National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency
The National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency is a combat support agency under the United States Department of Defense and a member of the United States Intelligence Community, with the primary mission of collecting and distributing geospatial intelligence in support of national security. NGA was known as the National Imagery and Mapping Agency until 2003. NGA headquarters known as NGA Campus East, is located at Fort Belvoir North Area in Virginia; the agency operates major facilities in the St. Louis, Missouri area, as well as support and liaison offices worldwide; the NGA headquarters, at 2.3 million square feet, is the third-largest government building in the Washington metropolitan area after The Pentagon and the Ronald Reagan Building. In addition to using GEOINT for U. S. military and intelligence efforts, the NGA provides assistance during natural and man-made disasters, security planning for major events such as the Olympic Games. In September 2018, researchers at the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency released a high resolution terrain map of Antarctica, named the "Reference Elevation Model of Antarctica".
U. S. mapping and charting efforts remained unchanged until World War I, when aerial photography became a major contributor to battlefield intelligence. Using stereo viewers, photo-interpreters reviewed thousands of images. Many of these were of the same target at different angles and times, giving rise to what became modern imagery analysis and mapmaking; the Engineer Reproduction Plant was the Army Corps of Engineers's first attempt to centralize mapping production and distribution. It was located on the grounds of the Army War College in Washington, D. C. Topographic mapping had been a function of individual field engineer units using field surveying techniques or copying existing or captured products. In addition, ERP assumed the "supervision and maintenance" of the War Department Map Collection, effective April 1, 1939. With the advent of the Second World War aviation, field surveys began giving way to photogrammetry, photo interpretation, geodesy. During wartime, it became possible to compile maps with minimal field work.
Out of this emerged AMS, which absorbed the existing ERP in May 1942. It was located at the Dalecarlia Site on MacArthur Blvd. just outside Washington, D. C. in Montgomery County and adjacent to the Dalecarlia Reservoir. AMS was designated as an Engineer field activity, effective July 1, 1942, by General Order 22, OCE, June 19, 1942; the Army Map Service combined many of the Army's remaining geographic intelligence organizations and the Engineer Technical Intelligence Division. AMS was redesignated the U. S. Army Topographic Command on September 1, 1968, continued as an independent organization until 1972, when it was merged into the new Defense Mapping Agency and redesignated as the DMA Topographic Center; the agency's credit union, Constellation Federal Credit Union, was chartered during the Army Map Service era, in 1944. It has continued to serve all successive legacy their families. After the war, as airplane capacity and range improved, the need for charts grew; the Army Air Corps established its map unit, renamed ACP in 1943 and was located in St. Louis, Missouri.
ACP was known as the U. S. Air Force Aeronautical Chart and Information Center from 1952 to 1972. A credit union was chartered for the ACP in 1948, called Aero Chart Credit Union, it was renamed Arsenal Credit Union in 1952, a nod to the St. Louis site's Civil War-era use as an arsenal. Shortly before leaving office in January 1961, President Dwight D. Eisenhower authorized the creation of the National Photographic Interpretation Center, a joint project of the CIA and US DoD. NPIC was a component of the CIA's Directorate of Science and Technology and its primary function was imagery analysis. NPIC became part of the National Imagery and Mapping Agency in 1996. NPIC first identified the Soviet Union's basing of missiles in Cuba in 1962. By exploiting images from U-2 overflights and film from canisters ejected by orbiting Corona s, NPIC analysts developed the information necessary to inform U. S. influence operations during the Cuban Missile Crisis. Their analysis garnered worldwide attention when the Kennedy Administration declassified and made public a portion of the images depicting the Soviet missiles on Cuban soil.
The Defense Mapping Agency was created on January 1, 1972, to consolidate all U. S. military mapping activities. DMA's "birth certificate", DoD Directive 5105.40, resulted from a classified Presidential directive, "Organization and Management of the U. S. Foreign Intelligence Community", which directed the consolidation of mapping functions dispersed among the military services. DMA became operational on July 1, 1972, pursuant to General Order 3, DMA. On Oct. 1, 1996, DMA was folded into the National Imagery and Mapping Agency – which became NGA. DMA was first headquartered at the United States Naval Observatory in Washington, D. C at Falls Church, Virginia, its civilian workforce was concentrated at production sites in Bethesda, Northern Virginia, St. Louis, Missouri. DMA was formed from the Mapping and Geodesy Division, Defense Intelligence Agency, from various mapping-related organizations of the military services. DMA Hydrographic Center DMAHC was formed in
The Maasai are a Nilotic ethnic group inhabiting northern and southern Kenya and northern Tanzania. They are among the best known local populations internationally due to their residence near the many game parks of the African Great Lakes, their distinctive customs and dress; the Maasai speak the Maa language, a member of the Nilo-Saharan family, related to the Dinka and Nuer languages. Some have become educated in the official languages of Kenya and Tanzania and English; the Maasai population has been reported as numbering 841,622 in Kenya in the 2009 census, compared to 377,089 in the 1989 census. The Tanzanian and Kenyan governments have instituted programs to encourage the Maasai to abandon their traditional semi-nomadic lifestyle, but the people have continued their age-old customs. An Oxfam study has suggested that the Maasai could pass on traditional survival skills such as the ability to produce food in deserts and scrublands that could help populations adapt to climate change. Many Maasai tribes throughout Tanzania and Kenya welcome visits to their villages to experience their culture and lifestyle, in return for a fee.
The Maasai arrived via the South Sudan. Most Nilotic speakers in the area, including the Maasai, the Turkana and the Kalenjin, are pastoralists, are famous for their fearsome reputations as warriors and cattle-rustlers; the Maasai and other groups in East Africa have adopted customs and practices from neighboring Cushitic-speaking groups, including the age set system of social organization and vocabulary terms. According to their oral history, the Maasai originated from the lower Nile valley north of Lake Turkana and began migrating south around the 15th century, arriving in a long trunk of land stretching from what is now northern Kenya to what is now central Tanzania between the 17th and late 18th century. Many ethnic groups that had formed settlements in the region were forcibly displaced by the incoming Maasai, while other Southern Cushitic groups, were assimilated into Maasai society; the Nilotic ancestors of the Kalenjin absorbed some early Cushitic populations. The Maasai territory reached its largest size in the mid-19th century, covered all of the Great Rift Valley and adjacent lands from Mount Marsabit in the north to Dodoma in the south.
At this time the Maasai, as well as the larger Nilotic group they were part of, raised cattle as far east as the Tanga coast in Tanganyika. Raiders used spears and shields, but were most feared for throwing clubs which could be thrown from up to 70 paces. In 1852, there was a report of a concentration of 800 Maasai warriors on the move in what is now Kenya. In 1857, after having depopulated the "Wakuafi wilderness" in what is now southeastern Kenya, Maasai warriors threatened Mombasa on the Kenyan coast; because of this migration, the Maasai are the southernmost Nilotic speakers. The period of expansion was followed by the Maasai "Emutai" of 1883–1902; this period was marked by epidemics of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia and smallpox. The estimate first put forward by a German lieutenant in what was northwest Tanganyika, was that 90 percent of cattle and half of wild animals perished from rinderpest. German doctors in the same area claimed that "every second" African had a pock-marked face as the result of smallpox.
This period coincided with drought. Rains failed in 1897 and 1898; the Austrian explorer Oscar Baumann travelled in Maasai lands between 1891 and 1893, described the old Maasai settlement in the Ngorongoro Crater in the 1894 book Durch Massailand zur Nilquelle: "There were women wasted to skeletons from whose eyes the madness of starvation glared... warriors scarcely able to crawl on all fours, apathetic, languishing elders. Swarms of vultures followed them from high, awaiting their certain victims." By one estimate two-thirds of the Maasai died during this period. Starting with a 1904 treaty, followed by another in 1911, Maasai lands in Kenya were reduced by 60 percent when the British evicted them to make room for settler ranches, subsequently confining them to present-day Samburu,Laikipia,Kajiado and Narok districts. Maasai in Tanganyika were displaced from the fertile lands between Mount Meru and Mount Kilimanjaro, most of the fertile highlands near Ngorongoro in the 1940s. More land was taken to create wildlife reserves and national parks: Amboseli National Park, Nairobi National Park, Maasai Mara, Samburu National Reserve, Lake Nakuru National Park and Tsavo in Kenya.
Maasai are pastoralist and have resisted the urging of the Tanzanian and Kenyan governments to adopt a more sedentary lifestyle. They have demanded grazing rights to many of the national parks in both countries; the Maasai people stood against slavery and lived alongside most wild animals with an aversion to eating game and birds. Maasai land now has East Africa's finest game areas. Maasai society never condoned traffic of human beings, outsiders looking for people to enslave avoided the Maasai. There are twenty two geographic sectors or sub tribes of the Maasai community, each one having its own customs, appearance and dialects; these subdivisions are known as'nations' or' iloshon'in the Maa language: the Keekonyokie, Purko, Siria, Loitai, Matapato, Loodokolani,Kaputiei,Moitanik,Ilkirasha, Samburu,Lchamus,Laikipia,Loitokitoki,Larusa,Salei,Sir
Arusha Region is one of Tanzania's 31 administrative regions. Its capital and largest city is the city of Arusha; the region is bordered by Kajiado County and Narok County in Kenya to the north, the Kilimanjaro Region to the east, the Manyara and Singida regions to the south, the Mara and Simiyu regions to the west. Major towns include Monduli, Namanga and Loliondo to the north, Mto wa Mbu and Karatu to the west, Usa River to the east; the region is comparable in size to the combined land and water areas of the United States state of Maryland. Arusha Region is the center of the northern Tanzania safari circuit; the national parks and reserves in this region include Ngorongoro Conservation Area, Arusha National Park, the Loliondo Game Controlled Area, part of Lake Manyara National Park. Remains of 600-year-old stone structures are found at Engaruka, just off the dirt road between Mto wa Mbu and Lake Natron. With a HDI of 0.721, Arusha is one among the most developed regions of Tanzania. Much of the present area of Arusha Region used to be Maasai land.
The Maasai are still the dominant community in the region. Their influence is reflected in the present names of towns, regional culture and geographical features; the administrative region of Arusha existed in 1922 while mainland Tanzania was a British mandate under the League of Nations and known as Tanganyika. In 1948, the area was in the Northern Province, which includes the present day regions of Manyara and Kilimanjaro. In 1966, under the newly independent Tanzanian government, Arusha was given its own regional status. In 2002, Manyara Region was split from Arusha Region. Portions of the former Arusha Region districts of Kiteto, Mbulu, a tiny piece of Monduli were incorporated into the Manyara Region. Arusha was the largest region in Tanzania from 1966-2002; the Great Rift Valley runs through the middle of the region north-to-south. Oldonyo Lengai is an active volcano to the north of the Ngorongoro Conservation Area. Altitudes throughout the region vary but much of it ranges from 900 to 1,600 metres in elevation.
Mount Meru, the second highest mountain in Tanzania after Mount Kilimanjaro, peaks at 4,655 metres. Arusha Region has the highest number of extinct volcanoes in Tanzania. Other geographical features include the Monduli Mountains, Mount Loolmalasin, Mount Longido, the Olduvai Gorge; the city of Arusha, the capital of the region, is located at the southern foot of Mount Meru. The majority of Arusha residents live in the city and the surrounding southeastern part of Arusha Region. Arusha Region is divided into six districts, each administered by a council. Arusha National Park Empakaai Crater Engaruka Great Rift Valley Lake Manyara National Park Mount Longido Forest Reserve Mount Meru Forest Reserve Ngorongoro Conservation Area Ngurdoto Crater Oldonyo Lengai Olduvai Gorge Uhuru Monument According to the 2012 national census, the Arusha Region had a population of 1,694,310; the region is inhabited by communities. Among these are the Iraqw, Maasai, Sonjo, Chagga and Nguu. Nyama Choma, the northern Tanzanian barbecue, is a popular dish among some communities in the Arusha Region the Maasai.
Nyama Choma is properly served with a side of french fries, Pili Pili sauce and a cold local beer or soda. The A-23 Arusha-Himo road runs east-west and enters the region near Kilimanjaro International Airport, it connects Arusha with Moshi and Himo at the Kenyan border. This roads ends at its junction with the A-104 road in the center of Arusha; the A-104 runs northward, to the west of Mount Meru, from Arusha to Longido and Namanga at the Kenyan border before continuing to Nairobi. The A-104 runs westward past Monduli to its junction at Makuyuni with the B-144 road that leads to Mto wa Mbu and the Ngorongoro Conservation Area. After that, the A-104 curves southward to the east of Lake Manyara and continues on to Babati and Dodoma. Most overland travel is done by bus from the city of Arusha. Within the city and smaller towns owned and operated dala-dalas are used; the region is landlocked, there are no navigable rivers. The larger lakes in the Rift Valley are not used for transportation; the region is home to Lake Eyasi, Lake Natron, Lake Duluti, Lake Empakaai, the Momella lakes.
Arusha Region is served by the Kilimanjaro International Airport located in Hai District of Kilimanjaro Region. Its international carriers are Airkenya Express, Air Uganda, Edelweiss Air, Ethiopian Airlines, Kenya Airways, KLM, Precision Air, Qatar Airways, RwandAir, Safarilink Aviation, Turkish Airlines; the smaller Arusha Airport serves small and personal planes to popular tourist areas such as Serengeti National Park, Ndutu, Zanzibar etc. Planes using Kisongo Airport include Coastal Air, Flying Doctors, AMREF, Precision Air, TFC, Auric Air, Grumeti Air and other personal planes. Filbert Bayi grew up in the Arusha Region. Edward Sokoine Tanzania's second prime minister Edward Lowassa Tanzania's tenth prime minister from 2005-2008 Frederick Sumaye Tanzania's ninth prime minister from 1995-2005 The chief administrative officer of the region is the regional commissioner. Below is a table showing the regional commissioners serving the Arusha region from 1962 to present: Arusha Accords Arusha Airport Arusha Cultural Heritage Centre Arusha Declaration Geography of Tanzania Mguu wa Zuberi Selian River Language map for Tanzania MS Training Centre for Development Cooperation
East Africa or Eastern Africa is the eastern region of the African continent, variably defined by geography. In the United Nations Statistics Division scheme of geographic regions, 20 territories make up Eastern Africa: Tanzania, Uganda, Rwanda and South Sudan are members of the East African Community; the first five are included in the African Great Lakes region. Burundi and Rwanda are at times considered to be part of Central Africa. Djibouti, Eritrea and Somalia – collectively known as the Horn of Africa; the area is the easternmost projection of the African continent, is sometimes considered a separate region from East Africa. Comoros and Seychelles – small island nations in the Indian Ocean. Réunion and Mayotte – French overseas territories in the Indian Ocean. Mozambique and Madagascar – considered part of Southern Africa, on the eastern side of the sub-continent. Madagascar has close cultural ties to the islands of the Indian Ocean. Malawi and Zimbabwe – also included in Southern Africa, constituted the Central African Federation.
Sudan and South Sudan – collectively part of the Nile Valley. Situated in the northeastern portion of the continent, the Sudans are included in Northern Africa. Members of the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa free trade area. Due to colonial territories of the British East Africa Protectorate and German East Africa, the term East Africa is used to refer to the area now comprising the three countries of Kenya and Uganda. However, this has never been the convention in many other languages, where the term had a wider geographic context and therefore included Djibouti, Eritrea and Somalia; some parts of East Africa have been renowned for their concentrations of wild animals, such as the "big five": the elephant, lion, black rhinoceros, leopard, though populations have been declining under increased stress in recent times those of the rhino and elephant. The geography of East Africa is stunning and scenic. Shaped by global plate tectonic forces that have created the East African Rift, East Africa is the site of Mount Kilimanjaro and Mount Kenya, the two tallest peaks in Africa.
It includes the world's second largest freshwater lake, Lake Victoria, the world's second deepest lake, Lake Tanganyika. The climate of East Africa is rather atypical of equatorial regions; because of a combination of the region's high altitude and the rain shadow of the westerly monsoon winds created by the Rwenzori Mountains and Ethiopian Highlands, East Africa is cool and dry for its latitude. In fact, on the coast of Somalia, many years can go by without any rain whatsoever. Elsewhere the annual rainfall increases towards the south and with altitude, being around 400 mm at Mogadishu and 1,200 mm at Mombasa on the coast, whilst inland it increases from around 130 mm at Garoowe to over 1,100 mm at Moshi near Kilimanjaro. Unusually, most of the rain falls in two distinct wet seasons, one centred on April and the other in October or November; this is attributed to the passage of the Intertropical Convergence Zone across the region in those months, but it may be analogous to the autumn monsoon rains of parts of Sri Lanka and the Brazilian Nordeste.
West of the Rwenzoris and Ethiopian highlands, the rainfall pattern is more tropical, with rain throughout the year near the equator and a single wet season in most of the Ethiopian Highlands from June to September – contracting to July and August around Asmara. Annual rainfall here ranges from over 1,600 mm on the western slopes to around 1,250 mm at Addis Ababa and 550 mm at Asmara. In the high mountains rainfall can be over 2,500 mm. Rainfall in East Africa is influenced by El Niño events, which tend to increase rainfall except in the northern and western parts of the Ethiopian and Eritrean highlands, where they produce drought and poor Nile floods. Temperatures in East Africa, except on the hot and humid coastal belt, are moderate, with maxima of around 25 °C and minima of 15 °C at an altitude of 1,500 metres. At altitudes of above 2,500 metres, frosts are common during the dry season and maxima about 21 °C or less; the unique geography and apparent suitability for farming made East Africa a target for European exploration and colonialization in the nineteenth century.
Today, tourism is an important part of the economies of Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda. The easternmost point of the continent, Ras Hafun in Somalia, is of archaeological and economical importance. According to the theory of the recent African origin of modern humans, the predominantly held belief among most archaeologists, East Africa is the area where anatomically modern humans first appeared. There are differing theories on whether there was several. A growing number of researchers suspect that North Africa was instead the original home of the modern humans who first trekked out of the continent; the major competing hypothesis is the multiregional origin of modern humans, which envisions a wave of Homo sapiens migrating earlier from Africa and interbreeding with local Homo erectus populations in multiple regions of the globe. Most multiregionalists still view Africa as a major wellspring of human genetic diversity, but allow a much greater role for hybridization. Some
Although anyolite is advertised as a variety of the mineral zoisite from Kenya and the Arusha Region of Tanzania, anyolite is a metamorphic rock composed of intergrown green zoisite, black/dark green pargasite, ruby. The term anyolite is however not an accepted term for a metamorphic rock, it is said to be named after the Maasai word anyoli, meaning "green." Anyolite is referred to as ruby in zoisite or Tanganyika artstone. The contrasting colours make anyolite a popular material for sculptures and other decorative objects, it was first discovered at the Mundarara Mine, near Longido, Tanzania in 1954. In 2010 it was suggested that a 2 kilogram stone known as the Gem of Tanzania owned by the defunct company Wrekin Construction and fraudulently valued at £11 million was a lump of Anyolite worth about £100, although it was sold for £8000. Jonathan Guthrie. "Ruby rises from rock bottom". Financial Times. Archived from the original on January 28, 2010. Retrieved 2010-01-17
Mount Longido is a mountain in Tanzania. The peak has an elevation of 2,637 m above sea level. Mount Longido is located in Longido District of Arusha Region; the principal path to the summit starts in the town of Longido. The climb can be done in one day, but it is common for climbers to spend one night in a tented camp on the mountain and reach the summit on the second day. Sometimes visitors climb Mount Longido as part of the preparations for the ascent of nearby Mount Kilimanjaro. List of Ultras of Africa Arusha Region
Tanzania the United Republic of Tanzania, is a country in eastern Africa within the African Great Lakes region. It borders Uganda to the north. Mount Kilimanjaro, Africa's highest mountain, is in north-eastern Tanzania; the first humans known lived in Pliocene Tanzania 6 million years ago. The genus Australopithecus ranged all over Africa 4-2 million years ago. Following the rise of Homo erectus 1.8 million years ago, mankind spread all over the Old World, in the New World and Australia under the species Homo sapiens. Homo sapiens overtook Africa and absorbed the older archaic species and subspecies of humanity. One of the oldest known ethnic groups still existing, the Hadzabe, appears to have originated in Tanzania, their oral history recalls ancestors who were tall and were the first to use fire and lived in caves, much like Homo erectus or Homo heidelbergensis who lived in the same region before them. In the Stone and Bronze Age, prehistoric migrations into Tanzania included Southern Cushitic speakers who moved south from present-day Ethiopia.
These movements took place at about the same time as the settlement of the Mashariki Bantu from West Africa in the Lake Victoria and Lake Tanganyika areas. They subsequently migrated across the rest of Tanzania between 1,700 years ago. European colonialism began in mainland Tanzania during the late 19th century when Germany formed German East Africa, which gave way to British rule following World War I; the mainland was governed as Tanganyika, with the Zanzibar Archipelago remaining a separate colonial jurisdiction. Following their respective independence in 1961 and 1963, the two entities merged in April 1964 to form the United Republic of Tanzania; the United Nations estimated Tanzania's 2016 population at 55.57 million. The population is composed of several ethnic and religious groups; the sovereign state of Tanzania is a presidential constitutional republic and since 1996 its official capital city has been Dodoma where the president's office, the National Assembly, some government ministries are located.
Dar es Salaam, the former capital, retains most government offices and is the country's largest city, principal port, leading commercial centre. Tanzania is a de facto one-party state with the democratic socialist Chama Cha Mapinduzi party in power. Tanzania is densely forested in the north-east, where Mount Kilimanjaro is located. Three of Africa's Great Lakes are within Tanzania. To the north and west lie Lake Victoria, Africa's largest lake, Lake Tanganyika, the continent's deepest lake, known for its unique species of fish. To the south lies Lake Malawi; the eastern shore is humid, with the Zanzibar Archipelago just offshore. The Menai Bay Conservation Area is Zanzibar's largest marine protected area; the Kalambo Falls, located on the Kalambo River at the Zambian border, is the second highest uninterrupted waterfall in Africa. Over 100 different languages are spoken in Tanzania, making it the most linguistically diverse country in East Africa; the country does not have a de jure official language.
Swahili is used in parliamentary debate, in the lower courts, as a medium of instruction in primary school. English is used in foreign trade, in diplomacy, in higher courts, as a medium of instruction in secondary and higher education, although the Tanzanian government is planning to discontinue English as a language of instruction altogether. 10 percent of Tanzanians speak Swahili as a first language, up to 90 percent speak it as a second language. The name "Tanzania" was created as a clipped compound of the names of the two states that unified to create the country: Tanganyika and Zanzibar, it comprises the first three letters of the two states, "Tan" and "Zan" as well as the only two vowels in the names of two states, "I" and "a" to form Tanzania. The name "Tanganyika" is derived from the Swahili words tanga and nyika, creating the phrase "sail in the wilderness", it is sometimes understood as a reference to Lake Tanganyika. The name of Zanzibar comes from "zenji", the name for a local people, the Arabic word "barr", which means coast or shore.
The indigenous populations of eastern Africa are thought to be the linguistically isolated Hadza and Sandawe hunter-gatherers of Tanzania. The first wave of migration was by Southern Cushitic speakers who moved south from Ethiopia and Somalia into Tanzania, they are ancestral to the Iraqw and Burunge. Based on linguistic evidence, there may have been two movements into Tanzania of Eastern Cushitic people at about 4,000 and 2,000 years ago, originating from north of Lake Turkana. Archaeological evidence supports the conclusion that Southern Nilotes, including the Datoog, moved south from the present-day South Sudan / Ethiopia border region into central northern Tanzania between 2,900 and 2,400 years ago; these movements took place at the same time as the settlement of the iron-making Mashariki Bantu from West Africa in the Lake Victoria and Lake Tanganyika areas. They brought with them the west African planting tradition and the p