Longjia language

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Longjia
Songnibao
Native to China
Region Guizhou
Ethnicity Longjia
Native speakers
extinct? (2011)[1]
Sino-Tibetan
Language codes
ISO 639-3 None (mis)
Glottolog long1417[3]

Longjia (autonym: suŋ˥ni˥mpau˨˩) is a Sino-Tibetan language of Guizhou, China related to Caijia and Luren. Longjia may already be extinct (Zhao 2011).

The Longjia people now speak Southwestern Mandarin, though they used to speak their own language, and have had a long presence in western Guizhou. According to the Guizhou Ethnic Gazetteer (2002),[4] the Longjia language was spoken in Dafang County, Qianxi County (Zhongping District 中坪区; Xinfacun 新发村 of Pojiao District 坡脚区), and Puding County (Jiangyizhai 讲义寨 of Baiyan Township 白岩乡). It is reportedly most similar to Caijia,[4] and has many Old Chinese loanwords.[5]

Classification[edit]

Guizhou (1984)[2] shows that Longjia is closely related to Caijia and Luren. However, the classification of Caijia within Sino-Tibetan is uncertain. Zhengzhang (2010)[6] suggests that Caijia and Bai are sister languages, while Sagart argues that Caijia is Sinitic and a close relative of Waxiang.[7]

Dialects[edit]

The following dialects of Longjia have been described.

  • Pojiao District 坡脚区, Dafang County, Guizhou[8][2] (Pojiao District now comprises Maochang 猫场镇, Dingxin 鼎新彝族苗族乡, and Lvtang 绿塘乡 townships of southwestern Dafang County.)
  • Huaxi Village 花溪大队, Zhongping District 中坪区, Qianxi County[2] (now Huaxi Township 花溪彝族苗族乡)
  • Jiangyizhai 讲义寨, Puding County[2]
  • Caiguan Town 蔡官镇, Anshun City, Guizhou[9]

The following comparative word list of three Longjia dialects is from Guizhou (1984:2-3).[2] Guizhou (1984) notes that the dialect of Jiangyizhai 讲义寨 (Puding County) is divergent, while the dialects of Pojiao 坡脚 (Dafang County) and Huaxi 花溪 (Qianxi County) are more closely related to each other.

English gloss Chinese gloss Pojiao 坡脚 Huaxi 花溪 Jiangyizhai 讲义寨
cattle ŋau⁵⁵ ŋau⁵⁵ ŋau³⁵
to eat ua³¹ ua³¹ ua³¹
dog kuɛ³³ kuɛ³³ kuɛ⁵³
pig lɛ⁵⁵ lɛ⁵⁵ lɛ³⁵
chicken kɛ⁵⁵ kɛ⁵⁵ kɛ⁵⁵
rice (crop) 稻谷 mɛ³¹ mɛ³¹ mai³¹
water ɕi³¹ ɕe³¹ se³¹
big la⁵⁵ la⁵⁵ lɛ³¹
two ta³¹ ta³¹ to³³
four sɿ⁵⁵ si⁵⁵ so⁵⁵
meat ȵi³¹ ȵi³¹ ȵi³¹; ntɕi³¹

Phonology[edit]

The Puding County Almanac (1999) reports that the Longjia language (autonym: Songnibao 松泥保) has 38 onsets and 22 rimes (8 simple, 14 complex). The Bijie County Almanac (1996:143) reports that there are many prenasalized onsets. In Dafang County, the autonym is Songlibao 松立保.[5]

Nanjinghua[edit]

The Nanjing people (南京人) have usually been classified with the Longjia people, and claim to be descendants of soldiers from the Nanjing area who had intermarried with the local Longjia in Guizhou.[10] Their language is known as Nanjinghua (南京话; "Nanjing speech"), which is probably now functionally extinct.[11]

In Jianxinhe village 建新河村, Kunzhai Township 昆寨乡, Nayong County, Guizhou Province, the phrase suo55 mu33 ‘eat rice’ was elicited from an elderly rememberer of Nanjinghua.[11] As suo55 is derived from Proto-Tibeto-Burman *dzya ‘to eat’, this points to Nanjinghua having an SVO word order like Caijia, Longjia, Bai, and Sinitic languages.[11]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Zhao 2011
  2. ^ a b c d e f Guizhou provincial ethnic classification commission [贵州省民族识别工作队]. 1984. Report on ethnic classification issues of the Nanlong people (Nanjing-Longjia) [南龙人(南京-龙家)族别问题调查报告]. m.s.
  3. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Longjia". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. 
  4. ^ a b Guizhou Province Gazetteer: Ethnic Gazetteer [贵州省志. 民族志] (2002). Guiyang: Guizhou Ethnic Publishing House [貴州民族出版社].
  5. ^ a b Dafang County Almanac (1996:150-152)
  6. ^ Zhèngzhāng Shàngfāng [郑张尚芳]. 2010. Càijiāhuà Báiyǔ guānxì jí cígēn bǐjiào [蔡家话白语关系及词根比较]. In Pān Wǔyún and Shěn Zhōngwěi [潘悟云、沈钟伟] (eds.). Yánjūzhī Lè, The Joy of Research [研究之乐-庆祝王士元先生七十五寿辰学术论文集], II, 389–400. Shanghai: Shanghai Educational Publishing House.
  7. ^ Sagart, Laurent. 2011. Classifying Chinese dialects/Sinitic languages on shared innovations. Talk given at Centre de recherches linguistiques sur l’Asie orientale, Norgent sur Marne.
  8. ^ Guizhou provincial ethnic classification commission, linguistic division [贵州省民族识别工作队语言组]. 1982. The language of the Caijia [Caijia de yuyan 蔡家的语言]. m.s.
  9. ^ Caiguan Town Gazetteer [蔡官镇志] (2004). Guiyang: Guizhou People's Press [贵州人民出版社].
  10. ^ Zhao Weifeng [赵卫峰]. 2011. History of the Bai people of Guizhou [贵州白族史略]. Yinchuan, China: Ningxia People's Press [宁夏人民出版社]. ISBN 9787227046783
  11. ^ a b c Hsiu, Andrew. 2013. New endangered Tibeto-Burman languages of southwestern China: Mondzish, Longjia, Pherbu, and others. Presented at ICSTLL 46, Dartmouth College.

Further reading[edit]

  • Guizhou provincial ethnic classification commission, linguistic division [贵州省民族识别工作队语言组]. 1982. The language of the Caijia [Caijia de yuyan 蔡家的语言]. m.s.
  • Guizhou provincial ethnic classification commission [贵州省民族识别工作队]. 1984. Report on ethnic classification issues of the Nanlong people (Nanjing-Longjia) [南龙人(南京-龙家)族别问题调查报告]. m.s.
  • Hsiu, Andrew. 2013. "New endangered Tibeto-Burman languages of southwestern China: Mondzish, Longjia, Pherbu, and others". Presentation given at ICSTLL 46, Dartmouth College.
  • Zhao Weifeng [赵卫峰]. 2011. History of the Bai people of Guizhou [贵州白族史略]. Yinchuan, China: Ningxia People's Press [宁夏人民出版社]. ISBN 978-7-227-04678-3