OCLC Online Computer Library Center, Incorporated d/b/a OCLC is an American nonprofit cooperative organization "dedicated to the public purposes of furthering access to the world's information and reducing information costs". It was founded in 1967 as the Ohio College Library Center. OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat, the largest online public access catalog in the world. OCLC is funded by the fees that libraries have to pay for its services. OCLC maintains the Dewey Decimal Classification system. OCLC began in 1967, as the Ohio College Library Center, through a collaboration of university presidents, vice presidents, library directors who wanted to create a cooperative computerized network for libraries in the state of Ohio; the group first met on July 5, 1967 on the campus of the Ohio State University to sign the articles of incorporation for the nonprofit organization, hired Frederick G. Kilgour, a former Yale University medical school librarian, to design the shared cataloging system.
Kilgour wished to merge the latest information storage and retrieval system of the time, the computer, with the oldest, the library. The plan was to merge the catalogs of Ohio libraries electronically through a computer network and database to streamline operations, control costs, increase efficiency in library management, bringing libraries together to cooperatively keep track of the world's information in order to best serve researchers and scholars; the first library to do online cataloging through OCLC was the Alden Library at Ohio University on August 26, 1971. This was the first online cataloging by any library worldwide. Membership in OCLC is based on use of services and contribution of data. Between 1967 and 1977, OCLC membership was limited to institutions in Ohio, but in 1978, a new governance structure was established that allowed institutions from other states to join. In 2002, the governance structure was again modified to accommodate participation from outside the United States.
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In October 2005, the OCLC technical staff began a wiki project, WikiD, allowing readers to add commentary and structured-field information associated with any WorldCat record. WikiD was phased out; the Online Computer Library Center acquired the trademark and copyrights associated with the Dewey Decimal Classification System when it bought Forest Press in 1988. A browser for books with their Dewey Decimal Classifications was available until July 2013; until August 2009, when it was sold to Backstage Library Works, OCLC owned a preservation microfilm and digitization operation called the OCLC Preservation Service Center, with its principal office in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania. The reference management service QuestionPoint provides libraries with tools to communicate with users; this around-the-clock reference service is provided by a cooperative of participating global libraries. Starting in 1971, OCLC produced catalog cards for members alongside its shared online catalog. OCLC commercially sells software, such as CONTENTdm for managing digital collections.
It offers the bibliographic discovery system WorldCat Discovery, which allows for library patrons to use a single search interface to access an institution's catalog, database subscriptions and more. OCLC has been conducting research for the library community for more than 30 years. In accordance with its mission, OCLC makes its research outcomes known through various publications; these publications, including journal articles, reports and presentations, are available through the organization's website. OCLC Publications – Research articles from various journals including Code4Lib Journal, OCLC Research, Reference & User Services Quarterly, College & Research Libraries News, Art Libraries Journal, National Education Association Newsletter; the most recent publications are displayed first, all archived resources, starting in 1970, are available. Membership Reports – A number of significant reports on topics ranging from virtual reference in libraries to perceptions about library funding. Newsletters – Current and archived newsletters for the library and archive community.
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Percy Priest Lake
J. Percy Priest Lake is a reservoir in north central part of Tennessee, it is formed by J. Percy Priest Dam, located between miles seven of the Stones River; the dam impounds a lake 42 mi long. The lake and dam are named for Congressman Percy Priest; the lake covers portions of Davidson and Wilson counties and consists of 14,200 acres of water at summer pool elevation 490 feet above mean sea level. The water is surrounded by 18,854 acres of public lands; the site of the former town of Old Jefferson was inundated by the reservoir. The Percy Priest dam project was first authorized by the U. S. Congress in 1946 under the name "Stewarts Ferry Reservoir." An act of Congress approved July 1958, changed the name to honor Congressman Priest. The U. S. Army Corps of Engineers project was completed in 1967; the dam, powerhouse and public lands are operated and supervised by the Corps of Engineers' Nashville District personnel. The Natural Resource Management Office maintains three campgrounds, eleven day-use/picnic areas and twelve boat launching ramps.
Marinas at the lake include Nashville Shores, Elm Hill, Four Corners, Fate Sanders, Hamilton Creek and Percy Priest. The lake is home to a number of recreational organizations such as the Tennessee Boat Club, Percy Priest Yacht Club, Vanderbilt Sailing Club, the Vanderbilt Rowing Club and the Nashville Rowing Club. Geographic data related to Percy Priest Lake at OpenStreetMap
Clovis points are the characteristically-fluted projectile points associated with the New World Clovis culture. They are present in dense concentrations across much of North America. Clovis points date to the Early Paleoindian period 13,500 to 12,800 calendar years ago. Clovis fluted points are named after the city of Clovis, New Mexico, where examples were first found in 1929 by Ridgely Whiteman. A typical Clovis point is a medium to large lanceolate point. Sides are parallel to convex, exhibit careful pressure flaking along the blade edge; the broadest area is toward the base. The base is distinctly concave with a characteristic flute or channel flake removed from one or, more both surfaces of the blade; the lower edges of the blade and base are ground to dull edges for hafting. Clovis points tend to be thicker than the thin later-stage Folsom points. With length ranging from 4–20 centimetres and width from 2.5–5 centimetres. Whether the points were knife blades or spear points is an open question.
Clovis points are thin, fluted projectile points created using bifacial percussion flaking. To finish shaping and sharpening the points they are sometimes pressure flaked along the outer edges. Clovis points are characterized by concave longitudinal shallow grooves called "flutes" on both faces one third or more up from the base to the pointed tip. Clovis points could have been hafted as knives whose handles served as removable foreshafts of a spear or dart.. There are numerous examples of post-Clovis era points that were hafted to foreshafts, but there is no direct evidence that Clovis people used this type of technological system. Specimens are known to have been made of flint, jasper and other stone of conchoidal fracture. Ivory and bone atlatl hooks of Clovis age have been archaeologically recovered. Known bone and ivory tools associated with Clovis archaeological deposits are not considered effective foreshafts for projectile weapons; the idea of Clovis foreshafts is repeated in the technical literature despite the paucity of archaeological evidence.
The assembled multiple piece spear or dart could have been thrown by hand or with the aid of an atlatl. Whether Clovis toolmaking technology was native to the Americas or originated through influences from elsewhere is a contentious issue among archaeologists. Lithic antecedents of Clovis points have not been found in northeast Asia, from where the first human inhabitants of the Americas are believed by the majority of archaeologists to have originated. Strong similarities with points produced by the Solutrean culture in the Iberian peninsula of Europe have been noted, leading to the controversial Solutrean hypothesis, that the technology was introduced by hunters traversing the Atlantic ice-shelf, meaning some of the first American humans were European. Around 10,000 radio carbon years before present, a new type of fluted projectile point called Folsom appeared in archaeological deposits, Clovis-style points disappeared from the continental United States. Most Folsom points are shorter in length than Clovis points and exhibit different fluting and pressure flaking patterns.
This is easy to see when comparing the unfinished preforms of Clovis and Folsom points. Besides its function as a tool, Clovis technology may well have been the lithic symbol of a mobile culture that exploited a wide range of faunal resources during the Late Pleistocene and early Holocene; as Clovis technology expanded, its use may have affected resource availability, being a possible contributor to the extinction of the megafauna. There are different opinions about the emergence of Clovis points. One is. Another opinion is that Upper Paleolithic peoples who, after migrating into North America from northeast Asia, reverted to inherited Clovis-style flaked-stone technology, in use prior to their entry into the Americas. Clovis points were first discovered near the city of Clovis, New Mexico, have since been found over most of North America and as far south as Venezuela. Significant Clovis finds include the Anzick site in Montana. Clovis points have been found northwest of Texas. In May 2008, a major Clovis cache, now called the Mahaffey Cache, was found in Boulder, with 83 Clovis stone tools.
The tools were found to have traces of cameloid protein. They were dated to 13,000 to 13,500 YBP, a date confirmed by sediment layers in which the tools were found and the types of protein residues found on the artifacts. A fluted obsidian point from a site near Rancho San Joaquin, Baja California Sur was found in a private collection in 1993; the point was surface collected several years earlier from an alluvial terrace 14 km. to the south of San Ignacio. Bare Island projectile point Cascade point Cumberland point Eden point Folsom point Greene projectile point Jack's Reef pentagonal projectile point Lamoka projectile point Levanna projectile po
Interstate 40 is a major east-west Interstate Highway running through the south-central portion of the United States north of I-10, I-20 and I-30 but south of I-70. The western end is at I-15 in California. S. Route 117 and North Carolina Highway 132 in Wilmington, North Carolina, it is the third-longest Interstate Highway in the United States, behind I-80 and I-90. Much of the western part of I-40, from Oklahoma City to Barstow parallels or overlays the historic US 66, east of Oklahoma City the route parallels US 64 and US 70. I-40 runs through many major cities including New Mexico. Though I-40 is a cross-country east-west interstate, it does not nearly touch both oceans or coasts like I-10, I-80 and I-90 does; the eastern terminus touches near the Atlantic Ocean, but the western terminus doesn't touch the Pacific Ocean. Interstate 40 is a major east–west route of the Interstate Highway System, its western end is in California. Known as the Needles Freeway, it heads east from Barstow across the Mojave Desert in San Bernardino County to Needles, before it crosses into Arizona southwest of Kingman.
I-40 covers 155 miles in California. A sign in California showing the distance to Wilmington, North Carolina has been stolen several times. Interstate 40 is a main route to the South Rim of the Grand Canyon, with the exits leading into Grand Canyon National Park in Williams and Flagstaff. I-40 covers 359 mi in Arizona. Just west of exit 190, west of Flagstaff, is its highest elevation along I-40 in the U. S. as the road crosses just over 7,320 ft. I-40 passes through the Navajo Nation, the largest Indian reservation in the U. S. I-40 covers 374 miles in New Mexico. Notable cities along I-40 include Gallup, Albuquerque, Santa Rosa, Tucumcari. I-40 travels through several different Indian reservations in the western half of the state, it reaches its highest point of 7,275 feet at the Continental Divide in western New Mexico between Gallup and Grants. Arizona, New Mexico, Texas are the only three states where I-40 has a speed limit of 75 mph instead of 70 mph which happens in California, Arkansas and North Carolina.
In the west Texas panhandle area, there are several ranch roads connected directly to the interstate. One of the marked at-grade crossings is shown to the right; the only major city in Texas, directly served by I-40 is Amarillo, which connects with Interstate 27 that runs south toward Lubbock. I-40 has only one welcome center in the state, located in Amarillo at the exit for Rick Husband Amarillo International Airport, serving both sides of the interstate. Interstate 40 goes through the heart of the state, passing through many Oklahoma cities and towns, including Erick, Elk City, Weatherford, El Reno, Oklahoma City, Del City, Midwest City, Okemah, Checotah and Roland. I-40 covers 331 miles in Oklahoma. In Downtown Oklahoma City, Interstate 40 was rerouted a mile south of its former alignment and a 10–lane facility replaced the former I-40 Crosstown Bridge. Interstate 40 runs for 284 miles in Arkansas; the route passes through Van Buren, where it intersects the southbound Interstate 540/US 71 to Fort Smith.
The route continues east to Alma to intersect Interstate 49 north to Arkansas. Running through the Ozark Mountains, I-40 serves Ozark, Russellville and Conway; the route turns south after Conway and enters North Little Rock, which brings high volume interchanges with Interstate 430, I-30/US 65/US 67/US 167, I-440/AR 440. The interstate continues east through Lonoke and West Memphis on the eastern side. Interstate 40 overlaps Interstate 55 in West Memphis before it crosses the Mississippi River on the Hernando de Soto Bridge and enters Memphis, Tennessee. More of Interstate 40 passes through 455 miles, than any other state; the interstate goes through all of the three Grand Divisions of Tennessee and its three largest cities, Memphis and Knoxville. Jackson, Cookeville and Newport are other notable cities and/or towns through which I-40 passes. Before leaving the state, I-40 enters the Great Smoky Mountains towards North Carolina; the section of Interstate 40 which runs between Memphis and Nashville is referred to as the Music Highway.
During reconstruction, a long section of I-40 through downtown Knoxville near the central Malfunction Junction was closed to traffic from May 1, 2008 and not reopened until June 12, 2009 with all traffic redirected via Interstate 640, the northern bypass route. The redesigned section now has additional lanes in each direction, is less congested, has fewer accidents. In North Carolina, I-40 travels 421 miles, it enters the state as a winding mountain freeway through the Great Smoky Mountains which closes due to landslides and weather conditions. It enters the state on a north-south alignment, turning to a more east-west alignment upon merging with U. S. Route 74 at the eastern terminus of the Great Smoky Mountains Expressway. From there the highway passes through Asheville and Statesville before reaching the Piedmont Triad. Just east of the Triad city of Greensboro, North Carolina it merges with I-85 and the two roads split again
Donelson is a neighborhood of Nashville, Tennessee about 6 mi east of downtown Nashville along U. S. Route 70, it is named in honor of John Donelson, co-founder of Nashville and father-in-law of Andrew Jackson and seventh President of the United States. It is now incorporated as part of the Metropolitan Government of Davidson County. In the 1880s Donelson was a station on the Tennessee and Pacific Railroad just south of the former village of McWhirtersville on the Lebanon Pike, it began its modern development shortly after World War II, its location next to Nashville's airport led to much of its growth. It was the site of an early example of what would be called a shopping center or "strip mall", Donelson Plaza. Donelson's oldest neighborhood is Bluefields; the development of the Bluefields subdivision began in 1929 by the Bransford Realty Company of Nashville, Tennessee. Home construction began in the early 1930s, with fifty to sixty homes built by the Bransford Realty Company by the end of 1938.
The final phase of building, Bluefield Square, was developed in the 1970s on the property once occupied by the Swiss Farm Dairy within Bluefields proper. Another well-known neighborhood in Donelson is Timber Lake Condos subdivision 200 townhomes adjacent to BNA Airport property. Donelson is now an example of an early postwar suburb with a stock of half-century old, red brick, detached ranch-style homes. However, there has been some tendency for infill in recent years tied into the expansion of sewers; the area's desirability was increased somewhat by the impoundment of Percy Priest Lake on the Stones River in the late 1960s which increased summertime recreational opportunities. Donelson was the home of the Opryland USA theme park, which closed in 1997; this property is now the Grand Ole Opry. It is considered as something of a unit along with the adjacent neighborhood of Hermitage just across the Stones River along U. S. 70. Donelson is home to hundreds of medium-sized local businesses. Hip Donelson, a tax exempt 5013 created to promote and develop the local community, lists over 100 Donelson, Tennessee businesses that operate in the neighborhood.
Donelson is home to the national headquarters of HarperCollins Christian Publishers, a new branch of Nashville State University, over 40 hotels and motels that cater to tourists and business travelers using BNA International Airport. In recent years, Donelson has shown high demand as a desirable place to live, is discussed as one of the next Nashville neighborhoods set for explosive growth. A 2016 article on Realtor.com cited Donelson as the 15th most desirable zip code in the United States. As with most communities which are not census-designated places, making a realistic estimate of the community's population is problematic. Donelson is considered to be coextensive with the United States Postal Service's ZIP code 37214, the ZIP code for the Nashville Post Office's Donelson Station. According to the US Census Bureau 2016 estimates the population for the zip code 37214 was 30,230; the community has a station on the Music City Star commuter rail line, which began operation in September 2006.
Donelson Historic Bluefields
A longhunter was an 18th-century explorer and hunter who made expeditions into the American frontier wilderness for as much as six months at a time. Historian Emory Hamilton asserts that "The Long Hunter was peculiar to Southwest Virginia only, nowhere else on any frontier did such hunts originate" although the term has been used loosely to describe any unofficial American explorer of the period. Most long hunts started in the Holston River Valley near Virginia; the hunters came from there and the adjacent valley of the Clinch River, where they were land owners or residents. The parties of two or three men started their hunts in October and ended toward the end of March or early in April; the information gathered by longhunters in the 1760s and 1770s would prove critical to the early settlement of Tennessee and Kentucky. Many longhunters were employed by land surveyors seeking to take advantage of the departure of the French from the Ohio Valley at the end of the Seven Years' War; some helped guide settlers to Middle Tennessee and southeastern Kentucky.
As colonial settlement approached the base of the Appalachian Mountains in the early 18th century, game in the Piedmont region became more scarce. Merchants returning from trade missions to Overhill Cherokee villages in the Tennessee Valley brought back news of the abundance of game west of the range, began taking hunters along on their trade expeditions. In 1748 and 1750, Thomas Walker crossed the mountains and explored the Holston River valley and publicizing the location of Cumberland Gap— a pass near the modern border of Virginia and Tennessee— which allowed easy access to the headwaters of the Tennessee and Cumberland rivers. In 1761, Elisha Wallen led the first major recorded long hunt into. Wallen set up a station camp in Lee County and trekked into the Clinch and Powell valleys in what is now Hawkins County, Tennessee; that same year, Colonel Adam Stephen led a regiment of Virginia soldiers and militia to Long Island of the Holston, in what is now Sullivan County, Tennessee. The expedition, launched in retaliation for the Cherokee sacking of Fort Loudoun in 1760, forced the Cherokee to sign a peace treaty.
The end of the Seven Years' War in 1763 removed French claims to lands east of the Mississippi River. With the Cherokee threat minimized, long hunters began crossing into Tennessee and Kentucky in greater numbers. In 1764, Daniel Boone, Richard Callaway and Benjamin Cutbirth explored the upper Holston Valley as agents for Richard Henderson, a land speculator who played an important role in the early settlement of Tennessee. A camp used by them would become the home of Boone's friend William Bean, Tennessee's first known permanent Euro-American settler, he built a cabin at the site around 1769. In 1766, James Smith led an ambitious long hunt into Middle and West Tennessee, following the Cumberland River all the way to its mouth. One member of the Smith expedition, Uriah Stone, was hunting along a tributary of the Cumberland when a French hunting companion stole all of his furs; the tributary was subsequently named Stones River. Stone returned to the Cumberland valley in 1769 along with fellow hunters Kasper Mansker and Abraham Bledsoe, Joseph Drake, Robert Crockett.
Although Crockett was killed, the various trails, salt licks and camping areas identified by the 1766 and 1769 expeditions would help guide the first English settlers to the Middle Tennessee area. A royal proclamation issued by King George III in 1763 made it illegal to procure pelts from Cherokee lands without a trading license, which barred hunting west of the Appalachian range. Both the Cherokee and the British, had considerable difficulty enforcing this ban. In 1769, Cherokee Chief Oconastota complained to the British Superintendent of Indian Affairs that the entire Cherokee Nation was "filling with Hunters, the guns rattling every way on the path." While some long hunters had their pelts confiscated by the Cherokee, a rare few were killed, most managed to avoid detection. Various geographical entities in Tennessee are named for long hunters. Walden Ridge, the eastern escarpment of the Cumberland Plateau in Tennessee, is named for Elisha Wallen, one of the first English Americans to observe it.
A high school and dozens of geographical features in Tennessee have been named for Daniel Boone, whose exploits came to symbolize frontier life in Tennessee and Kentucky. Isaac Bledsoe gave his name to Bledsoe Creek in Sumner County, now the site of Bledsoe Creek State Park. Isaac's brother, Anthony became the namesake for Bledsoe County. In 1780, Kasper Mansker built a frontier station in what is now Goodlettsville, just north of Nashville. In 1986, the city of Goodlettsville built a replica of Mansker's Station, now open to the public. In the 1970s, the state of Tennessee established Long Hunter State Park along the J. Percy Priest Lake impoundment of Stones River, in the area where Uriah Stone had his furs stolen more than 200 years earlier; the end of King George's War in 1748 left control of the territory between the Appalachian Mountains and the Mississippi River in dispute. The French wanted the region to connect their holdings in Canada with New Orleans, the British sought to establish a foothold in the Ohio Valley.
The maneuvers of French commander Pierre-Joseph Celoron de Blainville in 1749 discouraged English trade west of the Appalachians, although English speculators remained interested in the region. Walker's 1750 ex
Smyrna is a town in Rutherford County, Tennessee. Smyrna's population was 39,974 at the 2010 census and 43,063 in 2013. In 2007, U. S. News & World Report listed Smyrna as one of the best places in the United States to retire. On June 2nd 2016 Blue Angels #6 crashed in Smyrna when practicing for the Great Tennesse Air show, killing pilot capt Jeff Kuss; the town of Smyrna has its European-American roots in the early 19th century and began as an agrarian community. It was important during the Civil War because its railroad station lies between Nashville and Chattanooga. One of the major events of the war for the town involved the Confederate States hero Sam Davis, after being charged with spying, gave up his life instead of giving any information to the Union Army, he was captured November 20, 1863, was hanged by Union forces on November 27 of that year. The Sam Davis Plantation, located on 160 acres of well-maintained farmland, is the town's most important historical site. Smyrna was incorporated in 1869 but its charter was rescinded by the state several years later.
In 1915, the town adopted a commission-mayor form of government. In 1941 during World War II, Sewart Air Force Base was established here and served as a B-17 Flying Fortress and B-24 advanced training facility. During the 1950s and 1960s, the military personnel and dependents totaled more than 10,000 persons stationed at the base; the base was scheduled for closing in 1971. Most of the property was divided among the State of Tennessee, Rutherford County, the Metropolitan Nashville Airport Authority. On its portion, the state opened and operates a Tennessee Army National Guard base and the Tennessee Rehabilitation Center. Much of the additional land was developed as the Smyrna/Rutherford County Airport Authority in 1990. During the 1970s, many new industries moved to the area; the city began a period of growth stimulated by production of such companies as Better Built Aluminum, Cumberland Swan, Square D building plants. In the early 1980s, planning began to build a Nissan Motors manufacturing plant and, in 1983, the first vehicle was produced.
The Nissan plant now employs around 8,400 workers, has a production capacity of 640,000 vehicles annually, covers an area of 5,200,000 sq ft. In 2012, Smyrna began manufacturing the Nissan Leaf. On March 14, 2000, the mayor and board of commissioners adopted a new charter; the city now operates under the city manager form of government, whereby the commissioners hire a city manager for daily operations. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 23.0 square miles, of which 22.8 square miles is land and 0.1 square miles is water. Portions of the Percy Priest Lake reservoir lies within the town limits; the two main waterways are Stewarts Creek. As of the census of 2000, there were 25,569 people, 9,608 households, 7,061 families residing in the town; the population density was 1,119.8 people per square mile. There were 10,016 housing units at an average density of 438.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 87.23% White, 7.82% African American, 0.29% Native American, 1.21% Asian, 0.08% Pacific Islander, 1.81% from other races, 1.56% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 4.31% of the population. There were 9,608 households out of which 39.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.0% were married couples living together, 14.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 26.5% were non-families. 21.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 4.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.62 and the average family size was 3.04. In the town, the population was spread out with 27.6% under the age of 18, 10.5% from 18 to 24, 35.1% from 25 to 44, 19.9% from 45 to 64, 6.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 32 years. For every 100 females, there were 95.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.9 males. The median income for a household in the town was $44,405, the median income for a family was $51,550. Males had a median income of $37,130 versus $27,325 for females; the per capita income for the town was $19,704. About 6.7% of families and 8.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 11.4% of those under age 18 and 8.2% of those age 65 or over.
The Nissan Smyrna assembly plant is the biggest in USA, making 640,000 cars per year. It began in 1983, has made more than 10 million cars since then. Batteries for the Leaf began in 2012. Smyrna serves as the US production site for the Nissan Leaf. Nissan's goal is that the plant in Smyrna will produce 150,000 cars, 200,000 electric car batteries per year; the top employers in the city are: Nissan: 8,400 Asurion: 1,165 Vi-Jon: 737 Stonecrest Medical Center: 550 Taylor Farms: 550 Square D/Schneider Electric: 474Prior to their dissolution, RegionsAir and Capitol Air were headquartered in Smyrna. Smyrna has a public golf course, 7 miles of greenway trails and an outdoor water park. A public fitness center located in Town Center includes an Olympic-sized swimming pool. Smyrna is served by the Rutherford County Schools school district. Cedar Grove Elementary David Youree Elementary School John Colemon Elementary School Smyrna Elementary School Smyrna Primary School Stewartsboro Elementary School Stewarts Creek Elementary School Rock Springs Middle School Rocky Fork Middle School Smyrna Middle School Stewarts C