Collective intelligence is shared or group intelligence that emerges from the collaboration, collective efforts, competition of many individuals and appears in consensus decision making. The term appears in sociobiology, political science and in context of mass peer review and crowdsourcing applications, it may involve consensus, social capital and formalisms such as voting systems, social media and other means of quantifying mass activity. Collective IQ is a measure of collective intelligence, although it is used interchangeably with the term collective intelligence. Collective intelligence has been attributed to bacteria and animals, it can be understood as an emergent property from the synergies among: 1) data-information-knowledge. Or more narrowly as an emergent property between people and ways of processing information; this notion of collective intelligence is referred to as "symbiotic intelligence" by Norman Lee Johnson. The concept is used in sociology, computer science and mass communications: it appears in science fiction.
Pierre Lévy defines collective intelligence as, "It is a form of universally distributed intelligence enhanced, coordinated in real time, resulting in the effective mobilization of skills. I'll add the following indispensable characteristic to this definition: The basis and goal of collective intelligence is mutual recognition and enrichment of individuals rather than the cult of fetishized or hypostatized communities." According to researchers Pierre Lévy and Derrick de Kerckhove, it refers to capacity of networked ICTs to enhance the collective pool of social knowledge by expanding the extent of human interactions. Collective intelligence contributes to the shift of knowledge and power from the individual to the collective. According to Eric S. Raymond and JC Herz, open source intelligence will generate superior outcomes to knowledge generated by proprietary software developed within corporations. Media theorist Henry Jenkins sees collective intelligence as an'alternative source of media power', related to convergence culture.
He draws attention to education and the way people are learning to participate in knowledge cultures outside formal learning settings. Henry Jenkins criticizes schools which promote'autonomous problem solvers and self-contained learners' while remaining hostile to learning through the means of collective intelligence. Both Pierre Lévy and Henry Jenkins support the claim that collective intelligence is important for democratization, as it is interlinked with knowledge-based culture and sustained by collective idea sharing, thus contributes to a better understanding of diverse society. Similar to the g factor for general individual intelligence, a new scientific understanding of collective intelligence aims to extract a general collective intelligence factor c factor for groups indicating a group's ability to perform a wide range of tasks. Definition, operationalization and statistical methods are derived from g; as g is interrelated with the concept of IQ, this measurement of collective intelligence can be interpreted as intelligence quotient for groups though the score is not a quotient per se.
Causes for c and predictive validity are investigated as well. Writers who have influenced the idea of collective intelligence include Francis Galton, Douglas Hofstadter, Peter Russell, Tom Atlee, Pierre Lévy, Howard Bloom, Francis Heylighen, Douglas Engelbart, Louis Rosenberg, Cliff Joslyn, Ron Dembo, Gottfried Mayer-Kress; the concept originated in 1785 with the Marquis de Condorcet, whose "jury theorem" states that if each member of a voting group is more than not to make a correct decision, the probability that the highest vote of the group is the correct decision increases with the number of members of the group. Many theorists have interpreted Aristotle's statement in the Politics that "a feast to which many contribute is better than a dinner provided out of a single purse" to mean that just as many may bring different dishes to the table, so in a deliberation many may contribute different pieces of information to generate a better decision. Recent scholarship, suggests that this was not what Aristotle meant but is a modern interpretation based on what we now know about team intelligence.
A precursor of the concept is found in entomologist William Morton Wheeler's observation that independent individuals can cooperate so as to become indistinguishable from a single organism. Wheeler saw this collaborative process at work in ants that acted like the cells of a single beast he called a superorganism. In 1912 Émile Durkheim identified society as the sole source of human logical thought, he argued in "The Elementary Forms of Religious Life" that society constitutes a higher intelligence because it transcends the individual over space and time. Other antecedents are Vladimir Vernadsky's concept of "noosphere" and H. G. Wells's concept of "world brain". Peter Russell, Elisabet Sahtouris, Barbara Marx Hubbard are inspired by the visions of a noosphere – a transcendent evolving collective intelligence – an informational cortex of the planet; the notion has more been examined by the philosopher Pierre Lévy. In a 1962 research report, Douglas Engelbart linked col
Ambiguity is a type of meaning in which a phrase, statement or resolution is not explicitly defined, making several interpretations plausible. A common aspect of ambiguity is uncertainty, it is thus an attribute of any idea or statement whose intended meaning cannot be definitively resolved according to a rule or process with a finite number of steps. The concept of ambiguity is contrasted with vagueness. In ambiguity and distinct interpretations are permitted, whereas with information, vague, it is difficult to form any interpretation at the desired level of specificity. Context may play a role in resolving ambiguity. For example, the same piece of information may be ambiguous in one context and unambiguous in another. Lexical ambiguity is contrasted with semantic ambiguity; the former represents a choice between a finite number of known and meaningful context-dependent interpretations. The latter represents a choice between any number of possible interpretations, none of which may have a standard agreed-upon meaning.
This form of ambiguity is related to vagueness. Linguistic ambiguity can be a problem in law, because the interpretation of written documents and oral agreements is of paramount importance; the lexical ambiguity of a word or phrase pertains to its having more than one meaning in the language to which the word belongs. "Meaning" here refers to. For instance, the word "bank" has several distinct lexical definitions, including "financial institution" and "edge of a river". Or consider "apothecary". One could say "I bought herbs from the apothecary"; this could mean one spoke to the apothecary or went to the apothecary. The context in which an ambiguous word is used makes it evident which of the meanings is intended. If, for instance, someone says "I buried $100 in the bank", most people would not think someone used a shovel to dig in the mud. However, some linguistic contexts do not provide sufficient information to disambiguate a used word. Lexical ambiguity can be addressed by algorithmic methods that automatically associate the appropriate meaning with a word in context, a task referred to as word sense disambiguation.
The use of multi-defined words requires the author or speaker to clarify their context, sometimes elaborate on their specific intended meaning. The goal of clear concise communication is that the receiver have no misunderstanding about what was meant to be conveyed. An exception to this could include a politician whose "weasel words" and obfuscation are necessary to gain support from multiple constituents with mutually exclusive conflicting desires from their candidate of choice. Ambiguity is a powerful tool of political science. More problematic are words whose senses express related concepts. "Good", for example, can mean "useful" or "functional", "exemplary", "pleasing", "moral", "righteous", etc. I have a good daughter"; the various ways to apply prefixes and suffixes can create ambiguity. Semantic ambiguity happens when a sentence contains an ambiguous word or phrase—a word or phrase that has more than one meaning. In "We saw her duck", the word "duck" can refer either to the person's bird, or to a motion she made.
Syntactic ambiguity arises when a sentence can have two different meanings because of the structure of the sentence—its syntax. This is due to a modifying expression, such as a prepositional phrase, the application of, unclear. "He ate the cookies on the couch", for example, could mean that he ate those cookies that were on the couch, or it could mean that he was sitting on the couch when he ate the cookies. "To get in, you will need an entrance fee of $10 or your voucher and your drivers' license." This could mean that you need EITHER ten dollars OR BOTH your license. Or it could mean that you need you need EITHER ten dollars OR a voucher. Only rewriting the sentence, or placing appropriate punctuation can resolve a syntactic ambiguity. For the notion of, theoretic results about, syntactic ambiguity in artificial, formal languages, see Ambiguous grammar. Spoken language can contain many more types of ambiguities which are called phonological ambiguities, where there is more than one way to compose a set of sounds into words.
For example, "ice cream" and "I scream". Such ambiguity is resolved according to the context. A mishearing of such, based on incorrectly resolved ambiguity, is called a mondegreen. Metonymy involves the use of the name of a subcomponent part as an abbreviation, or jargon, for the name of the whole object. In modern vocabulary, critical semiotics, metonymy encompasses any ambiguous word substitution, based on contextual contiguity, or a function or process that an object performs, such as "sweet ride" to refer to a nice car. Metonym miscommunication is considered a primary mechanism of linguistic humor. Philosophers
An arrowslit is a narrow vertical aperture in a fortification through which an archer can launch arrows. The interior walls behind an arrow loop are cut away at an oblique angle so that the archer has a wide field of view and field of fire. Arrow slits come in a remarkable variety. A common and recognizable form is the cross, accommodating the use of both the longbow and the crossbow; the narrow vertical aperture permits the archer large degrees of freedom to vary the elevation and direction of his bowshot, but makes it difficult for attackers to harm the archer since there is only a small target at which to aim. Balistaria can be found in the curtain walls of medieval battlements beneath the crenellations; the invention of the arrowslit is attributed to Archimedes during the siege of Syracuse in 214–212 BC. Slits "of the height of a man and about a palm's width on the outside" allowed defenders to shoot bows and scorpions from within the city walls. Although used in late Greek and Roman defences, arrowslits were not present in early Norman castles.
They are only reintroduced to military architecture towards the end of the 12th century, with the castles of Dover and Framlingham in England, Richard the Lionheart's Château Gaillard in France. In these early examples, arrowslits were positioned to protect sections of the castle wall, rather than all sides of the castle. In the 13th century, it became common for arrowslits to be placed all around a castle's defences; the successor of arrowslits after the advent of gunpowder were gunports. In its simplest form, an arrowslit was a narrow vertical opening. For example, openings for longbowmen were tall and high to allow the user to shoot standing up and make use of the 6 ft bow, while those for crossbowmen were lower down as it was easier for the user to shoot whilst kneeling to support the weight of the weapon, it was common for arrowslits to widen to a triangle at the bottom, called a fishtail, to allow defenders a clearer view of the base of the wall. Behind the slit there was a recess called an embrasure.
The width of the slit dictated the field of fire, but the field of vision could be enhanced by the addition of horizontal openings. The horizontal slits were level, which created a cross shape, but less common was to have the slits off-set as demonstrated in the remains of White Castle in Wales; this has been characterised as an advance in design. When an embrasure linked to more than one arrowslit it is called a "multiple arrowslit"; some arrowslits, such as those at Corfe Castle, had lockers nearby to store spare bolts. Embrasure Media related to Arrowslits at Wikimedia Commons
Security is freedom from, or resilience against, potential harm caused by others. Beneficiaries of security may be of persons and social groups and institutions, ecosystems or any other entity or phenomenon vulnerable to unwanted change by its environment. Security refers to protection from hostile forces, but it has a wide range of other senses: for example, as the absence of harm; the term is used to refer to acts and systems whose purpose may be to provide security. The word'secure' entered the English language in the 16th century, it is derived from Latin securus, meaning freedom from anxiety: se + cura. A security referent is the focus of a security discourse. Security referents may be persons or social groups, institutions, ecosystems, or any other phenomenon vulnerable to unwanted change by the forces of its environment; the referent in question may combine many referents, in the same way that, for example, a nation state is composed of many individual citizens. The security context is the relationships between its environment.
From this perspective and insecurity depend first on whether the environment is beneficial or hostile to the referent, how capable is the referent of responding to its/their environment in order to survive and thrive. The means by which a referent provides for security vary widely, they include, for example: Coercive capabilities, including the capacity to project coercive power into the environment. Any action intended to provide security may have multiple effects. For example, an action may have wide benefit, enhancing security for several or all security referents in the context. Approaches to security are the subject of debate. For example, in debate about national security strategies, some argue that security depends principally on developing protective and coercive capabilities in order to protect the security referent in a hostile environment. Others argue that security depends principally on building the conditions in which equitable relationships can develop by reducing antagonism between actors, ensuring that fundamental needs can be met, that differences of interest can be negotiated effectively.
The table shows some of the main domains. The range of security contexts is illustrated by the following examples: Computer security known as cybersecurity or IT security, refers to the security of computing devices such as computers and smartphones, as well as computer networks such as private and public networks, the Internet; the field has growing importance due to the increasing reliance on computer systems in most societies. It concerns the protection of hardware, data and the procedures by which systems are accessed; the means of computer security include the physical security of systems and security of information held on them. Corporate security refers to the resilience of corporations against espionage, theft and other threats; the security of corporations has become more complex as reliance on IT systems has increased, their physical presence has become more distributed across several countries, including environments that are, or may become, hostile to them. Ecological security known as environmental security, refers to the integrity of ecosystems and the biosphere in relation to their capacity to sustain a diversity of life-forms.
The security of ecosystems has attracted greater attention as the impact of ecological damage by humans has grown. Food security refers to the ready supply of, access to, safe and nutritious food. Food security is gaining in importance as the world's population has grown and productive land has diminished through overuse and climate change. Home security refers to the security systems used on a property used as a dwelling; the concept is supported by the United Nations General Assembly, which has stressed "the right of people to live in freedom and dignity" and recognized "t
Criminal justice is the delivery of justice to those who have committed crimes. The criminal justice system is a series of government agencies and institutions whose goals are to identify and catch unlawful individuals to inflict a form of punishment on them. Other goals include the rehabilitation of offenders, preventing other crimes, moral support for victims; the primary institutions of the criminal justice system are the police and defense lawyers, the courts and prisons. The Law From Old English lagu; the purpose of law is to provide an objective set of rules for governing conduct and maintaining order in a society. The oldest known codified law is the Code of Hammurabi, dating back to about 1754 BC; the preface directly credits the laws to the code of hammurabi of Ur. In different parts of the world, law could be established by philosophers or religion. In the modern world, laws are created and enforced by governments; these codified laws may coexist with or contradict other forms of social control, such as religious proscriptions, professional rules and ethics, or the cultural mores and customs of a society.
Within the realm of codified law, there are two forms of law that the courts are concerned with. Civil laws are rules and regulations which govern transactions and grievances between individual citizens. Criminal law is concerned with actions which are dangerous or harmful to society as a whole, in which prosecution is pursued not by an individual but rather by the state; the purpose of criminal law is to provide the specific definition of what constitutes a crime and to prescribe punishments for committing such a crime. No criminal law can be valid; the subject of criminal justice is, of course concerned with the enforcement of criminal law. The criminal-justice system consists of three main parts: Law enforcement agencies the police Courts and accompanying prosecution and defence lawyers Agencies for detaining and supervising offenders, such as prisons and probation agencies. In the criminal justice system, these distinct agencies operate together as the principal means of maintaining the rule of law within society.
The first contact a defendant has with the criminal justice system is with the police who investigates the suspected wrongdoing and makes an arrest, but if the suspect is dangerous to the whole nation, a national level law enforcement agency is called in. When warranted, law enforcement agencies or police officers are empowered to use force and other forms of legal coercion and means to effect public and social order; the term is most associated with police departments of a state that are authorized to exercise the police power of that state within a defined legal or territorial area of responsibility. The word comes from the Latin politia, which itself derives for polis; the first police force comparable to the present-day police was established in 1667 under King Louis XIV in France, although modern police trace their origins to the 1800 establishment of the Marine Police in London, the Glasgow Police, the Napoleonic police of Paris. Police are concerned with keeping the peace and enforcing criminal law based on their particular mission and jurisdiction.
Formed in 1908, the Federal Bureau of Investigation began as an entity which could investigate and enforce specific federal laws as an investigative and "law enforcement agency" in the United States. Policing has included an array of activities in different contexts, but the predominant ones are concerned with order maintenance and the provision of services. During modern times, such endeavors contribute toward fulfilling a shared mission among law enforcement organizations with respect to the traditional policing mission of deterring crime and maintaining societal order; the courts serve as the venue where disputes are settled and justice is administered. With regard to criminal justice, there are a number of critical people in any court setting; these critical people are referred to as the courtroom work group and include both professional and non professional individuals. These include the judge and the defense attorney; the judge, or magistrate, is a person, elected or appointed, knowledgeable in the law, whose function is to objectively administer the legal proceedings and offer a final decision to dispose of a case.
In the U. S. and in a growing number of nations, guilt or innocence is decided through the adversarial system. In this system, two parties will both offer their version of events and argue their case before the court; the case should be decided in favor of the party who offers the most sound and compelling arguments based on the law as applied to the facts of the case. The prosecutor, or district attorney, is a lawyer who brings charges against a person, persons or corporate entity, it is the prosecutor's duty to explain to the court what crime was committed and to detail what evidence has been found which incriminates the accused. The prosecutor should not be confused with plaintiff's counsel. Although both serve the function of bringing a complaint before the court, the prosecutor is a servant of the state who ma
Copyfraud refers to false copyright claims by individuals or institutions with respect to content, in the public domain. Such claims are wrongful, at least under U. S. and Australian copyright law, because material, not copyrighted is free for all to use and reproduce. Copyfraud includes overreaching claims by publishers and others, as where a legitimate copyright owner knowingly, or with constructive knowledge, claims rights beyond what the law allows; the term "copyfraud" was coined by a Professor of Law at the University of Illinois. Because copyfraud carries little or no oversight by authorities and few legal consequences, it exists on a massive scale, with millions of works in the public domain falsely labelled as copyrighted. Payments are therefore unnecessarily made by individuals for licensing fees. Mazzone states that copyfraud stifles valid reproduction of free material, discourages innovation and undermines free speech rights. Other legal scholars have suggested public and private remedies, a few cases have been brought involving copyfraud.
Mazzone describes copyfraud as: Claiming copyright ownership of public domain material. Imposition by a copyright owner of restrictions beyond what the law allows. Claiming copyright ownership on the basis of ownership of copies or archives. Attaching copyright notices to a public domain work converted to a different medium. According to copyright experts Jason Mazzone and Stephen Fishman, a massive amount of works in the public domain are reprinted and sold by large publishers that state or imply they own copyrights in those works. While selling copies of public domain works is legal, claiming or implying ownership of a copyright in those works can amount to fraud. Mazzone notes that although the US government protects copyrights, it offers little protection to works in the public domain. False claims of copyright over public domain works is common; the profits earned by publishers falsely claiming. Section 506 of United States Code Title 17 prohibits three distinct acts: placing a false notice of copyright on an article.
The prosecution must prove that the act alleged was committed "with fraudulent intent". Violations of sections 506 and 506 are each punishable by a fine of up to $2,500. No private right of action exists under either of these provisions. No company has been prosecuted for violating this law. Mazzone argues that copyfraud is successful because there are few and weak laws criminalizing false statements about copyrights, lax enforcement of such laws, few people who are competent to give legal advice on the copyright status of material, few people willing to risk a lawsuit to resist the fraudulent licensing fees that resellers demand. Companies that sell public domain material under false claims of copyright require the buyer to agree to a contract referred to as a license. Many such licenses for material bought online require a buyer to click a button to "accept" their terms before they can access the material. Book publishers, both hard copy and e-books, sometimes include a license-like statement in compilations of public domain material purporting to restrict how the buyer can use the printed material.
For instance, Dover Publications, which publishes collections of public domain clip art includes statements purporting to limit how the illustrations can be used. Fishman states that while the seller cannot sue for copyright infringement under federal law, they can sue for breach of contract under the license. Public domain photos by Walker Evans and Dorothea Lange, available for unrestricted downloads from the Library of Congress, are available from Getty Images after agreeing to their terms and paying license fees of up to $5,000 for a six-month term; when photographer Carol M. Highsmith sued Getty Images for asserting they owned copyrights to photos she donated to the public domain, Getty admitted that her images were in the public domain, but said it nonetheless had a right to charge a fee for distributing the material, since "Distributing and providing access to public domain content is different from asserting copyright ownership of it". Fishman believes that because US federal law preempts state law when it conflicts with federal law, that such copyright-like licenses should be unenforceable.
However, the first two cases dealing with violations of such licenses decided that the licenses were enforceable, despite the fact that the material used was in the public domain: see ProCD, Inc. v. Zeidenberg and Matthew Bender v. Jurisline. Collections: A collection of public domain material, whether scanned and digitized, or reprinted, only protects the arrangement of the material, but not the individual works collected. However, publishers of many public domain collections will nonetheless place a copyright notice covering the entire publication. U. S. Government publications: Most of the text and photos published by the U. S. government are in the public domain and free from copyright. Some exceptions might include a publication that includes copyrighted material, such as non-government photo, but many publishers include a copyright notice on reproduced government documents, such as one on the Warren Report. Knowing that the penalty for making a false copyright claim on a copied government publication is small, some publishers ignore the laws.
Art and photography: Publishers have placed copyright notices and restrictions on their reproductions of public domain artwork and photos. However, there is no copyright for a reproduction, w
Law is a system of rules that are created and enforced through social or governmental institutions to regulate behavior. It has been defined both as "the Science of Justice" and "the Art of Justice". Law is a system that regulates and ensures that individuals or a community adhere to the will of the state. State-enforced laws can be made by a collective legislature or by a single legislator, resulting in statutes, by the executive through decrees and regulations, or established by judges through precedent in common law jurisdictions. Private individuals can create binding contracts, including arbitration agreements that may elect to accept alternative arbitration to the normal court process; the formation of laws themselves may be influenced by a constitution, written or tacit, the rights encoded therein. The law shapes politics, economics and society in various ways and serves as a mediator of relations between people. A general distinction can be made between civil law jurisdictions, in which a legislature or other central body codifies and consolidates their laws, common law systems, where judge-made precedent is accepted as binding law.
Religious laws played a significant role in settling of secular matters, is still used in some religious communities. Islamic Sharia law is the world's most used religious law, is used as the primary legal system in some countries, such as Iran and Saudi Arabia; the adjudication of the law is divided into two main areas. Criminal law deals with conduct, considered harmful to social order and in which the guilty party may be imprisoned or fined. Civil law deals with the resolution of lawsuits between individuals and/or organizations. Law provides a source of scholarly inquiry into legal history, economic analysis and sociology. Law raises important and complex issues concerning equality and justice. Numerous definitions of law have been put forward over the centuries; the Third New International Dictionary from Merriam-Webster defines law as: "Law is a binding custom or practice of a community. The Dictionary of the History of Ideas published by Scribner's in 1973 defined the concept of law accordingly as: "A legal system is the most explicit, institutionalized, complex mode of regulating human conduct.
At the same time, it plays only one part in the congeries of rules which influence behavior, for social and moral rules of a less institutionalized kind are of great importance." There have been several attempts to produce "a universally acceptable definition of law". In 1972, one source indicated. McCoubrey and White said that the question "what is law?" has no simple answer. Glanville Williams said that the meaning of the word "law" depends on the context in which that word is used, he said that, for example, "early customary law" and "municipal law" were contexts where the word "law" had two different and irreconcilable meanings. Thurman Arnold said that it is obvious that it is impossible to define the word "law" and that it is equally obvious that the struggle to define that word should not be abandoned, it is possible to take the view that there is no need to define the word "law". The history of law links to the development of civilization. Ancient Egyptian law, dating as far back as 3000 BC, contained a civil code, broken into twelve books.
It was based on the concept of Ma'at, characterised by tradition, rhetorical speech, social equality and impartiality. By the 22nd century BC, the ancient Sumerian ruler Ur-Nammu had formulated the first law code, which consisted of casuistic statements. Around 1760 BC, King Hammurabi further developed Babylonian law, by codifying and inscribing it in stone. Hammurabi placed several copies of his law code throughout the kingdom of Babylon as stelae, for the entire public to see; the most intact copy of these stelae was discovered in the 19th century by British Assyriologists, has since been transliterated and translated into various languages, including English, Italian and French. The Old Testament dates back to 1280 BC and takes the form of moral imperatives as recommendations for a good society; the small Greek city-state, ancient Athens, from about the 8th century BC was the first society to be based on broad inclusion of its citizenry, excluding women and the slave class. However, Athens had no legal science or single word for "law", relying instead on the three-way distinction between divine law, human decree and custom.
Yet Ancient Greek law contained major constitutional innovations in the development of democracy. Roman law was influenced by Greek philosophy, but its detailed rules were developed by professional jurists and were sophisticated. Over the centuries between the rise and decline of the Roman Empire, law was adapted to cope with the changing social situations and underwent major codification under Theodosius II and Justinian I. Although codes were replaced by custom and case law during the Dark Ages, Roman law was rediscovered around the 11th century when medieval legal scholars began to research Roman codes and adapt their concepts. Latin legal maxims were compiled for guidance. In medieval England, royal