Harchand Singh Longowal
Harchand Singh Longowal was the President of the Akali Dal during the Punjab insurgency of the 1980s. He was known affectionately as "Sant Ji", he had signed the Punjab accord known as the Rajiv-Longowal Accord along with Rajiv Gandhi on 24 July 1985. The government accepted the demands of Akali Dal. Less than a month after signing the Punjab accord, Longowal was assassinated by the Sikh militants opposed to the accord. Harchand Singh Longowal was born on 2 January 1932, in a family of modest means living in Gidariani, a village in the princely state of Patiala, but now a part of Sangrur district of Punjab. Under the tutelage of Sant Jodh Singh at the seminary in nearby Maujo, he studied Sikh theology and Sikh texts and practised Sikh music; as his teacher was a member of the Akali movement, it is that young Harchand imbibed the spirit of political activism at that time. Leaving Maujo at the age of twenty-one, Harchand Singh served as scripture-reader and custodian at the village gurdwara at Heron Kalan, moving the following year to Longowal, a small town 16 kilometers south-west of Sangrur.
There, he raised a gurdwara in the memory of celebrated eighteenth-century scholar and martyr, Bhai Mani Singh. In 1962, Harchand Singh was named head of the important historical shrine at Damdama Sahib, but he took on the suffix "Longowal" which remained with him for the rest of his life, he was affectionately known as "Sant Ji" Longowal's life of political activism began in June 1964, when he led a demonstration for Sikh rights at the historic site of Paonta Sahib in the present-day state of Himachal Pradesh. In 1965, Longowal became the president of the Akali organization in Sangrur district and a member of the working committee of the Shiromani Akali Dal. In 1969, he was elected to the Punjabi Legislative Assembly as the Akali candidate, defeating the Congress Party's Babu Brish Bhan, chief minister of Patiala and East Punjab States Union. In June 1975, the Allahabad High Court annulled election of Indira Gandhi, the Prime Minister. Although no Akali leader had been arrested but the organisation decided to launch an agitation against suppression of civil liberties.
In July 1975, all the senior Akali leaders courted arrest and Harcharnd Singh Longowal took over the command of the agitation which continued till January 1977. In the 1978 bye election to Lok Sabha, Harchand Singh was offered the Akali nomination for Faridkot constituency but he declined the offer, he got Balwant Singh Ramoowalia to contest instead, elected from the seat. In 1980, Longowal was recalled to preside over the Akali party. In this role, he organized large-scale campaigns of civil disobedience to win concessions from India's Central Government on the longstanding grievances of Punjab, the Sikhs of Punjab. Longowal led the Akali side in years of frustrating negotiations with Mrs. Gandhi, talks that served to undermine public faith in the course of peaceful dialogue with the government. This, in turn strengthened the hand of separatists. In December 1983 Longowal invited sikh fundamentalist Jarnail Singh Bhindranwale to take up residence in Golden Temple Complex at the Guru Nanak Niwas and on in an adjacent building next to Akal Takht.
He called the tough-minded Bhindranwale "our stave to beat the government."The peaceful campaign to achieve justice from the central Indian government began 4 August 1982 under the leadership of the Akali party president, Harchand Singh Longowal and six other members of a designated high command, namely Parkash Singh Badal—former Chief Minister of Punjab, Gurcharan Singh Tohra—President of the Shiromani Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee, Jagdev Singh Talwandi, Surjit Singh Barnala—former Union Agriculture Minister, Sukhjinder Singh—former Punjab Minister, Ravi Inder Singh—former Speaker of the Punjab Legislature. All in all, it endured some twenty-two months and saw the arrest of more than 200,000 demonstrators in Amritsar; the overall campaign was marked by several individual demonstrations. One of the earliest had an unexpected outcome; when Longowal declared that Sikhs would demonstrate against the Central Government's injustices at the opening of the Asian Games scheduled to begin in Delhi on 19 November 1982, the Prime Minister called on the Chief Minister of Haryana to prevent Sikhs traveling by road or rail from neighbouring Punjab to Delhi.
The Haryana police did this and in the process caused inconvenience to the civilians and army officers coming to the games. Harbans Singh, On 4 January 1983 there was a mass stoppage of traffic on the major highways. On 17 June 1983 rail traffic was halted by large-scale protests. A statewide work stoppage was held on 29 August 1983. On 26 January 1984, article 25 of the constitution, indicating Sikhs are Hindus, was publicly burned. Longowal announced that as of 3 June 1984 would practice civil disobedience by refusing to pay land revenue and electricity bills, block the flow of grain out of Punjab; the Sikh coalition in opposition to the Central Government held together until September 1983, when the increasing frustrations of negotiating with the Prime Minister began to take its toll in a growing division between Jarnail Singh Bhindranwale and Jagdev Singh Talwandi (refusing to pay land revenue and electricity bills, Harchand Singh Longowal. During Operation Blue Star, the Indian army action in 1984 to clear up the Golden temple complex from militants.
The army operation that happened between 4–6 June 1984. Several Akali Dal leaders were stuck in the temple complex during the op
Phaguwala is a village located 19 kilometers east of the city of Sangrur and 40 kilometers from Patiala on NH-64 in the district of Sangrur in state of Punjab. Phaguwala is surrounded by most fertile land of Indo-Gangetic Plains; this is a village of great freedom fighter and M. L. A Jathedar Jangir Singh Phaguwalia. People of different castes and religions live with brotherhood and peace which includes Jatt Sikh families, Sikh Ravidasias, Sikh Valmikies, Muslims etc. Main surnames are: Ghumans, Dhaliwals, Behlas etc; the famous Gurudwara Patshahi Naumi is situated here on Sunam road towards south of village. The village has a branch of Sind Bank. ATM facility of PNB and P&S Bank are availabl e According to local tradition Phaguwala had not been founded when the Sikh guru Tegh Bahadur Ji passed through this area whilst on his journey from Bhawanigarh to Sunam. According to this tradition the guru met a brahmin peasant ploughing his fields near Bhawanigarh. To honor the Guru's visit, the Brahmin is said to have constructed a platform and began worshiping it as a sacred site.
The site is one kilometer north of the present village. After sometime the construction of the original platform, a room was constructed and a fair was held to celebrate Basant Panchmi - the fifth day of the light half of the Hindu lunar month of Magh, the first day of spring; this shrine was developed into a proper gurdwara and was called Gurudwara Sahib Patshahi Naumi "The gurdwara of the ninth master" during the time of Maharaja Narinder Singh of Patiala, said to have presented a copy of the Guru Granth Sahib for installation here. The present buildings comprising a semi-octagonal sanctum with a domed room above it and a square hall in front, other ancillaries, were constructed during the 1960s. A 100 feet square sarovar has been added since; the gurdwara owns 14 acres of land. It is managed by the Shiromani Gurdwara Prabandhak Committee under Section 87 of the Gurdwaras Act; the main congregation is held on the fifth day of the light half of each lunar month. Attended religious fairs are held on this day falling in the lunar months of Jeth and Magh to coincide with the martyrdom anniversary of Guru Arjan Dev Ji and Basant Panchmi respectively.
All Panchmies are celebrated at Gurudwara sahib. Gram Panchayat of Phaguwala is local body responsible for governing and managing the village, it includes Sarpanch and members.. Now Phaguwala is divided into 9 wards and each member is elected from each ward. Phaguwala comes under Vidhan Sabha constituency seat of Sangrur. Project Green works to beautify green spaces; the Project of construction two village parks is under progress. Trees were planted at common places under this project. Government Senior Secondary School Satya Bharti School
Falaund Kalan is a village in Sangrur in Punjab, India. The village name came from the foundries. A large mound near the Chupka village in the administrative land of Falaund Khurd offers evidence of that; the area was once called Banger. Ahmed Shah Abdali fought a historical war with Sikhs at nearby Rohira in which more than twenty-thousand men were killed and a large number were injured; this battle was significant in the history of Malerkotla Rayiast. During the Partition of India in 1947, those men who had crossed the boundary into Falaund Kalan were not harmed; the Nawab of Malerkotla, Sher Khan opposed the killing of the younger sons of the 10th master Sri Guru Gobind Singh at Sirhind. This is known as Ha Da Nahra. In lieu of this, Malerkotla was not displaced. Many people and animals entered the city for protection during Partition. In 2015, Mr. Bal Anand, IFS, from Falaund Kalan, instituted a prize consisting of Rs 11,000 and a citation for a renowned author in the memory of his grandfather Baba Paramatma Nand, an Ayurveda wizard who had written the life history of Baba Gajjan Shah.
Falound Kalan is located on the Ludhiana-Malerkotla Road four kilometers away from Rohira. In 1884 Samat started the Lohri festival celebration, where the Sadhus used to assemble in large numbers; the scholars of Sanskrit who had contributed to Ayurvedic medicine were honored by Baba Ji. This tradition was made compulsory by Baba Ji followers known as Mahant; the rural sports organized by Young Farmers Club was started in 1951 by Master Ram Swarup. The events of kabbadi, volleyball and tug-of-war are included. Local artists sing historical songs. A majority of the villagers served in the Indian Army; the village's population is educated and produced administrators such as Shri Bachitter Singh I. R. S. Shri Jagtar Singh P. C. S. and various educators and men ranging from Indian Foreign Services to the Indian Postal department. Some younger inhabitants emigrated to the United States, Australia, New Zealand and the Gulf nations. Many return to their native village for the Lohri festival where they pay homage to the forefathers and fulfill the vow, "The person who visits Falound for three days together on Lohri will go to Heaven."
This legacy was ordained by Guru Gajjan Shah
Haryau is a village, situated in the Sangrur District of Punjab, India. This Village established in 1650 by Multania Sangu. Mughal empire Shahjahan gave 78,000 Vigha land to Multania Sangu, where Multania Sangu establish this Village; this village is known by Haryau-Sangva. It has one government school,three private schools,one government hospital,one co-operative agriculture society and Bank,one HDFC bank,two main gurudwara's,one mosque and one suvidha kendra
Bhai Mani Singh
Bhai Mani Singh was an 18th-century Sikh scholar and martyr. He was a childhood companion of Guru Gobind Singh and took the vows of Sikhism when the Guru inaugurated the Khalsa in March 1699. Soon after that, the Guru sent him to Amritsar to take charge of Harmandir Sahib, without a custodian since 1696, he steered the course of Sikh destiny at a critical stage in Sikh history. The nature of his death in which he was dismembered joint by joint has become a part of the daily Sikh Ardas. According to Sri Suraj Prakash Granth, Mani Singh's ancestors were kings, he was one of the 12 sons of Mai Das. His grandfather was Rao Ballu, a reputable warrior, a general in Guru Hargobind's army. Mani Singh's family consisted of notable warriors, among them his cousin Bhagwant Singh Bangeshwar, a ruler in Aurangzeb time, his brother, Dayala was killed at Dehli with Guru Tegh Bahadur. Mani Singh spent a considerable part of his life in service at Harmandir Sahib in Amritsar. At the age of 15, Mani Singh was married to Seeto Bai, daughter of Raav Lakhi Rai Jadhaun Jadovanshi Raav of Khairpur Tamewali now in Pakistan.
List of Bhai Mani Singh's sons: Chitar Singh, killed with Mani Singh in Lahore in 1734. Bachitar Singh, killed in the battle of Nihan near Anandpur Sahib in 1704. Udai Singh, killed in Sahi Tibi near Anandpur Sahib in 1704. Anaik Singh, killed in the battle of Chamkaur in 1704. Ajab Singh, killed in the battle of Chamkaur in 1704. Ajaib Singh, killed in the battle of Chamkaur in 1704. Gurbaksh Singh, killed with Mani Singh in Lahore in 1734. Bhagwan Singh Balram Singh Desa Singh – the author of the Rehat Maryada of the Khalsa. Seven of Mani Singh's sons were from his first wife, Seeto Bai Ji and the remainder from his second wife Khemi Bai Ji; when Mani Singh was 13 years old, his father, Rao Mai Das, took him to Guru Har Rai at Kiratpur to pay homage. Mani Singh spent about two years at Kiratpur in the service of Guru Har Rai, scrubbing cooking pots and utensils, he attended to other chores. When Mani Singh was 15 years old, his father applied to Guru Har Rai for leave to be granted to Mani Singh for a short period.
Mani Singh and his father returned to their village Alipur. Subsequently, Mani Singh, accompanied by his elder brothers, Bhai Jetha Singh and Bhai Dial Das, went to Kiratpur and presented themselves before Guru Har Rai for service at his shrine. After the passing of Guru Har Rai, Mani Singh started serving Guru Har Krishan; when Guru Har Krishan proceeded to Delhi, Mani Singh was one of the Sikhs. When Guru Har Krishan died on 30 March 1664 in Delhi, Mani Singh escorted the Guru Har Krishan Ji's mother, Mata Sulakhani, to Bakala and presented himself before Guru Teg Bahadur for service. Mani Singh's elder brothers, Bhai Jetha Singh and Bhai Dial Das arrived at Bakala for service with the guru. Mani Singh was at that time 20 years of age. After serving some time in the service of Guru Teg Bahahdur, Mani Singh took leave of the Guru and returned to his village in Alipur. Mani Singh proceeded to Anandpur Sahib for the Vaisakhi festival, accompanied by his family. Guru Teg Bahadur had just arrived at Anandpur Sahib after a preaching tour in the East.
When Guru Teg Bahadur heeded the appeal of the Kashmiri Pandits and their request for help in saving the Hindu religion, Guru Teg Bahadur decided to proceed to Delhi. Bhai Jetha and Mani Singh and some other Sikhs remained at Anandpur with Guru Gobind Singh to look after him. Bhai Mati Das, Bhai Sati Das and Bhai Dial Das accompanied Guru Teg Bahadur to Delhi, they were arrested together with Guru Teg Bahadur and taken to Delhi where all of them were put to death. Bhai Mani Singh was a childhood companion of Guru Gobind Singh, he was not of the same age as Guru Gobind much older. Mani Singh remained in his company after Gobind Rai had ascended the religious seat as Guru. Mani Singh accompanied the Guru to the seclusion of Paonta where Guru Gobind Singh spent some three years given to literary work. Mani Singh was not only a great scholar of Sikh sacred scripture and wrote books on Sikhi but was a warrior who accompanied Guru Gobind Singh as one of his body guards on many occasions; the brave deeds of Mani Singh in so many battles earned him the reputation of a great warrior.
In his position of being the Guru's Diwan he had to attend to many matters in the Guru's establishment. He had time to study the Sikh scripture under the Guru's guidance and became an accomplished theologian, he acquired so much knowledge and understanding of Gurbani, that he used to do Katha of the Granth Sahib to the Sangat both at Anandpur Sahib and at the Harmandir Sahib. In 1685, when Guru Gobind Singh went to Nahan, on the invitation of Raja Medni Prakash, Bhai Mani Singh was one of the Sikhs who accompanied the Guru. In 1687, when the Guru received a request for help from the widow of Baba Ram Rai, because the Masands were ill treating her, Guru Gobind Singh accompanied by Mani Singh went to Derah Doon, taught the Masands a good lesson and put them in their proper place. In 1688, at the Barsi of Baba Ram Rai, Guru Gobind Singh sent Mani Singh at the head of a Jatha of 50 Sikhs to represent him at the Barsi. Bhai Mani Singh accompanied Guru Gobind Singh when he went across the banks of the Yamuna River to Paonta, Himachal.
Bhai Mani Singh fought in the Battle of Bhangani in 1688 ca. to defend Paonta from the joint attack of all the hill rajas. Mani Singh showed his prowess with the sword. In this battle his younger brother Hati Chand was killed. In 1690, in the Battle of Nadaun, Mani Singh showed great prowess with the sword.
A gurdwara is a place of assembly and worship for Sikhs. People from all faiths, those who do not profess any faith, are welcomed in Sikh gurdwaras; each gurdwara has a Darbar Sahib where the current and everlasting guru of the Sikhs, the scripture Guru Granth Sahib, is placed on a takhat in a prominent central position. The raagis recite and explain, the verses from the Guru Granth Sahib, in the presence of the congregation. All gurdwaras have a langar hall, where people can eat free vegetarian food served by volunteers at the gurdwara, they may have a medical facility room, nursery, meeting rooms, sports ground, a gift shop, a repair shop. A gurdwara can be identified from a distance by tall flagpoles bearing the Nishan Sahib, the Sikh flag; the most well-known gurdwaras are in the Darbar Sahib complex in Amritsar, Punjab including Darbar Sahib, the spiritual center of the Sikhs and Akal Takht, the political center of the Sikhs. The first gurdwara was built in Kartarpur, on the banks of Ravi River in the Punjab region by the first Sikh guru, Guru Nanak Dev in the year 1521.
It now lies in the Narowal District of west Punjab. The worship centres were built as a place where Sikhs could gather to hear the guru give spiritual discourse and sing religious hymns in the praise of Waheguru; as the Sikh population continued to grow, Guru Hargobind, the sixth Sikh guru, introduced the word gurdwara. The etymology of the term'gurdwara' is from the words'gur' and'dwara', together meaning'the gateway through which the guru could be reached'. Thereafter, all Sikh places of worship came to be known as gurdwaras; some of the prominent Sikh shrines established by the Sikh gurus are: Nankana Sahib, established in the 1490s by first Sikh Guru, Guru Nanak Dev, Pakistan. Sultanpur Lodhi, established in 1499 became the Sikh centre during Guru Nanak Dev time Kapurthala District, Punjab. Kartarpur Sahib, established in 1521 by the first Sikh Guru, Guru Nanak Dev, near River Ravi, Punjab, Pakistan. Khadur Sahib, established in 1539 by the second Sikh Guru, Guru Angad Dev ji, near River Beas, Amritsar District, India.
Goindwal Sahib, established in 1552 by the third Sikh Guru, Guru Amar Das ji, near River Beas, Amritsar District Punjab, India. Sri Amritsar, established in 1577 By the fourth Sikh Guru, Guru Ram Das ji, District Amritsar, Punjab India. Tarn Taran Sahib, established in 1590 by the fifth Sikh Guru, District Tarn Taran Sahib, Punjab India. Kartarpur Sahib, established in 1594 by the fifth Sikh Guru, Guru Arjan Dev, near river Beas, Jalandhar District, Punjab India. Sri Hargobindpur, established by the fifth Sikh Guru, Guru Arjan Dev, near river Beas, Gurdaspur District, Punjab India. Kiratpur Sahib, established in 1627 by the sixth Sikh Guru, Guru Hargobind, near river Sutlej, Ropar District, India. Anandpur Sahib, established in 1665 by the ninth Sikh Guru, Guru Tegh Bahadur, near river Sutlej, India. Paonta Sahib, established in 1685 by the tenth Sikh Guru, Guru Gobind Singh, near river Yamuna, Himachal Pradesh India. By the early 20th century, a number of Sikh gurdwaras in British India were under the control of the Udasi mahants.
The Gurdwara Reform Movement of the 1920s resulted in Shiromani Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee taking control of these gurdwaras. The Panj Takht which means five seats or thrones of authority, are five gurdwaras which have a special significance for the Sikh community, they are result of the historical growth of the religion of Sikhism and represent the centers of power of the religion. Akal Takht Sahib, established by Guru Hargobind in 1609 is situated in the complex of The Golden Temple, India Takht Sri Kesgarh Sahib, located in Anandpur Sahib, India Takht Sri Damdama Sahib, located in Bathinda, India Takhat Sri Harimandir Patna Sahib, in the neighborhood of Patna Sahib, Bihar, India Takht Sri Hazur Sahib, located on banks of the River Godavari in Nanded, India. A gurdwara has a main hall called a darbar, a community kitchen called a langar, other facilities; the essential features of a gurdwara are these public spaces, the presence of the holy book and eternal Sikh guru the Granth Sahib, the pursuit of the Sikh Rehat Maryada, the provision of daily services: Shabad Kirtan: singing hymns from the Granth Sahib.
Speaking only Shabads from Guru Granth Sahib, Dasam Granth, the compositions of Bhai Gurdas and Bhai Nand Lal, can be performed within a gurdwara. Paath: religious discourse and reading of Gurbani from the Guru Granth Sahib, with its explanations. There are two types of discourse: Sadharan Paath. Sangat and Pangat: providing a free community kitchen called a langar for all visitors, regardless of religious, cultural, caste, or class affiliations. Other ceremonies performed there include Anand Karaj; the Nagar Kirtan, a Sikh processional singing of holy hymns throughout a community and conclude at a gurdwara. Gurdwaras around the world may serve the Sikh community in other ways, including acting as libraries of Sikh literature and schools to teach children Gurmukhi, housing the Sikh scriptures, organizing charitable work in the wider community on behalf of Sikhs. Many historical gurdwaras associated with the lives of the Sikh Gurus have a sarovar attached for bathing. Gurdwaras have no idols, statues, or religious pictur
States and union territories of India
India is a federal union comprising 29 states and 7 union territories, for a total of 36 entities. The states and union territories are further subdivided into districts and smaller administrative divisions; the Constitution of India distributes the sovereign executive and legislative powers exercisable with respect to the territory of any State between the Union and that State. The Indian subcontinent has been ruled by many different ethnic groups throughout its history, each instituting their own policies of administrative division in the region. During the British Raj, the original administrative structure was kept, India was divided into provinces that were directly governed by the British and princely states which were nominally controlled by a local prince or raja loyal to the British Empire, which held de facto sovereignty over the princely states. Between 1947 and 1950 the territories of the princely states were politically integrated into the Indian Union. Most were merged into existing provinces.
The new Constitution of India, which came into force on 26 January 1950, made India a sovereign democratic republic. The new republic was declared to be a "Union of States"; the constitution of 1950 distinguished between three main types of states: Part A states, which were the former governors' provinces of British India, were ruled by an elected governor and state legislature. The nine Part A states were Assam, Bombay, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal; the eight Part B states were former princely states or groups of princely states, governed by a rajpramukh, the ruler of a constituent state, an elected legislature. The rajpramukh was appointed by the President of India; the Part B states were Hyderabad and Kashmir, Madhya Bharat, Mysore and East Punjab States Union, Rajasthan and Travancore-Cochin. The ten Part C states included both the former chief commissioners' provinces and some princely states, each was governed by a chief commissioner appointed by the President of India.
The Part C states were Ajmer, Bilaspur, Delhi, Himachal Pradesh, Manipur and Vindhya Pradesh. The only Part D state was the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, which were administered by a lieutenant governor appointed by the central government; the Union Territory of Puducherry was created in 1954 comprising the previous French enclaves of Pondichéry, Karaikal and Mahé. Andhra State was created on 1 October 1953 from the Telugu-speaking northern districts of Madras State; the States Reorganisation Act of 1956 reorganised the states based on linguistic lines resulting in the creation of the new states. As a result of this act, Madras State retained its name with Kanyakumari district added to form Travancore-Cochin. Andhra Pradesh was created with the merger of Andhra State with the Telugu-speaking districts of Hyderabad State in 1956. Kerala was created with the merger of Malabar district and the Kasaragod taluk of South Canara districts of Madras State with Travancore-Cochin. Mysore State was re-organized with the addition of districts of Bellary and South Canara and the Kollegal taluk of Coimbatore district from the Madras State, the districts of Belgaum, North Canara and Dharwad from Bombay State, the Kannada-majority districts of Bidar and Gulbarga from Hyderabad State and the province of Coorg.
The Laccadive Islands which were divided between South Canara and Malabar districts of Madras State were united and organised into the union territory of Lakshadweep. Bombay State was enlarged by the addition of Saurashtra State and Kutch State, the Marathi-speaking districts of Nagpur Division of Madhya Pradesh and Marathwada region of Hyderabad State. Rajasthan and Punjab gained territories from Ajmer and Patiala and East Punjab States Union and certain territories of Bihar was transferred to West Bengal. Bombay State was split into the linguistic states of Gujarat and Maharashtra on 1 May 1960 by the Bombay Reorganisation Act. Nagaland was formed on 1 December 1963; the Punjab Reorganisation Act of 1966 resulted in the creation of Haryana on 1 November and the transfer of the northern districts of Punjab to Himachal Pradesh. The act designated Chandigarh as a union territory and the shared capital of Punjab and Haryana. Madras state was renamed Tamil Nadu in 1968. North-eastern states of Manipur and Tripura were formed on 21 January 1972.
Mysore State was renamed as Karnataka in 1973. On 16 May 1975, Sikkim became the 22nd state of the Indian Union and the state's monarchy was abolished. In 1987, Arunachal Pradesh and Mizoram became states on 20 February, followed by Goa on 30 May, while Goa's northern exclaves of Daman and Diu and Dadra and Nagar Haveli became separate union territories. In November 2000, three new states were created. Orissa was renamed as Odisha in 2011. Telangana was created on 2 June 2014 as ten former districts of north-western Andhra Pradesh. ^Note 1 Andhra Pradesh was divided into two states, Telangana and a residual Andhra Pradesh on 2 June 2014. Hyderabad, located within the borders of Telangana, is to serve as the capital for both states for a period of time not exceeding ten years; the Go