Longwood House (Farmville, Virginia)
Longwood House is a historic home located at Farmville, Prince Edward County and functions as the home of the president of Longwood University. It is a 2 1/2-story, three bay, frame dwelling with a gable roof and it features Greek Revival style woodwork and Doric order porch. Longwood House has a passage, double-pile plan. It has a wing added about 1839, and a second wing added in the 1920s. The house is located next to the university course, and since 2006. The site of the home was owned by Scottish immigrant Peter Johnston. The property was sold to Abraham B. Venable in 1811, following his death shortly thereafter in the Richmond Theatre fire, it was inherited by a relative, the current house was built about 1815, and enlarged and remodeled about 1839. The site was the birthplace of two well-known Confederate officers, Johnstons grandson Joseph E. Johnston in 1807, and Samuel Venables grandson, Charles S. Venable, Longwood House was purchased by what was the State Teachers College at Farmville in 1929.
Twenty years later, the school renamed itself Longwood College after the house and it has been used as the home of the university president since 1969. It was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1984
French domains of St Helena
The French domains of Saint-Helena are a French territory of 14 hectares on the island of Saint Helena. Three French properties are under the administration of the French Foreign Ministry which undertakes their management and these consist of, Longwood House the small pavilion Briars Valley of the Tomb These places are connected with the exile of Napoleon I in Saint Helena. They house a museum and displays on the life of the Emperor, buildings have been restored as closely as possible to the state that they had in the Napoleonic period. They welcome from six to eight thousand visitors annually, the museum is financed by the Fondation Napoléon and the buildings are maintained by the French Foreign Ministry. Since 2004, the French possessions in Saint Helena have been administratively under the consulate of France in Cape Town and they are administered locally by a curator who is honorary consul of France. Following his defeat at Waterloo, Napoleon was exiled and deported by the British to the island of Saint Helena, where he landed in 1815.
Furthermore, the British, being afraid of a landing of French sailors to free the prisoner as at Elba, Napoleon died on 5 May 1821. On the death of a man like him, we should feel only deep concern. In accordance with his last wishes, Napoleon was interred on 9 May 1821 near a spring, in what was known as the Valley of the Geranium. On 27 May 1821, all the remaining French officials left the island, nineteen years after Napoleons death, King Louis-Philippe was able to obtain from the United Kingdom the return of remains of the ex-emperor. The exhumation of Napoleons body took place on 15 October 1840, he was repatriated to France and interred in the Invalides. The small pavilion Briars, the emperors first house on the island, was added to the domain in 1959, list of French possessions and colonies French colonial empires Site des domaines français de Sainte-Hélène Journal du conservateur des domaines français de Sainte-Hélène Napoléon à Sainte-Hélène
Dame Mabel Brookes, DBE was an Australian community worker, socialite, writer and humanitarian. After being withdrawn from kindergarten by her mother in order to avoid developing a bad accent, educated by her father and a series of governesses, very early on she developed a fascination with St. Helenas Isle and her own familys history with Napoleon whilst he was in exile. When Mabel was 14, a man allegedly told her mother that Mabel was dull and reads too much. After being presented at the Edwardian court in London, at 18 Mabel was engaged to Norman Brookes, a tennis player and they married in St Pauls Anglican Cathedral, Melbourne, on 19 April 1911. In 1914, with a daughter, she accompanied Brookes on his tennis trips to Europe. Whilst in the USA Norman Brookes and Tony Wilding won the Davis Cup, during World War I, in 1915, she joined her husband in Cairo where he was working as commissioner for the Australian Branch of the British Red Cross. Along with other officers wives she tended to sick and wounded servicemen, on her husbands posting to Mesopotamia, she returned to Melbourne in 1917.
She was a member and a divisional officer of the Girl Guides Association executive committee, foundation president of the Institute of Almoners. She was a member of the Australian Red Cross Societys federal executive, during World War II the Brookes family vacated their home Kurneh to allow it to be used by the Red Cross as a convalescent home for returned soldiers. The Brookes family moved to their property, Elm Tree House. Mabel Brookes was commandant of the Australian Womens Air Training Corps, other war-work included establishing Air Force House and organizing, at the request of the minister for the army, an annexe for servicewomen at the Queen Victoria Hospital. From 1923 to 1970, Mabel served as president for the Queen Victoria Hospital and it was when I realised that the women of Melbourne had finally and decisively won their 55-year-old battle for a large hospital completely staffed by women. It was a fight by women against prejudice and intolerance of women, she was quoted in The Argus as saying, Brookes attempted a political career by standing twice for parliament, but was unsuccessful.
She stood for the federal Division of Flinders in 1943 as a Woman for Canberra candidate and she was appointed a Commander of the Order of the British Empire in 1933 and became a Dame of the order in 1955 for services to hospitals and charity. In 1967 Monash University conferred an honorary LL. D. for her services to the Queen Victoria Hospital and it had by that time become a Monash University teaching hospital. Dame Mabel Brookes published her memoirs in 1974 in which she recounted events in her life, including meeting many notable and she died at South Yarra on 30 April 1975, aged 84, survived by two of her three daughters. Brookes was a published novelist and memoirist and she wrote the following works, Broken Idols. On the Knees of the Gods, deals with Napoleon Bonapartes internment on St Helena island and was introduced by Sir Robert Menzies, former Prime Minister of Australia
Jamestown, Saint Helena
Jamestown is the capital of the British Overseas Territory of Saint Helena and Tristan da Cunha, located on the island of Saint Helena in the South Atlantic Ocean. It is the main settlement of the island and is on its north-western coast. It is the only port and the centre of the islands road. It was founded when colonists from the English East India Company settled on the island in 1659 and was occupied by the Dutch East India Company in 1673 before being recaptured. Many of the built by the East India Company in the 1700s survive and give the town its distinctive Georgian flavour. The town briefly hosted Napoleon in 1815 during his exile on St. Helena and it had no role during the First World War and only played a minor role during the Second World War. Jamestown was founded in 1659 by the English East India Company and named after James, Duke of York, the future King James II of England. A fort, originally named the Castle of St John, was built and, with the restoration of the monarchy in 1660, the fort was renamed James Fort, the town Jamestown.
The fort and associated gun batteries dominated James Bay and were improved over the years. In January 1673 the Dutch East India Company briefly seized control of the island until the English East India Company recaptured it in May, since the town has been continuously inhabited under English and British rule. After his defeat in the Battle of Waterloo in June 1815 and the subsequent occupation of Paris, Jamestown was chosen to host a vice admiralty court and a naval base for British efforts to interdict the slave traffic between Africa and the Americas. Captured slave ships were brought to Jamestown to be sold. By the time that the station was closed in the 1870s. Long lost, their graves were rediscovered in 2006 in conjunction with preliminary digging for the airport, a team of archaeologists arrived in mid-2008 to excavate the graves. Some of the finds from the excavations are on exhibit at the International Slavery Museum in Liverpool, the island was too isolated to play any role in the First World War and only played a minimal one during the Second World War.
The oil tanker RFA Darkdale was sunk by the German submarine U-68 in James Bay on 22 October 1941 with only 9 of the 50-man crew surviving and she had been sent to St Helena a few months prior to refuel ships operating in the South Atlantic. The wreck leaked small amounts of oil until its gradual deterioration caused the Ministry of Defence to dispatch a team of divers to pump out all the oil in June 2015. The town is built on rock in the James Valley
It is part of the British Overseas Territory of Saint Helena and Tristan da Cunha. Saint Helena measures about 16 by 8 kilometres and has a population of 4,534 and it was named after Saint Helena of Constantinople. The island, one of the most remote islands in the world, was uninhabited when discovered by the Portuguese in 1502 and it was an important stopover for ships sailing to Europe from Asia and South Africa for centuries. Napoleon was imprisoned there in exile by the British, as were Dinuzulu kaCetshwayo, between 1791 and 1833, Saint Helena became the site of a series of experiments in conservation and attempts to boost rainfall artificially. This environmental intervention was closely linked to the conceptualisation of the processes of environmental change, Saint Helena is Britains second-oldest remaining overseas territory after Bermuda. The Portuguese found the island uninhabited, with an abundance of trees and they imported livestock, fruit trees and vegetables, and built a chapel and one or two houses.
Englishman Sir Francis Drake probably located the island on the leg of his circumnavigation of the world. In developing their Far East trade, the Dutch began to frequent the island, the Dutch Republic formally made claim to Saint Helena in 1633, although there is no evidence that they ever occupied, colonized, or fortified it. By 1651, the Dutch had mainly abandoned the island in favour of their colony at the Cape of Good Hope. In 1657, Oliver Cromwell granted the English East India Company a charter to govern Saint Helena and, the following year, the first governor Captain John Dutton arrived in 1659, making Saint Helena one of Britains oldest colonies outside North America and the Caribbean. A fort and houses were built, after the Restoration of the English monarchy in 1660, the East India Company received a royal charter giving it the sole right to fortify and colonise the island. The fort was renamed James Fort and the town Jamestown, in honour of the Duke of York, between January and May 1673, the Dutch East India Company forcibly took the island, before English reinforcements restored English East India Company control.
The company experienced difficulty attracting new immigrants, and sentiments of unrest, a census in 1723 recorded 1,110 people, including 610 slaves. The island enjoyed a period of prosperity from about 1770. Captain James Cook visited the island in 1775 on the leg of his second circumnavigation of the world. St. James Church was erected in Jamestown in 1774, the site of this telescope is near Saint Mathews Church in Hutts Gate in the Longwood district. The 680-metre high hill there is named for him and is called Halleys Mount, throughout this period, Saint Helena was an important port of call of the East India Company. East Indiamen would stop there on the leg of their voyages to British India
Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte was the only President of the French Second Republic and, as Napoleon III, the Emperor of the Second French Empire. He was the nephew and heir of Napoleon I and he was the first President of France to be elected by a direct popular vote. He remains the longest-serving French head of state since the French Revolution, during the first years of the Empire, Napoleons government imposed censorship and harsh repressive measures against his opponents. Some six thousand were imprisoned or sent to penal colonies until 1859, thousands more went into voluntary exile abroad, including Victor Hugo. From 1862 onwards, he relaxed government censorship, and his came to be known as the Liberal Empire. Many of his opponents returned to France and became members of the National Assembly, Napoleon III is best known today for his grand reconstruction of Paris, carried out by his prefect of the Seine, Baron Haussmann. He launched similar public works projects in Marseille, Napoleon III modernized the French banking system, greatly expanded and consolidated the French railway system, and made the French merchant marine the second largest in the world.
He promoted the building of the Suez Canal and established modern agriculture, Napoleon III negotiated the 1860 Cobden–Chevalier free trade agreement with Britain and similar agreements with Frances other European trading partners. Social reforms included giving French workers the right to strike and the right to organize, womens education greatly expanded, as did the list of required subjects in public schools. In foreign policy, Napoleon III aimed to reassert French influence in Europe and he was a supporter of popular sovereignty and of nationalism. In Europe, he allied with Britain and defeated Russia in the Crimean War and his regime assisted Italian unification and, in doing so, annexed Savoy and the County of Nice to France, at the same time, his forces defended the Papal States against annexation by Italy. Napoleon doubled the area of the French overseas empire in Asia, the Pacific, on the other hand, his armys intervention in Mexico which aimed to create a Second Mexican Empire under French protection ended in failure.
Beginning in 1866, Napoleon had to face the power of Prussia. In July 1870, Napoleon entered the Franco-Prussian War without allies, the French army was rapidly defeated and Napoleon III was captured at the Battle of Sedan. The French Third Republic was proclaimed in Paris, and Napoleon went into exile in England, charles-Louis Napoleon Bonaparte, known as Louis Napoleon and Napoleon III, was born in Paris on the night of 20–21 April 1808. His presumed father was Louis Bonaparte, the brother of Napoleon Bonaparte. His mother was Hortense de Beauharnais, the daughter by the first marriage of Napoleons wife Joséphine de Beauharnais, as empress, Joséphine proposed the marriage as a way to produce an heir for the Emperor, who agreed, as Joséphine was by infertile. Louis married Hortense when he was twenty-four and she was nineteen and they had a difficult relationship, and only lived together for brief periods
Ministry of Europe and Foreign Affairs
The Ministry of Foreign Affairs, is the ministry in the government of France that handles Frances foreign relations. Its headquarters are located on the Quai dOrsay in Paris, close to the National Assembly of France and its cabinet minister, the Minister of Foreign Affairs and International Development is responsible for the foreign relations of France. The current minister, Jean-Marc Ayrault, was appointed in February 2016, in 1547, secretaries to the King became specialized, writing correspondence to foreign governments, and negotiating peace treaties. The four French secretaries of state where foreign relations were divided by region, in 1589, the Ancien Régime position of Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs became Foreign Minister around 1723, and was renamed Minister of Foreign Affairs in 1791 after the French Revolution. All ministerial positions were abolished in 1794 by the National Convention, for a brief period in the 1980s, the office was retitled Minister for External Relations
East India Company
The company ruled the beginnings of the British Empire in India. The company received a Royal Charter from Queen Elizabeth I on 31 December 1600, wealthy merchants and aristocrats owned the Companys shares. Initially the government owned no shares and had only indirect control, during its first century of operation the focus of the Company was trade, not the building of an empire in India. The company eventually came to rule large areas of India with its own armies, exercising military power. Despite frequent government intervention, the company had recurring problems with its finances, the official government machinery of British India had assumed its governmental functions and absorbed its armies. Soon after the defeat of the Spanish Armada in 1588, London merchants presented a petition to Queen Elizabeth I for permission to sail to the Indian Ocean, one of them, Edward Bonventure, sailed around Cape Comorin to the Malay Peninsula and returned to England in 1594. In 1596, three ships sailed east, these were all lost at sea.
Two days later, on 24 September, the Adventurers reconvened and resolved to apply to the Queen for support of the project, the Adventurers convened again a year later. For a period of fifteen years the charter awarded the newly formed company a monopoly on trade with all countries east of the Cape of Good Hope and west of the Straits of Magellan. Anybody who traded in breach of the charter without a licence from the Company was liable to forfeiture of their ships and cargo, the governance of the company was in the hands of one governor and 24 directors or committees, who made up the Court of Directors. They, in turn, reported to the Court of Proprietors, ten committees reported to the Court of Directors. According to tradition, business was transacted at the Nags Head Inn, opposite St Botolphs church in Bishopsgate. Sir James Lancaster commanded the first East India Company voyage in 1601, in March 1604 Sir Henry Middleton commanded the second voyage. Early in 1608 Alexander Sharpeigh was appointed captain of the Companys Ascension, thereafter two ships and Union sailed from Woolwich on 14 March 1607–8.
Initially, the company struggled in the trade because of the competition from the already well-established Dutch East India Company. The company opened a factory in Bantam on the first voyage, the factory in Bantam was closed in 1683. During this time belonging to the company arriving in India docked at Surat. In the next two years, the company established its first factory in south India in the town of Machilipatnam on the Coromandel Coast of the Bay of Bengal
Longwood, Saint Helena
Longwood is a settlement and a district of the British island of Saint Helena in the South Atlantic. In 2011 it had a population of 802, compared to a population of 960 in 1998, the area of the district is 33.4 km2. The large district includes the settlement of Hutts Gate, with its St Matthews church, the district contains the islands only existing golf course. The district contains Prosperous Bay Plain, which is where Saint Helena Airport is located, there is a weather recording station in the Longwood district. Readings of temperature, air pressure and visibility are automatically read, the site of this telescope is near St Matthews church in the district. The 2, 230-foot-high hill there is named for him and is called Halleys Mount, Halleys Observatory was in use 1677–1678. Having returned to England in 1678, Halley published Catalogus Stellarum Australium in 1679 and these additions to present-day star maps earned him comparison with Tycho Brahe. Halley subsequently was awarded with his Masters from Oxford and Fellowship of the Royal Society, in 1686 Halley published the second part of the results from his Helenian expedition, being a paper and chart on trade winds and monsoons.
In this he identified solar heating as the cause of atmospheric motions and he established the relationship between barometric pressure and height above sea level. His charts were an important contribution to the field of information visualisation. It is noted as the location of Napoleons second exile from 1815 until his death on 5 May 1821, Longwood House Main habitations in St. Helena and their occupants
Briars, Saint Helena
The pavilion was in the garden of William Balcombe, an English merchant who became a purveyor to Napoleon. His 14-year-old daughter Elizabeth Lucia Balcombe was the family member who spoke French. Because of his familys closeness to Napoleon, Balcombe attracted the suspicion of Governor Hudson Lowe, the Briars was used as the home for the Admiral assigned to St Helena. By a remarkable coincidence, the Duke of Wellington stayed in The Briars, in 1805, on his return from a tour of duty in India. He wrote to the admiral commanding the garrison on 3 April 1816, You may tell Bony that I find his apartments at the Elysée-Bourbon very convenient and it became the third of the French properties on the island, together with his former tomb in Sane Valley and Longwood House. Later, Balcombe was offered a post in Australia and established a new estate called The Briars in the Carwoola area of New South Wales. On this new estate, it is believed that he was responsible for introducing two plants to Australia, the Sweet Briar and the Weeping Willow, the willow grew nearby Napoleon’s grave on St Helena and Balcombe is reported to have taken cuttings from these trees
Sir Hudson Lowe GCMG KCB was an Anglo-Irish soldier and colonial administrator who is best known for his time as Governor of St Helena where he was the gaoler of Napoleon Bonaparte. The son of John Lowe, a surgeon, he was born at Galway in Ireland. His childhood was spent in various towns, particularly in the West Indies. He obtained a post as ensign in the East Devon Militia when he was eleven, in 1787 he entered his fathers regiment, the 50th Foot, which was serving at Gibraltar under Governor-General Charles OHara. In 1791, he was promoted to Lieutenant, the same year he was granted eighteen months leave, and chose to spend the time travelling through Italy rather than return to Britain. He chose to avoid travelling to France because the French Revolution had recently broken out, Lowe arrived back at Gibraltar shortly after the outbreak of war between Britain and France in early 1793. The 50th were sent to take part in the Defence of Toulon which had seized by an Allied force under Lord Hood after an invitation by French Royalists in the city.
The 50th arrived too late to assist the defence, as the Allied forces had withdrawn from the city. They were redirected to Corsica, a French-owned island, where British troops had been sent to join with Corsicans under Pasquale Paoli, Lowes regiment served as part of General Dundass force during the Siege of Bastia and Siege of Calvi driving the French from the island. The regiment was stationed in Bastia, Lowe volunteered to fetch supplies from Livorno in Italy, but nearly died of malaria during the journey there. In October 1796 it was decided to abandon Corsica and the force at Ajaccio was embarked, the following year Elba was abandoned and Lowe was evacuated with his regiment first to Gibraltar and to Lisbon. He spent the two years as part of a British force which was placed to deter an invasion by French. In Corsica he was billeted in the Casa Buonaparte. He led the Corsican Rangers in Egypt in 1800–1801, after the peace of Amiens, now a Major, became assistant quartermaster-general. On the renewal of war with France in 1803, he was charged, as a lieutenant-colonel, to raise the Corsican battalion again and with it assisted in the defence of Sicily.
On the capture of Capri, he proceeded there with his battalion and a Maltese regiment, but in October 1808, Joachim Murat ordered an attack upon the island, which was organised by General Lamarque. Lowe, owing to the unreliability of the Maltese troops and of help from the sea, had to agree to evacuate the island, Sir William Napier criticised him, but his garrison consisted of only 1362 men, while the assailants numbered between 3000 and 4000. In the course of 1809, Lowe and his Corsicans helped in the capture of Ischia and Procida, as well as of Zante, for some months, he acted as governor of Cephalonia and Ithaca, and of Santa Maura
Gaspard, Baron Gourgaud, known simply as Gaspard Gourgaud, was a French soldier, prominent in the Napoleonic wars. He was born at Versailles, his father was a musician of the royal chapel, at school he showed talent in mathematical studies and joined the artillery. In 1802 he became lieutenant, and thereafter served with credit in the campaigns of 1803-1805. He was present at the siege of Saragossa in 1808, returned to service in Central Europe, in 1811 he was chosen to inspect and report on the fortifications of Gdańsk. For his services in this campaign he received the title of baron, wounded at the Battle of Montmirail, he recovered in time to be involved in several of the conflicts which followed, distinguishing himself especially at Laon and Reims. After the second abdication of the emperor, Gourgaud retired with him to Rochefort and it was to Gourgaud that Napoleon entrusted the letter of appeal to the prince regent for asylum in England. Gourgaud set off in HMS Slaney, but was not allowed to land in England, determined to share Napoleons exile, he sailed with him on HMS Northumberland to Saint Helena.
The ships secretary, John R. Glover, has left an account of some of Gourgauds gasconnades at table. His extreme sensitiveness and vanity soon brought him into collision with Napoleons other companions, Las Cases and Montholon, the former he styles in his journal a Jesuit and a scribbler who went there only to become famous. The friction with Montholon, his senior in rank, was so acute that he challenged him to a duel, tiring of the life at Longwood, he decided to leave the island. Once in London he quickly demonstrated his support for Napoleon by sending letters to the Empress Marie-Louise, in 1840 he joined other survivors of the captivity who returned to St. Helena to bring back Napoleons remains for burial in Paris. He sharply criticized Sir Walter Scotts Life of Napoleon and he soon published his Campagne de 1815, in the preparation of which he had had some help from Napoleon, but Gourgauds Journal de Ste-Hélène was not published till the year 1899. Entering the arena of letters, he wrote, or collaborated in, the first was a censure of Count P de Ségurs work on the campaign of 1812, with the result that he fought a duel with that officer and wounded him.
He became a deputy to the Legislative Assembly in 1849, Gourgauds works are, La Campagne de 1815, Napoléon et la Grande Armée en Russie Examen critique de louvrage de M. le comte P. See Notes and Reminiscences of a Staff Officer, by Basil Jackson, le général Gourgaud, by Jacques Macé