A biophysical environment is a biotic and abiotic surrounding of an organism or population, includes the factors that have an influence in their survival and evolution. A biophysical environment can vary in scale from microscopic to global in extent, it can be subdivided according to its attributes. Examples include the marine environment, the atmospheric environment and the terrestrial environment; the number of biophysical environments is countless, given that each living organism has its own environment. The term environment can refer to a singular global environment in relation to humanity, or a local biophysical environment, e.g. the UK's Environment Agency. All life that has survived must have adapted to conditions of its environment. Temperature, humidity, soil nutrients, etc. all influence any species, within any environment. However life in turn modifies, in various forms, its conditions; some long term modifications along the history of our planet have been significant, such as the incorporation of oxygen to the atmosphere.
This process consisted in the breakdown of carbon dioxide by anaerobic microorganisms that used the carbon in their metabolism and released the oxygen to the atmosphere. This led to the existence of the great oxygenation event. Other interactions are more immediate and simple, such as the smoothing effect that forests have on the temperature cycle, compared to neighboring unforested areas. Environmental science is the study of the interactions within the biophysical environment. Part of this scientific discipline is the investigation of the effect of human activity on the environment. Ecology, a sub-discipline of biology and a part of environmental sciences, is mistaken as a study of human induced effects on the environment. Environmental studies is a broader academic discipline, the systematic study of interaction of humans with their environment, it is a broad field of study that includes the natural environment, built environments and social environments. Environmentalism is a broad social and philosophical movement that, in a large part, seeks to minimise and compensate the negative effect of human activity on the biophysical environment.
The issues of concern for environmentalists relate to the natural environment with the more important ones being climate change, species extinction and old growth forest loss. One of the studies related include employing Geographic Information Science to study the biophysical environment. Biophysics subject to the context List of conservation topics List of environmental issues Lists of environmental topics Miller, G. Tyler. Environmental science. California: Wadsworth. ISBN 0-534-21588-2. McCallum, Malcolm L.. "Google search patterns suggest declining interest in the environment". Biodiversity and Conservation. Doi:10.1007/s10531-013-0476-6. Media related to Environment at Wikimedia Commons
The Federal Register is the official journal of the federal government of the United States that contains government agency rules, proposed rules, public notices. It is published daily, except on federal holidays; the final rules promulgated by a federal agency and published in the Federal Register are reorganized by topic or subject matter and codified in the Code of Federal Regulations, updated annually. The Federal Register is compiled by the Office of the Federal Register and is printed by the Government Publishing Office. There are no copyright restrictions on the Federal Register. S. government, it is in the public domain. The Federal Register provides a means for the government to announce to the public changes to government requirements and guidance. Proposed new rules and regulations Final rules Changes to existing rules Notices of meetings and adjudicatory proceedings Presidential documents including Executive orders and administrative orders. Both proposed and final government rules are published in the Federal Register.
A Notice of Proposed Rulemaking requests public comment on a proposed rule and provides notice of any public meetings where a proposed rule will be discussed. The public comments are considered by the issuing government agency, the text of a final rule along with a discussion of the comments is published in the Federal Register. Any agency proposing a rule in the Federal Register must provide contact information for people and organizations interested in making comments to the agencies and the agencies are required to address these concerns when it publishes its final rule on the subject; the notice and comment process, as outlined in the Administrative Procedure Act, gives the people a chance to participate in agency rulemaking. Publication of documents in the Federal Register constitutes constructive notice, its contents are judicially noticed; the United States Government Manual is published as a special edition of the Federal Register. Its focus is on activities; each daily issue of the printed Federal Register is organized into four categories: Presidential Documents Rules and Regulations Proposed Rules Notices Citations from the Federal Register are FR, e.g. 71 FR 24924.
The final rules promulgated by a federal agency and published in the Federal Register are reorganized by topic or subject matter and re-published in the Code of Federal Regulations, updated annually. Copies of the Federal Register may be obtained from the U. S. Government Publishing Office. Most law libraries associated with an American Bar Association–accredited law school will have a set, as will federal depository libraries; the Federal Register has been available online since 1994. Federal depository libraries within the U. S. receive copies of the text, either in paper or microfiche format. Outside the U. S. some major libraries may carry the Federal Register. As part of the Federal E-Government eRulemaking Initiative, the web site Regulations.gov was established in 2003 to enable easy public access to agency dockets on rulemaking projects including the published Federal Register document. The public can use Regulations.gov to access entire rulemaking dockets from participating Federal agencies to include providing on-line comments directly to those responsible for drafting the rulemakings.
To help federal agencies manage their dockets, the Federal Docket Management System was launched in 2005 and is the agency side of regulations.gov. In April 2009, Citation Technologies created a free, searchable website for Federal Register articles dating from 1996 to the present. GovPulse.us, a finalist in the Sunlight Foundation's Apps for America 2, provides a web 2.0 interface to the Federal Register, including sparklines of agency activity and maps of current rules. On July 25, 2010, the Federal Register 2.0 website went live. The new website is a collaboration between the developers who created GovPulse.us, the Government Publishing Office and the National Archives and Records Administration. On August 1, 2011, the Federal Register announced a new application programming interface to facilitate programmatic access to the Federal Register content; the API is RESTful, utilizing the HATEOAS architecture with results delivered in the JSON format. Details are available at the developers page and Ruby and Python client libraries are available.
In addition to purchasing printed copies or subscriptions, the contents of the Federal Register can be acquired via several commercial databases: Citation Technologies offers the complete Federal Register and Code of Federal Regulations through subscription-based web portals such as CyberRegs. HeinOnline: Full coverage available dating back to 1936 in an image-based searchable PDF format. LexisNexis: Searchable text format since 45 FR 44251. Westlaw: Searchable text format since 46 FR 1; the Unified Agenda and the official English text of the 1980 United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods, which became effective January 1, 1988, are included. Sunshine Act Meeting Notices are not available prior to 1991. Unified Agenda documents are not available prior to October 1989; the Federal Register system of publication was created on July 26, 1935, under the Federal Register Act. The first issue of the Federal Regis
Cryptosporidium is a genus of apicomplexan parasitic alveolates that can cause a respiratory and gastrointestinal illness that involves watery diarrhea with or without a persistent cough in both immunocompetent and immunodeficient humans. Treatment of gastrointestinal infection in humans involves fluid rehydration, electrolyte replacement, management of any pain; as of January 2015, nitazoxanide is the only drug approved for the treatment of cryptosporidiosis in immunocompetent hosts. Supplemental zinc may improve symptoms in recurrent or persistent infections or in others at risk for zinc deficiency. Cryptosporidium oocysts are 4 -- 6 µm in exhibit partial acid-fast staining, they must be differentiated from other acid-fast organisms including Cyclospora cayetanensis. Cryptosporidium causes cryptosporidiosis, an infection that may present as a diarrhoeal with or without a persistent cough in immunocompetent hosts. Other apicomplexan pathogens include the malaria parasite Plasmodium and the toxoplasmosis parasite Toxoplasma.
Unlike Plasmodium, which transmits via a mosquito vector, Cryptosporidium does not use an insect vector, is capable of completing its lifecycle within a single host, resulting in cyst stages that are excreted in feces or through coughing fomites and are capable of transmission to a new host. A number of Cryptosporidium species infect mammals. In humans, the main causes of disease are C. C. hominis. C. canis, C. felis, C. meleagridis, C. muris can cause disease in humans. Cryptosporidiosis is an acute, short-term infection, can be recurrent through reinfection in immunocompetent hosts, become severe or life-threatening in immunocompromised individuals. In humans, it may remain for up to five weeks; the parasite is transmitted by environmentally hardy cysts that, once ingested, exist in the small intestine and result in an infection of intestinal epithelial tissue. Transmission by ingestion or inhalation of coughed fomites is a second, less route of infection; the genome of Cryptosporidium parvum, sequenced in 2004, was found to be unusual amongst eukaryotes in that the mitochondria seem not to contain DNA.
A related species, C. hominis has its genome sequence available. The Cryptosporidium spore phase can survive for lengthy periods outside a host, it can resist many common disinfectants, notably chlorine-based disinfectants. Many treatment plants that take raw water from rivers and reservoirs for public drinking water production use conventional filtration technologies. Direct filtration, used to treat water with low particulate levels, includes coagulation and filtration but not sedimentation. Other common filtration processes including slow sand filters, diatomaceous earth filters, membranes will remove 99% of Cryptosporidium. Membranes and bag- and cartridge-filter products remove Cryptosporidium specifically. Cryptosporidium is resistant to chlorine disinfection. In general, the required levels of chlorine preclude the use of chlorine disinfection as a reliable method to control Cryptosporidium in drinking water. Ultraviolet light treatment at low doses will inactivate Cryptosporidium. -funded research discovered UV's efficacy in inactivating Cryptosporidium.
One of the largest challenges in identifying outbreaks is the ability to verify the results in a laboratory. The oocytes may be seen by microscopic examination of a stool sample, but they may be confused with other objects or artifacts similar in appearance. Most cryptosporidia are 3 -- 6 μm in size. For the end consumer of drinking water believed to be contaminated by Cryptosporidium, the safest option is to boil all water used for drinking. People who swim in pools with insufficient sanitation Child-care workers Parents of infected children People caring for other people with cryptosporidiosis Backpackers and campers who drink unfiltered, untreated water Petting Farms and open farms with public access People, including swimmers, who swallow water from contaminated sources People handling infected cattle People exposed to human fecesCases of cryptosporidiosis can occur in a city with clean water. Like many fecal-oral pathogens, it can be transmitted by contaminated food or poor hygiene. Testing of water, as well as epidemiological study, are necessary to determine the sources of specific infections.
Cryptosporidium does not cause serious illness in healthy people. It may chronically sicken some children, as well as adults immunocompromised. A subset of the immunocompromised population is people with AIDS. Amongst MSM with AIDS, insertive anal sex is an increased risk factor. Analingus and oral-genital sex after anal-genital sex are known transmission routes. Other transmission routes include exposure to laboratory specimens. 1987 Carroll County Cryptosporidiosis outbreak 1993 Milwaukee Cryptosporidiosis outbreak 1998 Sydney water crisis Escherichia coli Giardia lamblia CryptoDB: The Cryptosporidium Genome Resource
Lisa P. Jackson
Lisa Perez Jackson is an American chemical engineer who served as the Administrator of the United States Environmental Protection Agency from 2009 to 2013. She is the first African-American to have held that position. Born in Philadelphia, Jackson is a graduate of Tulane University and Princeton University, she began working as a staff-level engineer for the Environmental Protection Agency in 1987. She joined the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection in 2002, working as the assistant commissioner of compliance and enforcement and as the assistant commissioner for land use management. In 2006, New Jersey Governor Jon Corzine appointed Jackson the state's Commissioner of Environmental Protection. Jackson briefly served as Corzine's Chief of Staff in late 2008. On December 15, 2008, the President-elect Barack Obama nominated Jackson as the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency, she was confirmed by the Senate and took office on January 23, 2009. During her tenure, Jackson oversaw stricter fuel efficiency standards.
In December 2012, Jackson announced she would be stepping down as EPA Administrator, a move which took effect on February 15, 2013. Lisa Jackson was born in Philadelphia and was adopted weeks after her birth, she grew up in Pontchartrain Park, a predominantly African-American middle-class neighborhood of New Orleans, Louisiana. In 1979, Jackson graduated as valedictorian from St. Mary's Dominican High School in New Orleans, she received a scholarship from the National Consortium for Graduate Degrees for Minorities in Engineering & Science due to her strong performance in mathematics. This allowed her to gain early exposure to a college environment, she attended Tulane University with a scholarship from Shell Oil Company. A dean at the Tulane School of Engineering got her interested in that discipline as an academic path, she graduated summa cum laude with a Bachelor of Science degree in chemical engineering in 1983. Jackson earned her Master of Science degree in chemical engineering, from Princeton University in 1986.
Jackson's mother was living in New Orleans at the time Hurricane Katrina flooded the city in 2005, Jackson drove her out of the city. Jackson is the mother of two children. Jackson has been a resident of East Windsor Township, New Jersey, along with her husband and two sons. On July 13, 2013 she was initiated into Delta Sigma Theta sorority as an honorary member, during their Centennial Celebration in Washington, DC. Jackson had not grown up as an outdoors person, but became interested in environmental matters following the national and international coverage of the Love Canal Disaster, she worked for a year and a half at Clean Sites, a nonprofit that tried to accelerate cleanup of toxic sites. Jackson joined the United States Environmental Protection Agency at its headquarters in Washington, D. C. in 1987, working as a staff-level engineer. She moved to its regional office in New York City. During her tenure at EPA, Jackson worked in the federal Superfund site remediation program, developing numerous hazardous waste cleanup regulations, overseeing hazardous waste cleanup projects throughout central New Jersey, directing multimillion-dollar cleanup operations.
She served as deputy director and acting director of the region's enforcement division. After 16 years with EPA, Jackson joined the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection in March 2002 as assistant commissioner of compliance and enforcement, she served as the assistant commissioner for land use management during 2005. Jackson headed numerous programs, including land use regulation, water supply, geological survey, water monitoring and standards, watershed management, she focused on developing a system of incentives for stimulating what was in her opinion the right growth in the right places. Under her leadership, the state Department of Environmental Protection developed regulatory standards for implementing the landmark Highlands Water Protection and Planning Act. Jon S. Corzine, Governor of New Jersey, nominated her to serve as Commissioner of the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection. Serving in that position, Jackson led a staff of 2,990 responsible for protecting and improving New Jersey's land and water environment.
In addition to overseeing environmental programs for the state, as Commissioner, Jackson oversaw state parks and beaches and wildlife programs and historic preservation. As commissioner in July 2006, she had to shut down all state parks and beaches due to the state governmental shutdown in relation to the state budget delay; as the state's chief environmental enforcer, Jackson led compliance sweeps in Camden and Paterson, communities in which the effects of pollution on public health had long been neglected. She launched the environmental initiative following multicultural outreach efforts to inform and involve community residents and businesses. Working with county officials, New Jersey State Police and the federal Environmental Protection Agency, the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection mobilized more than 70 inspectors to conduct upward of 1,000 compliance investigatio
United States Environmental Protection Agency
The Environmental Protection Agency is an independent agency of the United States federal government for environmental protection. President Richard Nixon proposed the establishment of EPA on July 9, 1970 and it began operation on December 2, 1970, after Nixon signed an executive order; the order establishing the EPA was ratified by committee hearings in the Senate. The agency is led by its Administrator, appointed by the President and approved by Congress; the current Administrator is former Deputy Administrator Andrew R. Wheeler, acting administrator since July 2018; the EPA is not a Cabinet department, but the Administrator is given cabinet rank. The EPA has its headquarters in Washington, D. C. regional offices for each of the agency's ten regions, 27 laboratories. The agency conducts environmental assessment and education, it has the responsibility of maintaining and enforcing national standards under a variety of environmental laws, in consultation with state and local governments. It delegates some permitting and enforcement responsibility to U.
S. states and the federally recognized tribes. EPA enforcement powers include fines and other measures; the agency works with industries and all levels of government in a wide variety of voluntary pollution prevention programs and energy conservation efforts. In 2018, the agency had 14,172 full-time employees. More than half of EPA's employees are engineers and environmental protection specialists; the Environmental Protection Agency can only act under statutes, which are the authority of laws passed by Congress. Congress must approve the statute and they have the power to authorize or prohibit certain actions, which the EPA has to implement and enforce. Appropriations statutes authorize how much money the agency can spend each year to carry out the approved statutes; the Environmental Protection Agency has the power to issue regulations. A regulation is a standard or rule written by the agency to interpret the statute, apply it in situations and enforce it. Congress allows the EPA to write regulations in order to solve a problem, but the agency must include a rationale of why the regulations need to be implemented.
The regulations can be challenged by the Courts, where the regulation is confirmed. Many public health and environmental groups advocate for the agency and believe that it is creating a better world. Other critics believe that the agency commits government overreach by adding unnecessary regulations on business and property owners. Beginning in the late 1950s and through the 1960s, Congress reacted to increasing public concern about the impact that human activity could have on the environment. Senator James E. Murray introduced a bill, the Resources and Conservation Act of 1959, in the 86th Congress; the 1962 publication of Silent Spring by Rachel Carson alerted the public about the detrimental effects on the environment of the indiscriminate use of pesticides. In the years following, similar bills were introduced and hearings were held to discuss the state of the environment and Congress's potential responses. In 1968, a joint House–Senate colloquium was convened by the chairmen of the Senate Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs, Senator Henry M. Jackson, the House Committee on Science and Astronautics, Representative George P. Miller, to discuss the need for and means of implementing a national environmental policy.
In the colloquium, some members of Congress expressed a continuing concern over federal agency actions affecting the environment. The National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 was modeled on the Resources and Conservation Act of 1959. RCA would have established a Council on Environmental Quality in the office of the President, declared a national environmental policy, required the preparation of an annual environmental report. President Nixon signed NEPA into law on January 1, 1970; the law created the Council on Environmental Quality in the Executive Office of the President. NEPA required that a detailed statement of environmental impacts be prepared for all major federal actions affecting the environment; the "detailed statement" would be referred to as an environmental impact statement. On July 9, 1970, Nixon proposed an executive reorganization that consolidated many environmental responsibilities of the federal government under one agency, a new Environmental Protection Agency; this proposal included merging antipollution programs from a number of departments, such as the combination of pesticide programs from the United States Department of Agriculture, Department of Interior, U.
S. Department of Interior. After conducting hearings during that summer, the House and Senate approved the proposal; the EPA was created 90 days before it had to operate, opened its doors on December 2, 1970. The agency's first Administrator, William Ruckelshaus, took the oath of office on December 4, 1970. In its first year, the EPA had 5,800 employees. At its start, the EPA was a technical assistance agency that set goals and standards. Soon, new acts and amendments passed by Congress gave the agency its regulatory authority. EPA staff recall that in the early days there was "an enormous sense of purpose and excitement" and the expectation that "there was this agency, going to do something about a problem, on the minds of a lot of people in this country," leading to tens of thousands of resumes from those eager to participate in the mighty effort to clean up America's environment; when EPA first began operation, members of the private sector felt that the environ
Public water system
Public water system is a regulatory term used in the United States and Canada, referring to certain utilities and organizations providing drinking water. The US Safe Drinking Water Act and derivative legislation define "public water system" as an entity that provides "water for human consumption through pipes or other constructed conveyances to at least 15 service connections or serves an average of at least 25 people for at least 60 days a year." The term "public" in "public water system" refers to the people drinking the water, not to the ownership of the system. Some US states have varying definitions. Over 286 million Americans get their tap water from a community water system. Eight percent of the community water systems—large municipal water systems—provide water to 82 percent of the US population; the United States Environmental Protection Agency has defined three types of public water systems: Community Water System. A public water system that supplies water to the same population year-round.
Non-Transient Non-Community Water System. A public water system that supplies water to at least 25 of the same people at least six months per year, but not year-round; some examples are schools, office buildings, hospitals which have their own water systems. Transient Non-Community Water System. A public water system that provides water in a place such as a gas station or campground where people do not remain for long periods of time. There are over 150,000 public water systems. 52,000 CWS serve the majority of the U. S. population Approximately 85,000 NTNCWS Approximately 18,000 TNCWS. EPA classifies water systems according to the number of people they serve: Very Small water systems serve 25-500 people Small water systems serve 501-3,300 people Medium water systems serve 3,301-10,000 people Large water systems serve 10,001-100,000 people Very Large water systems serve over 100,000 people. Water systems may be categorized by their source of water: Groundwater from wells Surface water and groundwater "under the influence" of surface water Purchase of water from another Public Water System.
Sources of drinking water are subject to contamination and require appropriate treatment to remove disease-causing contaminants. Contamination of drinking water supplies can occur in the source water as well as in the distribution system after water treatment has occurred. There are many sources of water contamination, including occurring chemicals and minerals, local land use practices, manufacturing processes, sewer overflows or wastewater releases; the presence of contaminants in water can lead to adverse health effects, including gastrointestinal illness, reproductive problems, neurological disorders. Infants, young children, pregnant women, the elderly, people whose immune systems are compromised because of AIDS, chemotherapy, or transplant medications, may be susceptible to illness from some contaminants; the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention publishes a list of the leading causes of waterborne outbreaks in public water systems. The Canadian provinces of Manitoba and Nova Scotia use this definition.
Water supply Drinking water quality in the United States Water supply and sanitation in Canada
Safe Drinking Water Act
The Safe Drinking Water Act is the principal federal law in the United States intended to ensure safe drinking water for the public. Pursuant to the act, the Environmental Protection Agency is required to set standards for drinking water quality and oversee all states and water suppliers that implement the standards; the SDWA applies to every public water system in the United States. There are over 151,000 public water systems providing water to all Americans at some time in their lives; the Act does not cover private wells. The SDWA does not apply to bottled water. Bottled water is regulated by the Food and Drug Administration, under the Federal Food and Cosmetic Act; the SDWA requires EPA to establish National Primary Drinking Water Regulations for contaminants that may cause adverse public health effects. The regulations include both mandatory requirements and nonenforceable health goals for each included contaminant; as of 2016, there were 88 inorganic chemicals with minimum contaminant levels.
MCLs have additional significance because they can be used under the Superfund law as "Applicable or Relevant and Appropriate Requirements" in cleanups of contaminated sites on the National Priorities List. For some contaminants, EPA establishes a Treatment Technique instead of an MCL. TTs are enforceable procedures that drinking water systems must follow in treating their water for a contaminant. Federal drinking water standards are organized into six groups: Microorganisms Disinfectants Disinfection Byproducts Inorganic Chemicals Organic Chemicals Radionuclides. EPA has issued standards for Cryptosporidium, Giardia lamblia, coliform bacteria and enteric viruses. EPA requires two microorganism-related tests to indicate water quality: plate count and turbidity; the agency issued its initial Surface Water Treatment Rule in 1989, to address contamination from viruses and Giardia lamblia. The most recent amendment is the Long Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule, promulgated in 2006, requiring public water systems to employ a Treatment Technique to control Cryptosporidium and other pathogens.
EPA has issued standards for chlorine and chlorine dioxide. EPA has issued standards for bromate, haloacetic acids and trihalomethanes. EPA has issued standards for antimony, asbestos, beryllium, chromium, cyanide, lead, nitrate, nitrite and thallium; the 1986 amendments require EPA to set standards limiting the concentration of lead in public water systems, defines "lead free" pipes as: solders and flux containing not more than 0.2 percent lead. EPA issued an initial lead and copper regulation in 1991 and last revised the regulation in 2007; the regulation specifies a Treatment Technique rather than an MCL. Congress tightened the definition of "lead free" plumbing in a 2011 amendment to the Act. EPA published a white paper in 2016 discussing options for additional revisions to the Lead and Copper Rule. EPA has issued standards for 53 organic compounds, including benzene, dioxin, PCBs, toluene, vinyl chloride and several pesticides. EPA has issued standards for alpha particles, beta particles and photon emitters and uranium.
EPA proposed regulations for radon in 1991 and 1999. Secondary drinking water standards are non-regulatory guidelines for aesthetic characteristics, including taste and odor. EPA issues "health advisories" for some contaminants. Health advisories provide technical information to public health officials about health effects, methods for chemical analysis, treatment methods; the advisories are not enforceable. EPA was given explicit authority to issue advisories in the 1996 SDWA amendments; as of 2018, health advisories have been issued for the following contaminants. The SDWA requires EPA to list unregulated contaminants which may require regulation; the Agency must publish this list, called the Contaminant Candidate List every five years. EPA is required to decide whether to regulate more listed contaminants. EPA uses this list to prioritize research and data collection efforts, which support the regulatory determination process; as of 2017, EPA has developed four CCLs: CCL1: 50 chemical and 10 microbiological contaminants/contaminant groups were listed in 1998.
In 2003 EPA made a determination. CCL2: EPA carried forward the remaining 51 contaminants from CCL1 for consideration in 2005. In 2008 EPA determined. CCL3: EPA revised its listing process, based on recommendations from the National Research Council and the National Drinking Water Advisory Council, it expanded its initial review to 7,500 potential chemical and microbial contaminants, subsequently narrowed this universe to a list of 600 for further evaluation. 104 chemicals or chemical groups and 12 microbiological contaminants were listed in 2009. In 2011 EPA announced it would develop regulations for perchlorate, listed beginning with CCL1. In 2016 EPA determined that no regulatory action was needed on four other listed contaminants, delayed determination on a fifth contaminant, in order to review additional data. CCL4: EPA carried forward the CCL 3