Qinetiq is a British multinational defence technology company headquartered in Farnborough, Hampshire. It is the world's 52nd-largest defence contractor measured by 2011 defence revenues, the sixth-largest based in the UK, it is the part of the former UK government agency, Defence Evaluation and Research Agency, privatised in June 2001. The remainder of DERA was renamed Dstl, it has major sites at Farnborough, Hampshire, MoD Boscombe Down and Malvern, former DERA sites. It has made numerous acquisitions of United States-based companies, it is a constituent of the FTSE 250 Index. "Qinetiq" is an invented name. "Qi" is supposed to reflect the company's energy, "net" its networking ability, "iq" its intellectual resources. In 2001, when defence minister Lewis Moonie announced the creation of QinetiQ, on privatisation of the Defence Evaluation and Research Agency, he said that it would remain a British business based in the UK; the Ministry of Defence would keep a'special share' in the company, safeguards would be in place to prevent conflicts of interest.
In February 2003, the US private equity firm the Carlyle Group acquired a 33.8% share for £42m. Prior to stock market flotation, ownership was split between Carlyle Group and staff; the Carlyle Group was expected to invest for three to five years, after which a stock exchange float would take place. In September 2004 Qinetiq acquired the US defence companies Westar Corporation and Foster-Miller, maker of the Talon robot. In 2004 it acquired HVR Consulting Services a leading UK-based engineering consultancy. In early August 2005, the company announced it would acquire Apogen Technologies, Inc. pending regulatory approval. The Qinetiq website lists this merger as costing $288.0m. In September 2005, it acquired a 90% share of Verhaert Design and Development NV, a Belgian space systems integrator. In October that year, it acquired Broadreach Networks Limited, a supplier of Wi-Fi internet to the European rail industry, in February 2006 it bought Graphics Research Corporation Ltd, developer of the Paramarine software suite of ship and submarine design tools.
The flotation of the company has been dogged with controversy. Ennobled in 2005, Lord Moonie, who handled the initial sale, said in 2006 that the government's 31 per cent stake should not have been sold when equity markets were languishing in 2002, he said that he had argued for the sale to be delayed but was over-ruled by the Treasury, which had convinced the Ministry of Defence to go ahead. Qinetiq was floated on the London Stock Exchange in February 2006; the company had been valued at between £1.1bn and £1.3bn, with the MoD holding estimated to be worth £616m – £728m, the Carlyle Group's holding £341m – £403m, staff/management's holding worth £143m – £169m. Controversy was generated by the large returns for the Carlyle Group and senior managers, with figures of over £20m suggested in the media for Sir John Chisholm. Financial press speculation concerning a stock exchange float increased in January 2006. On 12 January 2006 an announcement was made in parliament by Dr John Reid, Secretary of State for Defence.
He said that the Carlyle Group'will continue to retain a significant stake in the company', that the government would continue to hold a'Golden Share' to protect the UK's security and defence interests. Controversy arose around the fact that retail investors were excluded from the initial public offering due to Qinetiq's complexity and that institutional investors would require less complicated marketing and financing; this led to contrasts with the'Sid' campaign for British Gas plc in 1986, where retail investors were encouraged to buy shares, with discounts and a large advertising campaign. The issue was resolved by allowing some brokerage firms to place orders in the IPO as part of a combined order, allowing the firm to purchase as though an institutional investor but on behalf of clients. While this did not result in a public campaign or retail investor discounts, it did allow many investors to purchase shares; the company floated on 10 February 2006, with an IPO of 200p per share, which gave a market value of £1.3bn.
On 13 February 2006 shares closed at 219.5 p. Speculation that a consortium including Qinetiq was about to win a £10bn MoD training contract helped push their share price back above 190p in early November 2006, it was announced on 17 January 2007 that the Qinetiq-led Metrix consortium was the preferred bidder for package one of the MoD's Defence Training Rationalisation programme, worth approx £16bn. In 2007, the National Audit Office conducted an inquiry into the privatisation to determine whether UK taxpayers got good value for money; the inquiry looked at the following issues: choice of privatisation strategy. In November 2007, the NAO reported that taxpayers could have gained "tens of millions" more and was critical of the incentive scheme given to Qinetiq managers, the 10 most senior of whom gained £107.5m on an investment of £540,000 in the company's shares. The return of 19,990% was described as "excessive" by the NAO; the role of Qinetiq's management in negotiating terms with the Carlyle Group while the private equity company was bidding for the business was criticised by the NAO.
Carlyle bought a third of the business for £42m, which grew in value to £372m in less than four years. However, the Ministry of Defence defended the sale: "It has deliv
The Waterloo–Reading line is a National Rail electric railway line between London Waterloo and Reading. The line runs west through a series of South West London suburbs in central Berkshire, its passenger operation is by South Western Railway, which manage its stations. The Waterloo–Reading line is the core of a group of lines and branches heading westwards from Waterloo, providing predominantly passenger services into London. All of the branches and connecting lines have direct services into a dedicated group of platforms at Waterloo, so most of the services using the line do not run the whole length of the line. After leaving Waterloo, the line runs parallel to the South West Main Line before diverging at Clapham Junction and heading westwards. Within Greater London, the Hounslow Loop Line diverges at Barnes and reconnects again near Feltham, whilst the Kingston Loop Line diverges at Twickenham to join up with the South West Main Line at New Malden. At Staines, the original route carries onto Windsor, whilst the 1853 route to Reading diverges to run via Egham.
At Virginia Water, the Chertsey Branch Line provides another connection to the South West Main Line whilst at Ascot, the Ascot–Guildford line heads southwards towards Aldershot and Farnham. At Wokingham, the line is synonymous with the west end of the North Downs Line leading into Reading, to terminate in platforms 4, 5 and 6; the line sees some freight services and special charters, which use the connecting line at Reading to join the Great Western Main Line or the Chertsey Loop/Branch Line to connect to the South West Main Line. Due to the large swathes of suburbs served along the line and the drop from four to two tracks west of Barnes, services between Reading and London Waterloo are slow compared to the two fast tracks between Reading and London Paddington; the line is predominantly used for commuter traffic into London with most of the traffic being generated by intermediate stations. To ease over-crowding, a roll-out is underway of 8-car trains being extended to 10 coaches and there have been calls to change the service patterns to provide some additional and faster services, cutting out some of the intermediate stops.
The London and Southampton Railway opened the first stretch of railway between Nine Elms and Woking Common on the 12 May 1838, renamed itself as the London and South Western Railway one month later. As the L&SWR continued extending its railway towards Southampton, the first branch was opened by the Richmond and West End Railway to Richmond on 27 July 1846; this branch line started at what is now Clapham Junction, although the station itself did not open until 2 March 1863. The terminus at Nine Elms was replaced on 11 July 1848 with a new station at Waterloo named as Waterloo Bridge; the Richmond branch was extended further west by the Windsor and South Western Railway opening as far as Datchet on 22 August 1848 and to Windsor on 1 December 1849. Both the R&WER and WS&SWR were purchased by the L&SWR before their respective lines had been completed; the South Eastern Railway opened its line from Wokingham to Reading on 15 October 1849 under the auspices of the Reading and Reigate Railway, taken over by the SER in 1852.
This was part of the SER line from London to Reading via Guidlford and terminated at Reading Southern railway station, adjacent to, but separate from the Great Western Railway station at Reading. The line linking Staines with Wokingham was authorised in 1853 and built by the Staines and Woking Junction Railway, opening from Staines to Ascot on 4 June 1856 and onwards to Wokingham on the 9 July 1856. Initial services on the line was 6 trains a day between Waterloo and Reading, building up to 14 trains a day by 1928; the line was operated by the L&SWR from the outset, who leased it from the owning company in 1858 for 50% of the gross profits, before purchasing it outright in 1878. There were now three competing routes to Reading: the GWR from Paddington at 36 miles. Despite the disparity, the GWR was not the obvious choice due to relative position of Paddington station, west of the City of London; this allowed intense competition between the three companies until in 1858 a new agreement between the three companies was made to fix prices and share fares.
The agreement led to a connecting spur between the SER and GWR railways in Reading being opened for goods traffic on 1 December 1858 and to passenger traffic on 17 January 1859. A better placed link was opened on 17 December 1899, a third link on 1 June 1941; the link is today used by special services such as luxury steam services. The line was electrified on the DC third rail system at 660 volts, in sections: Waterloo to Twickenham flyover 30 January 1916 Twickenham to Whitton Junction 12 March 1916 Whitton Junction to Windsor 6 July 1930 Staines to Virginia Water 3 January 1937 as part of the electrification of lines to Portsmouth Virginia Water to Ascot and Reading South 1 January 1939. Early on Sunday 15 November 2009 the bridge carrying the line over the River Crane, London collapsed leading to service suspension, they were restored eight days on a temporary diversionary line with a 20 mph speed limit laid across the site of the disused Feltham Marshalling yard. The defective bridge was rebuilt.
In the current timetable, there are two trains per hour between Waterloo and Reading, every day of the week.
M. R. James
Montague Rhodes James was an English author, medievalist scholar and provost of King's College, of Eton College. He was Vice-Chancellor of the University of Cambridge. Though James's work as a medievalist and scholar is still regarded, he is best remembered for his ghost stories, which some regard as among the best in the genre. James redefined the ghost story for the new century by abandoning many of the formal Gothic clichés of his predecessors and using more realistic contemporary settings. However, James's protagonists and plots tend to reflect his own antiquarian interests. Accordingly, he is known as the originator of the "antiquarian ghost story". James was born in a Goodnestone, clergy house in Kent, although his parents had associations with Aldeburgh in Suffolk, his father was Herbert James, an Evangelical Anglican clergyman, his mother, Mary Emily, was the daughter of a naval officer. He had two older brothers and Herbert, an older sister, Grace. Sydney James became Archdeacon of Dudley.
From the age of three until 1909 James's home, if not always his residence, was at the Rectory in Great Livermere, Suffolk. This had been the childhood home of another eminent Suffolk antiquary, Thomas Martin of Palgrave. Several of James's ghost stories are set in Suffolk, including "'Oh, I'll Come to You, My Lad'", "A Warning to the Curious", "Rats" and "A Vignette". In September 1873 he arrived as a boarder at Temple Grove School, one of the leading boys' preparatory schools of the day.. From September 1876 to August 1882 he studied at Eton College, where he claims to have translated the Book of Baruch from its original Ethiopic in 1879, he lived for many years, first as an undergraduate as a don and provost, at King's College, where he was a member of the Pitt Club. The university provides settings for several of his tales. Apart from medieval subjects, James toured Europe including a memorable 1884 tour of France in a Cheylesmore tricycle, studied the classics and appeared successfully in a staging of Aristophanes' play The Birds, with music by Hubert Parry.
His ability as an actor was apparent when he read his new ghost stories to friends at Christmas time. James is best known for his ghost stories, but his work as a medievalist scholar was prodigious and remains respected in scholarly circles. Indeed, the success of his stories was founded on his antiquarian talents and knowledge, his discovery of a manuscript fragment led to excavations in the ruins of the abbey at Bury St Edmunds, West Suffolk, in 1902, in which the graves of several twelfth-century abbots described by Jocelyn de Brakelond were rediscovered, having been lost since the Dissolution of the Monasteries. His 1917 edition of the Latin hagiography of Æthelberht II of East Anglia and martyr, remains authoritative, he catalogued many of the manuscript libraries of the colleges of the University of Cambridge. Among his other scholarly works, he wrote The Apocalypse in Art, which placed the English Apocalypse manuscripts into families, he translated the New Testament apocrypha and contributed to the Encyclopaedia Biblica.
His ability to wear his learning is apparent in his Suffolk and Norfolk, in which a great deal of knowledge is presented in a popular and accessible form, in Abbeys. James achieved a great deal during his directorship of the Fitzwilliam Museum in Cambridge, he managed to secure a large number of important paintings and manuscripts, including notable portraits by Titian. James was Provost of Eton College from 1918 to 1936, he was awarded the Order of Merit in 1930. He was buried in Eton town cemetery. James's ghost stories were published in a series of collections: Ghost Stories of an Antiquary, More Ghost Stories of an Antiquary, A Thin Ghost and Others, A Warning to the Curious and Other Ghost Stories; the first hardback collected edition appeared in 1931. Many of the tales were written as Christmas Eve read aloud to friends; this idea was used by the BBC in 2000 when they filmed Christopher Lee reading James's stories in a candle-lit room in King's College. James perfected a method of story-telling which has since become known as Jamesian.
The classic Jamesian tale includes the following elements: a characterful setting in an English village, seaside town or country estate. He perfected the technique of narrating supernatural events through implication and suggestion, letting his reader fill in the blanks, focusing on the mundane details of his settings and characters in order to throw the horrific and bizarre elements into greater relief, he summed up his approach in his foreword to the anthology Ghosts and Marvels: "Two ingredients most valuable in the concocting of a ghost story are, to me, the atmosphere and the nicely managed crescendo.... Let us be introduced to the actors in a placid way.
British Railways, which from 1965 traded as British Rail, was the state-owned company that operated most of the overground rail transport in Great Britain between 1948 and 1997. It was formed from the nationalisation of the "Big Four" British railway companies and lasted until the gradual privatisation of British Rail, in stages between 1994 and 1997. A trading brand of the Railway Executive of the British Transport Commission, it became an independent statutory corporation in 1962 designated as the British Railways Board; the period of nationalisation saw sweeping changes in the national railway network. A process of dieselisation and electrification took place, by 1968 steam locomotion had been replaced by diesel and electric traction, except for the Vale of Rheidol Railway. Passengers replaced freight as the main source of business, one third of the network was closed by the Beeching Axe of the 1960s in an effort to reduce rail subsidies. On privatisation, responsibility for track and stations was transferred to Railtrack and that for trains to the train operating companies.
The British Rail "double arrow" logo is formed of two interlocked arrows showing the direction of travel on a double track railway and was nicknamed "the arrow of indecision". It is now employed as a generic symbol on street signs in Great Britain denoting railway stations, as part of the Rail Delivery Group's jointly-managed National Rail brand is still printed on railway tickets; the rail transport system in Great Britain developed during the 19th century. After the grouping of 1923 under the Railways Act 1921, there were four large railway companies, each dominating its own geographic area: the Great Western Railway, the London and Scottish Railway, the London and North Eastern Railway and the Southern Railway. During World War I the railways were under state control, which continued until 1921. Complete nationalisation had been considered, the Railways Act 1921 is sometimes considered as a precursor to that, but the concept was rejected. Nationalisation was subsequently carried out after World War II, under the Transport Act 1947.
This Act made provision for the nationalisation of the network, as part of a policy of nationalising public services by Clement Attlee's Labour Government. British Railways came into existence as the business name of the Railway Executive of the British Transport Commission on 1 January 1948 when it took over the assets of the Big Four. There were joint railways between the Big Four and a few light railways to consider. Excluded from nationalisation were industrial lines like the Oxfordshire Ironstone Railway; the London Underground – publicly owned since 1933 – was nationalised, becoming the London Transport Executive of the British Transport Commission. The Bicester Military Railway was run by the government; the electric Liverpool Overhead Railway was excluded from nationalisation. The Railway Executive was conscious that some lines on the network were unprofitable and hard to justify and a programme of closures began immediately after nationalisation. However, the general financial position of BR became poorer, until an operating loss was recorded in 1955.
The Executive itself had been abolished in 1953 by the Conservative government, control of BR transferred to the parent Commission. Other changes to the British Transport Commission at the same time included the return of road haulage to the private sector. British Railways was divided into regions which were based on the areas the former Big Four operated in. Notably, these included the former Great Central lines from the Eastern Region to the London Midland Region, the West of England Main Line from the Southern Region to Western Region Southern Region: former Southern Railway lines. Western Region: former Great Western Railway lines. London Midland Region: former London Midland and Scottish Railway lines in England and Wales. Eastern Region: former London and North Eastern Railway lines south of York. North Eastern Region: former London and North Eastern Railway lines in England north of York. Scottish Region: all lines, regardless of original company, in Scotland; the North Eastern Region was merged with the Eastern Region in 1967.
In 1982, the regions were abolished and replaced by "business sectors", a process known as sectorisation. The Anglia Region was created in late 1987, its first General Manager being John Edmonds, who began his appointment on 19 October 1987. Full separation from the Eastern Region – apart from engineering design needs – occurred on 29 April 1988, it handled the services from Fenchurch Street and Liverpool Street, its western boundary being Hertford East and Whittlesea. The report, latterly known as the "Modernisation Plan", was published in January 1955, it was intended to bring the railway system into the 20th century. A government White Paper produced in 1956 stated that modernisation would help eliminate BR's financial deficit by 1962, but the figures in both this and the original plan were produced for political reasons and not based on detailed analysis; the aim was to increase speed, reliability and line capacity through a series of measures that would make services more attractive to passengers and freight operators, thus recovering traffic lost to the roads.
Important areas included: Electrification of principal main lines, in the Eastern Region, Birmingham to Liverpool/Manchester and Central Scotland Large-scale dieselisation to replace steam locomotives New passenger and freight rolling stock R
HolbyBlue is a British police procedural drama series. The show revolves around the daily lives of a number of police officers working at Holby South police station; the cast for series one included Jimmy Akingbola as PC Neil Parker, Joe Jacobs as PC William "Billy" Jackson, David Sterne as Sergeant Edward'Mac' McFadden, Cal Macaninch as DI John Keenan, James Hillier as Sergeant Christian Young, Kacey Ainsworth as Inspector Jenny Black, Richard Harrington as DS Luke French, Zöe Lucker as Kate Keenan, Chloe Howman as PC Kelly Cooper, Kieran O'Brien as PC Robert Clifton, Tim Pigott-Smith as DCI Harry Hutchinson, Sara Powell as Rachel Barker and Elaine Glover as PC Lucy Slater. Velibor Topić and Julie Cox joined the cast in a recurring capacity as drug baron Neculai Stenga and Mandy French, Luke French's wife. By the end of series one, Pigott-Smith and Topic both departed the show. Series two saw the introductions of Oliver Milburn as DCI Scott Vaughan and James Thornton as Constable Jake Loughton.
Stephanie Langton took over from Julie Cox in series two to continue playing the role of Mandy. The series was announced on 27 April 2006, was created by Tony Jordan as a spin-off from the established medical drama Holby City; the show premiered on 8 May 2007. HolbyBlue ran for two series and was cancelled by the BBC on 6 August 2008, after ratings fell from an initial 5.64 million viewers to a low of 2.5 million viewers. Tony Jordan and Karen Wilson served as the show's executive producers, while Claire Phillips was the producer. Jordan spent time with first serving officers and believed that the key to a successful police drama was its ability to reflect a society "in which it existed". Jordan made the decision to emulate two American police dramas: NYPD Blue; the BBC suggested that Jordan used the "Holby" brand to "create a third arm of the successful Casualty and Holby City format". Jordan questioned whether the series would be "held in disdain" by "soap snobs", but made the ultimate decision to name the drama HolbyBlue after remembering the "joy" he took from "surprising the audience by subverting expectation".
HolbyBlue received mixed reception. Rachel Cooke from The Observer criticised the show's unoriginal characterisation, while The Times' Andrew Billen stated that the most that could be said for the show was that it had a healthy pace, well-written dialogue. On the contrary, David Chater from the same newspaper praised the show's "high energy level" and casting. Chater suggested the show would serve to be strong competition for ITV's police drama The Bill. Jod Mitchell of The Daily Telegraph expressed that the series injected "pace and verve" into the BBC One schedule. Mark Wright from The Stage branded the opening episode of HolbyBlue "boring", with some "duff casting". Wright criticised the decision to launch the show under the Holby moniker, opining that it is not a true brand as Casualty and Holby City both possess "distinct personalities". During its lifespan, HolbyBlue was nominated for six awards: Best Drama at the Inside Soap Awards in 2007 and 2008. In series one, DI John Keenan learns that Kate Keenan, is dating a new man.
John has sex with senior crown prosecutor Rachel Barker, but regrets his decision to have sex with her. Kate is employed as a receptionist at the police station, but attacks Rachel after she is provoked. Kate tenders her resignation; the pair reconcile. DS Luke French works with John to take down drugs baron Neculai Stenga. DCI Harry Hutchinson acts as Neculai's informant, but John is convinced that PC Billy Jackson is the informant. John learns that Harry is Neculai's informant after catching him leaving Neculai's warehouse, which leads to a hostage situation involving Kate and her children. John and Luke rescue the children. Newly appointed PC Lucy Slater is stabbed while out on duty, she recovers, begins dating a drug dealer. Her former partner, PC Robert Clifton, learns of Lucy's boyfriend's criminal reputation and forces the pair to separate. DS Luke French and his wife, Mandy French, fail their second attempt at IVF. Luke and Mandy argue over Luke's divided priorities between his terminally ill mother.
Luke agrees to put his terminally ill mother in a care home, but is heartbroken when she dies following a fall. PC Kelly Cooper struggles with her financial difficulties and considers stealing money she finds while out on duty. Inspector Jenny Black ends her marriage with her husband, Alex Black, when she learns he is having an affair. PC Neil Parker is offered a promotion, but he is dismayed upon learning it is political as opposed to merit-based. In series two, well-established Holby City character Jac Naylor is arrested on suspicion of the murder of Alan Clooney, a well-known sex offender who tried to rape her, she is released when a mystery witness comes forward. Luke becomes a father for the first time with wife Mandy. Kate flirts with a man she finds at a police event, only to learn she has been flirting with new boss, DCI Scott Vaughan. Robert is encouraged by Lucy to ask an ex-girlfriend of his to see their son. Robert's ex agrees to allowing him to see their son at the end of his shift.
However, while Robert and Lucy are out on duty, gang violence results in the death of one of the gang members. Robert and Lucy visit the relatives of Connor in the aftermath o
The mile is an English unit of length of linear measure equal to 5,280 feet, or 1,760 yards, standardised as 1,609.344 metres by international agreement in 1959. With qualifiers, "mile" is used to describe or translate a wide range of units derived from or equivalent to the Roman mile, such as the nautical mile, the Italian mile, the Chinese mile; the Romans divided their mile into 5,000 roman feet but the greater importance of furlongs in pre-modern England meant that the statute mile was made equivalent to 8 furlongs or 5,280 feet in 1593. This form of the mile spread to the British-colonized nations some of which continue to employ the mile; the US Geological Survey now employs the metre for official purposes but legacy data from its 1927 geodetic datum has meant that a separate US survey mile continues to see some use. While most countries replaced the mile with the kilometre when switching to the International System of Units, the international mile continues to be used in some countries, such as Liberia, the United Kingdom, the United States, a number of countries with fewer than one million inhabitants, most of which are UK or US territories, or have close historical ties with the UK or US.
The mile was abbreviated m. in the past but is now sometimes written as mi to avoid confusion with the SI metre. However, derived units, such as miles per hour or miles per gallon, continue to be universally abbreviated as mph and mpg, respectively; the modern English word mile derives from Middle English myl and Old English mīl, cognate with all other Germanic terms for "miles". These derived from apocopated forms of the Latin mīlia or mīllia, the plural of mīle or mīlle "thousand" but used as a clipped form of mīlle passus or passuum, the Roman mile of one thousand paces; the present international mile is what is understood by the unqualified term "mile". When this distance needs to be distinguished from the nautical mile, the international mile may be described as a "land mile" or "statute mile". In British English, the "statute mile" may refer to the present international miles or to any other form of English mile since the 1593 Act of Parliament, which set it as a distance of 1,760 yards.
Under American law, the "statute mile" refers to the US survey mile. Foreign and historical units translated into English as miles employ a qualifier to describe the kind of mile being used but this may be omitted if it is obvious from the context, such as a discussion of the 2nd-century Antonine Itinerary describing its distances in terms of "miles" rather than "Roman miles"; the mile has been variously abbreviated—with and without a trailing period—as m, M, ml, mi. The American National Institute of Standards and Technology now uses and recommends mi in order to avoid confusion with the SI metre and millilitre. However, derived units such as miles per hour or miles per gallon continue to be abbreviated as mph and mpg rather than mi/h and mi/gal. In the United Kingdom road signs use m as the abbreviation for mile though height and width restrictions use m as the abbreviation for the metre, which may be displayed alongside feet and inches; the BBC style holds that "There is no acceptable abbreviation for'miles'" and so it should be spelt out when used in describing areas.
The Roman mile consisted of a thousand paces as measured by every other step—as in the total distance of the left foot hitting the ground 1,000 times. The ancient Romans, marching their armies through uncharted territory, would push a carved stick in the ground after each 1,000 paces. Well-fed and harshly driven Roman legionaries in good weather thus created longer miles; the distance was indirectly standardised by Agrippa's establishment of a standard Roman foot in 29 BC, the definition of a pace as 5 feet. An Imperial Roman mile thus denoted 5,000 Roman feet. Surveyors and specialized equipment such as the decempeda and dioptra spread its use. In modern times, Agrippa's Imperial Roman mile was empirically estimated to have been about 1,617 yards in length. In Hellenic areas of the Empire, the Roman mile was used beside the native Greek units as equivalent to 8 stadia of 600 Greek feet; the mílion continued to be used as a Byzantine unit and was used as the name of the zero mile marker for the Byzantine Empire, the Milion, located at the head of the Mese near Hagia Sophia.
The Roman mile spread throughout Europe, with its local variations giving rise to the different units below. Arising from the Roman mile is the "milestone". All roads radiated out from the Roman Forum throughout the Empire – 50,000 miles of stone-paved roads. At every mile was placed a shaped stone, on, carved a Roman numeral, indicating the number of miles from the center of Rome – the Forum. Hence, one always knew; the Italian mile was traditionally considered a direct continuation of the Roman mile, equal to 1000 paces, although its actual value over time or between regions could vary greatly. It was used in international contexts from the Middle Ages into the 17th century and is thus known as the "geographical mile", although the geographical mile is now a separate standard unit; the Arabic mile was not the common Arabic unit of length. The Arabic mile was, used by medieval geographers and scientists and constituted a kind of precursor to the nautical or geographical mile, it extended the Roman mile to fit an astronomical approximatio
Surrey Heath is a local government district with Borough status in Surrey, England. Its Council is based in Camberley. Much of the area is within the Metropolitan Green Belt; the district was formed on 1 April 1974 under the Local Government Act 1972, as a merger of Frimley and Camberley Urban District, Bagshot Rural District. The Borough acquired its name because it includes extensive areas of heath and woodland including Chobham Common and Lightwater Country Park. Bagshot Rural District formed the largest part of Surrey Heath; the villages and hamlets in Bagshot rural district comprised Lightwater, Windlesham, Chobham including West End and Bisley. The motto for the district was Festina Prudenter granted on 20 July 1960. On the crest, the gold and white background was from the arms of Chertsey Abbey, which owned and is connected with the history of much of the district - Bagshot was included in a grant to the Abbey as early as 933; the stag's head on the crest refers to Bagshot Park, a royal demesne since Norman times and hunting ground of the Stuart kings, to the fact that much of the area was part of Windsor Forest.
The grenade on the crest refers to the area's military associations, in particular the former military camp at Chobham and the lion recalls the area's royal links. The fir cones and mound of heathland refers to Bagshot Heath, the falcon is derived from the supporters of the Earls of Onslow; the Borough is governed by Surrey Heath Borough Council. Parish councils in Surrey Heath are in Bisley with the chairman being Cllr Barry Woodhead; the 3 May 2011 borough elections produced 35 Conservative, 1 Liberal Democrat, 2 Labour and 2 Independent councillors. In 2014, the British Election Study named Surrey Heath as the most right-wing constituency in the country. Surrey Heath was voted the 6th best place to live in Channel 4's 2007 Location, Location'best and worst' survey; the area forms the heart of the heath that spans Esher, Weybridge, all around Woking, Deepcut, Frimley, Camberley, Chobham Common, Virginia Water and Ottershaw. It is made up of wet acid sandy and loamy soil, just 1.9% of English soil and 0.2% of Welsh soil, which gives rise to pines and coniferous landscapes, such as pioneered at Wentworth and Foxhills estate by pro-American independence statesman Charles James Fox.
In geology it gives rise to Bagshot Formation. The western section of the district is urbanised, with heaths nonetheless providing substantial green buffer around Camberley, Deepcut, Frimley Green and Mytchett; the east of the district is less urbanised, contains Surrey Heath's four civil parishes: Bisley Chobham West End Windlesham. Within the borough there are five Sites of Special Scientific Interest, four of which are part of the Thames Basin Heaths Special Protection Area of European Importance as a habitat for certain endangered bird species. Plymouth Argyle F. C and Wales national football team captain. Surrey Heath is twinned with Sucy-en-Brie and Bietigheim-Bissingen, Germany. In May 2006, a report commissioned by British Gas showed that housing in Surrey Heath produced the 3rd highest average carbon emissions in the country at an average of 7,477 kg of carbon dioxide per dwelling. Chobham Common Lightwater Country Park Surrey Heath Borough Council Surrey County Council local pages Surrey Heath Local History Club