of the commission and works with government to achieve its goal of 12% forest coverage by 2060, championing initiatives such as The Big Tree Plant and Woodland Carbon Code. The Forestry Commission is the government body responsible for the regulation of private forestry in England; the Commission is responsible for encouraging new private forest growth and development. Part of this role is carried out by providing grants in support of private woodlands; the Forestry Commission was established as part of the Forestry Act 1919. The board was made up of eight forestry commissioners and was chaired by Simon Fraser, 14th Lord Lovat from 1919 to 1927; the commission was set up to increase the amount of woodland in Britain by buying land for afforestation and reforestation. The commission was tasked with promoting forestry and the production of timber for trade. During the 1920s the Commission focused on acquiring land to begin planting out new forests.
During the Great Depression the Forestry Commission's estate continued to grow so that it was just over 360,000 hectares of land by 1934. The low cost of land, the need to increase timber production meant that by 1939 the Forestry Commission was the largest landowner in Britain. At the outbreak of the Second World War the Forestry Commission was split into the Forest Management Department, to continue with the Commission's duties, the Timber Supply Department to produce enough timber for the war effort; this division lasted until 1941, when the Timber Supply Department was absorbed by the Ministry of Supply. Much of the timber supplied for the war came from the Forest of Dean; the war saw the Commission introduce the licensing system for tree felling. By the end of the war a third of available timber had been cut down and used; the advisory committee on Forest Research was formed in 1929 to guide the research efforts of the Forestry Commission. After the war, the Commission began to increase its research output significantly.
This included the establishment of three research stations beginning with Alice Holt Lodge in 1946. The expansion in research accompanied a significant increase in timber sales, exceeding £2 million per year during the 1950s; the Countryside Act 1968 required public bodies, including the Forestry Commission, to "have regard to the desirability of conserving the natural beauty and amenity of the countryside." This forced the Commission to focus on conservation and recreation as well as the production and sale of timber. The conservation effort was driven by Peter Garthwaite and Sylvia Crowe. Crowe helped the Commission landscape their forests to make them more appropriate for recreational use. Having begun to develop campsites within their forests during the early 1960s, the Commission set up a Forest Cabins Branch during the 1970s to expand the number of cabins available for the public to stay in during their holidays. In 1970 the Commission opened its Northern research station in Roslin; the 1970s saw the publication of a Treasury report which stated "afforestation... and replanting fell far short of achieving the official 10% return on investment" with concerns over the long term profitability of timber production.
This was coupled with a major outbreak of Dutch elm