A close-up or closeup in filmmaking, television production, still photography, the comic strip medium is a type of shot that frames a person or object. Close-ups are one of the standard shots used with medium and long shots. Close-ups display the most detail. Moving toward or away from a close-up is a common type of zooming. Most early filmmakers—such as Thomas Edison and Louis Lumière and Georges Méliès—tended not to use close-ups and preferred to frame their subjects in long shots, similar to the stage. Film historians disagree as to. One of the best claims is for George Albert Smith in Hove, who used medium close-ups in films as early as 1898 and by 1900 was incorporating extreme close-ups in films such as As Seen Through a Telescope and Grandma's Reading Glass. In 1901, James Williamson working in Hove, made the most extreme close-up of all in The Big Swallow, when his character approaches the camera and appears to swallow it. D. W. Griffith, who pioneered screen cinematographic techniques and narrative format, is associated with popularizing the close up with the success of his films.
For example, one of Griffith's short films, The Lonedale Operator, makes significant use of a close-up of a wrench that a character pretends is a gun. Lillian Gish remarked on Griffith's pioneering use of the close-up: The people in the front office got upset, they came down and said:'The public doesn’t pay for the head or the arms or the shoulders of the actor. They want the whole body. Let’s give them their money’s worth.’ Griffith stood close to them and said: ‘Can you see my feet?’ When they said no, he replied: ‘That’s what I’m doing. I am using what the eyes can see.' Close-ups are used for many reasons. They are employed as cutaways from a more distant shot to show detail, such as characters' emotions, or some intricate activity with their hands. Close cuts to characters' faces are used far more in television than in movies. For a director to deliberately avoid close-ups may create in the audience an emotional distance from the subject matter. Close-ups are used for distinguishing main characters.
Major characters are given a close-up when they are introduced as a way of indicating their importance. Leading characters will have multiple close-ups. There is a long-standing stereotype of insecure actors desiring a close-up at every opportunity and counting the number of close-ups they received. An example of this stereotype occurs when the character Norma Desmond in Sunset Boulevard, announces "All right, Mr. DeMille, I'm ready for my close-up" as she is taken into police custody in the film's finale. Close-up shots do not show the subject in the broad context of its surroundings. If overused, they may leave viewers uncertain as to. Close-ups are done with wide-angle lenses, because perspective causes objects in the center of the picture to be unnaturally enlarged; this may convey a sense of intoxication, or other unusual mental state. There are various degrees of close-up depending on; the terminology varies between countries and different companies, but in general these are: Medium Close Up: Halfway between a mid shot and a close-up.
Covers the subject's head and shoulders. Close Up: A certain feature, such as someone's head, takes up the whole frame. Extreme Close Up: The shot is so tight that only a detail of the subject, such as someone's eyes, can be seen. Lean-In: when the juxtaposition of shots in a sequence in a scene of dialogue, starts with medium or long shots, for example, ends with close-ups. Lean-Out: the opposite of a lean-in, moving from close-ups out to longer shots. Lean: when a lean-in is followed by a lean-out; when the close-up is used in shooting, the subject should not be put in the middle of the frame. Instead, it should be located in the frame according to the law of golden section. Macro photography Micrograph Shot Notes Bibliography Bordwell, David. Film Art: An Introduction. New York: McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0-07-331027-1. Media related to Close-up shots at Wikimedia Commons'
The Martian (film)
The Martian is a 2015 science fiction film directed by Ridley Scott and starring Matt Damon adapted from the novel of the same name by Andy Weir. The film depicts an astronaut's lone struggle to survive on Mars after being left behind, efforts to rescue him, bring him home to Earth, it stars Jessica Chastain, Kristen Wiig, Jeff Daniels, Michael Peña, Kate Mara, Sean Bean, Sebastian Stan, Donald Glover, Aksel Hennie, Chiwetel Ejiofor. The film, produced through 20th Century Fox, is a co-production of the United States and the United Kingdom. Producer Simon Kinberg began developing the film after Fox optioned the novel in March 2013, which Drew Goddard adapted into a screenplay and was attached to direct, but the film did not move forward. Scott replaced Goddard, with Damon in place as the main character, production was approved. Filming began in November 2014 and lasted seventy days. Twenty sets were built on a sound stage in Budapest, one of the largest in the world. Wadi Rum in Jordan was used as a backdrop for filming.
The film premiered at the 2015 Toronto International Film Festival on September 11, 2015, while the London premiere was held on September 24, 2015. The film was released in the United Kingdom on September 30, 2015 and in the United States on October 2, 2015 in 2D, 3D, IMAX 3D and 4DX, it received positive reviews and grossed over $630 million worldwide, becoming Scott's highest-grossing film to date, as well as the 10th highest-grossing film of 2015. It received several accolades, including the Golden Globe Award for Best Motion Picture – Musical or Comedy, seven nominations at the 88th Academy Awards, including Best Picture and Best Adapted Screenplay for Goddard, the 2016 long form Hugo Award for Best Dramatic Presentation. Damon won the Golden Globe Award for Best Actor – Motion Picture Musical or Comedy and was nominated for several awards including the Academy Award for Best Actor, the BAFTA Award for Best Actor in a Leading Role, the Critic's Choice Award for Best Actor. In 2035, the crew of the Ares III mission to Mars is exploring Acidalia Planitia on Martian solar day 18 of their 31-sol expedition.
A strong dust storm threatens to topple their Mars Ascent Vehicle, forcing them to abort the mission. During the evacuation, astronaut Mark Watney is struck by debris and lost in the storm, telemetry from his suit's biomonitor stops. With Watney believed dead, the storm worsening by the second, the MAV on the verge of toppling, mission commander Melissa Lewis orders the crew to take off and return to their orbiting vessel, the Hermes. Watney awakens after the storm to returns to the crew's surface habitat. Doing self-surgery, he removes from his abdomen the debris, he begins a video diary. Lacking communications with Earth, his only chance of rescue is via the next Mars mission, four years later: the Ares IV, will be landing 3,200 kilometers away at the Schiaparelli crater. Watney's immediate concern is food, he begins to modify the only functional rover for longer journeys in preparation for the long-distance travel. After NASA holds a funeral for Watney, satellite planner Mindy Park reviews images of the Hab area and realizes he has survived.
NASA administrator Teddy Sanders has the news released, but despite the objections of the Hermes flight director Mitch Henderson, decides not to distract the Ares III crew by informing them. Watney takes the rover to retrieve the nearby Pathfinder probe, which fell silent in 1997. Using Pathfinder's camera and motor, he establishes rudimentary two-way communication with Earth, first using simple signs, sending and receiving ASCII in hexadecimal. NASA sends a software patch to communicate via text. Watney becomes angry when he learns that the crew has not been told of his survival, Sanders reluctantly lets Henderson inform them. Henderson and Jet Propulsion Laboratory director Bruce Ng prepare an Iris space probe to deliver enough food to last Watney until Ares IV's arrival. Meanwhile the Hab's airlock malfunctions due to a small puncture, destroying Watney's ability to grow further crops. Sanders orders the team to skip the usual safety inspections to launch the probe sooner, but it fails 40 seconds after liftoff.
Watney now feels. The China National Space Administration has been developing a powerful classified booster rocket, the Taiyang Shen. Feeling camaraderie with NASA's scientists, they violate their government's secrecy and offer it to repeat the Iris mission; as Watney is still at more risk the longer he waits, JPL astrodynamicist Rich Purnell devises an alternative plan: send the Taiyang Shen with supplies to the Hermes, which will use Earth's gravity to "slingshot" back to Mars two years earlier than Aries IV. Sanders rejects the idea, refusing to risk the crew on Hermes, but Henderson surreptitiously sends them Purnell's plan. Risking their lives and careers, they vote unanimously for it, make the necessary course change. Powerless to stop them, NASA concedes the issue. Watney begins the 90-sol journey to Schiaparelli, where the MAV for Ares IV has been pre-positioned, but it needs to be lightened to make the rendezvous with Hermes on its new course. Watney must remove many components, replace the nose cone with a piece of the Hab's canvas.
The MAV still fails to reach the required speed, so Commander Lewis maneuvers Hermes, consuming most of its available fuel ordering a directional explosive d
A videographer is a person who works in the field of videography and/or video production, recording moving images and sound on video tape, digital, or any future data storage medium, other electro-mechanical device. News broadcasting relies on live television where videographers engage in electronic news gathering of local news stories. On a set, in a television studio, the videographer is a camera operator of a professional video camera and lighting; as part of a typical electronic field production television crew, videographers work with a television producer. However, for smaller productions, a videographer works alone with a single-camera setup or in the case of a multiple-camera setup, as part of a larger television crew with lighting technician and sound operators. Videographers are distinguished from cinematographers in that they use digital hard-drive, flash cards or tape drive video cameras vs. 70mm IMAX, 35mm, 16mm or Super 8mm mechanical film cameras. Videographers manage smaller, event scale productions, differing from individualized large production team members.
The advent of high definition digital video cameras, has blurred this distinction. Further, it is becoming more and more common for people to talk about "filming" with a camcorder though no "film" is involved; the term "taping" is used though no tape is involved, where live video is recorded directly to video tape, a direct to disk recording using a hard disk recorder, or a tapeless camcorder using flash media. Videographers maintain and operate a variety of video camera equipment, sound recording devices, edit footage, stay up to date with technological advances. With modern video camcorders, professional studio quality videos can be produced at low cost rivaling large studios. Many major studios have stopped using film as a medium due to linear-editing devices no longer being made and the availability for amateurs to produce acceptable videos using DSLRs. Videographers use non-linear editing software on home computers. Camera coverage Camera operator Camera tracking Cinematic techniques Filmmaking
The Kinetoscope is an early motion picture exhibition device. The Kinetoscope was designed for films to be viewed by one individual at a time through a peephole viewer window at the top of the device; the Kinetoscope was not a movie projector, but introduced the basic approach that would become the standard for all cinematic projection before the advent of video, by creating the illusion of movement by conveying a strip of perforated film bearing sequential images over a light source with a high-speed shutter. A process using roll film was first described in a patent application submitted in France and the U. S. by French inventor Louis Le Prince. The concept was used by U. S. inventor Thomas Edison in 1889, subsequently developed by his employee William Kennedy Laurie Dickson between 1889 and 1892. Dickson and his team at the Edison lab devised the Kinetograph, an innovative motion picture camera with rapid intermittent, or stop-and-go, film movement, to photograph movies for in-house experiments and commercial Kinetoscope presentations.
A prototype for the Kinetoscope was shown to a convention of the National Federation of Women's Clubs on May 20, 1891. The first public demonstration of the Kinetoscope was held at the Brooklyn Institute of Arts and Sciences on May 9, 1893. Instrumental to the birth of American movie culture, the Kinetoscope had a major impact in Europe. In 1895, Edison introduced the Kinetophone. Film projection, which Edison disdained as financially nonviable, soon superseded the Kinetoscope's individual exhibition model. Many of the projection systems developed by Edison's firm in years would use the Kinetoscope name. An encounter with the work and ideas of photographic pioneer Eadweard Muybridge appears to have spurred Edison to pursue the development of a motion picture system. On February 25, 1888, in Kaust, Muybridge gave a lecture that may have included a demonstration of his zoopraxiscope, a device that projected sequential images drawn around the edge of a glass disc, producing the illusion of motion.
The Edison facility was close by, the lecture was attended by both Edison and his company's official photographer, William Dickson. Two days Muybridge and Edison met at Edison's laboratory in West Orange. No such collaboration was undertaken, but in October 1888, Edison filed a preliminary claim, known as a caveat, with the U. S. Patent Office announcing his plans to create a device that would do "for the Eye what the phonograph does for the Ear", it is clear that it was intended as part of a complete audiovisual system: "we may see & hear a whole Opera as as if present". In March 1889, a second caveat was filed, in which the proposed motion picture device was given a name, derived from the Greek roots kineto- and scopos. Edison assigned Dickson, one of his most talented employees, to the job of making the Kinetoscope a reality. Edison would take full credit for the invention, but the historiographical consensus is that the title of creator can hardly go to one man: While Edison seems to have conceived the idea and initiated the experiments, Dickson performed the bulk of the experimentation, leading most modern scholars to assign Dickson with the major credit for turning the concept into a practical reality.
The Edison laboratory, worked as a collaborative organization. Laboratory assistants were assigned to work on many projects while Edison supervised and involved himself and participated to varying degrees. Dickson and his lead assistant, Charles Brown, made halting progress at first. Edison's original idea involved recording pinpoint photographs, 1/32 of an inch wide, directly on to a cylinder. An audio cylinder would provide synchronized sound, while the rotating images, hardly operatic in scale, were viewed through a microscope-like tube; when tests were made with images expanded to a mere 1/8 of an inch in width, the coarseness of the silver bromide emulsion used on the cylinder became unacceptably apparent. Around June 1889, the lab began working with sensitized celluloid sheets, supplied by John Carbutt, that could be wrapped around the cylinder, providing a far superior base for the recording of photographs; the first film made for the Kinetoscope, the first motion picture produced on photographic film in the United States, may have been shot at this time.
1, it shows an employee of the lab in an tongue-in-cheek display of physical dexterity. Attempts at synchronizing sound were soon left behind, while Dickson would experiment with disc-based exhibition designs; the project would soon head off in more productive directions impelled by a trip of Edison's to Europe and the Exposition Universelle in Paris, for which he departed August 2 or 3, 1889. During his two months abroad, Edison visited with scientist-photographer Étienne-Jules Marey, who had devised a "chronophotographic gun"—the first portable motion picture camera—which used a strip of flexible film designed to capture sequential images at twelve frames per second. Upon his return to the United States, Edison filed
Low-key lighting is a style of lighting for photography, film or television. It is a necessary element in creating a chiaroscuro effect. Traditional photographic lighting, three-point lighting uses a key light, a fill light and a back light for illumination. Low-key lighting uses only a key light, optionally controlled with a fill light or a simple reflector. Low key light accentuates the contours of the subject by throwing areas into shade while a fill light or reflector may illuminate the shadow areas to control contrast; the relative strength of key-to-fill, known as the lighting ratio, can be measured using a light meter. Low key lighting has a higher lighting ratio, e.g. 8:1, than high-key lighting, which can approach 1:1. The term "low key" is used in cinematography and photography to refer to any scene with a high lighting ratio if there is a predominance of shadowy areas, it tends to heighten the sense of alienation felt by the viewer, hence is used in film noir and horror genres. It is used in dark dramas/ thrillers.
Low-key lighting is associated with German Expressionism and film noir. High-key lighting Contre-jour
Hard and soft light
Hard and soft light are different types of lighting that are used in photography and filmmaking. Soft light refers to light that tends to "wrap" around objects, casting diffuse shadows with soft edges. Soft light is; the hardness or softness of light depends on the following two factors: Distance. The closer the light source, the softer it becomes. Size of light source; the larger the source, the softer it becomes. The softness of a light source can be determined by the angle between the illuminated object and the'length' of the light source; the larger this angle is, the softer the light source. Soft light use is popular in cinematography and film for a number of different reasons: Cast shadow-less light. Fill lighting. Soft light can reduce shadows without creating additional shadows. Make a subject appear more beautiful or youthful through making wrinkles less visible. Supplement the lighting from practicals; this technique is used to perform "motivated" lighting, where all light in the scene appears to come from practical light sources in the scene.
Soft light does not cast shadows. Hard light sources cast shadows. For example, fresnel lights can be focused such; that is, the shadows produced will have'harder' edges with less transition between illumination and shadow. The focused light will produce harder-edged shadows. Focusing a fresnel makes the rays of emitted light more parallel; the parallelism of these rays determines the quality of the shadows. For shadows with no transitional edge/gradient, a point light source is required. Hard light casts strong; when hitting a textured surface at an angle, hard light will accentuate the textures and details in an object. Light intensity tends to dim with distance. For a point source of light, intensity decreases as distance increases. Intensity is inversely proportional to the square of the distance, as expressed in the formula I = 1⁄D2. For a thin infinitely long light source, intensity is inversely proportional to distance. For a light source of infinite area, intensity does not decrease at all.
A soft light source does not drop in intensity as as a point light source would. Certain lensed lighting instruments have a good deal of "throw" and do not lose much intensity as distance increases; these light sources tend to be more effective at large distances than soft light sources. At large distances, an effective soft light source would have to be large; the parallel rays of such instruments tends to cast hard shadows, unlike soft light sources. Most light sources have a non-negligible size and therefore exhibit the properties of a soft light to some degree; the sun does not cast hard shadows. In "hard" light sources, the parallelism of the rays is an important factor in determining shadow behaviour; the quality of light can be altered by using diffusion gel or aiming a lighting instrument at diffusing material such as a silk. When shooting outdoors, cloud cover provides nature's version of a softbox. Ellipsoidal reflector spotlight Beauty Dish http://www.shortcourses.com/tabletop/lighting2-8.html