The Hague is a city on the western coast of the Netherlands, and the capital city of the province of South Holland. With a population of 520,704 inhabitants and more than one million including the suburbs, it is the third-largest city of the Netherlands. The Rotterdam The Hague Metropolitan Area, with a population of approximately 2.7 million, is the 12th-largest in the European Union and the most populous in the country. Located in the west of the Netherlands, The Hague is in the centre of the Haaglanden conurbation and lies at the southwest corner of the larger Randstad conurbation. The Hague is the seat of the Dutch government, the Supreme Court, and the Council of State, but the city is not the capital of the Netherlands, which constitutionally is Amsterdam. King Willem-Alexander of the Netherlands plans to live at Huis ten Bosch and works at Noordeinde Palace in The Hague, the Hague is home to the world headquarters of Royal Dutch Shell and numerous other major Dutch companies. The Hague originated around 1230, when Count Floris IV of Holland purchased land alongside a pond, in 1248, his son and successor William II, King of the Romans, decided to extend the residence to a palace, which would be called the Binnenhof.
He died in 1256 before this palace was completed but parts of it were finished by his son Floris V, of which the Ridderzaal and it is still used for political events, such as the annual speech from the throne by the Dutch monarch. From the 13th century onwards, the counts of Holland used The Hague as their administrative centre, the village that originated around the Binnenhof was first mentioned as Haga in a charter dating from 1242. In the 15th century, the smarter des Graven hage came into use, literally The Counts Wood, with connotations like The Counts Hedge, s-Gravenhage was officially used for the city from the 17th century onwards. Today, this name is used in some official documents like birth. The city itself uses Den Haag in all its communication and their seat was located in The Hague. At the beginning of the Eighty Years War, the absence of city walls proved disastrous, in 1575, the States of Holland even considered demolishing the city but this proposal was abandoned, after mediation by William of Orange.
From 1588, The Hague became the seat of the government of the Dutch Republic, in order for the administration to maintain control over city matters, The Hague never received official city status, although it did have many of the privileges normally granted only to cities. In modern administrative law, city rights have no place anymore, only in 1806, when the Kingdom of Holland was a puppet state of the First French Empire, was the settlement granted city rights by Louis Bonaparte. After the Napoleonic Wars, modern-day Belgium and the Netherlands were combined in the United Kingdom of the Netherlands to form a buffer against France, as a compromise and Amsterdam alternated as capital every two years, with the government remaining in The Hague. After the separation of Belgium in 1830, Amsterdam remained the capital of the Netherlands, when the government started to play a more prominent role in Dutch society after 1850, The Hague quickly expanded. The growing city annexed the rural municipality of Loosduinen partly in 1903, the city sustained heavy damage during World War II
South Holland is a province in the midwestern Netherlands. It has a population of just over 3.6 million, situated on the North Sea in the west of the Netherlands, South Holland covers an area of 3,403 km2, of which 585 km2 is water. It borders North Holland to the north and Gelderland to the east, the provincial capital is The Hague, while its largest city is Rotterdam. Archaeological discoveries in Hardinxveld-Giessendam indicate that the area of South Holland has been inhabited since at least ca.7,500 years before present and permanent settlements probably originated around 2,000 years later, based on excavations near Vlaardingen. In the classical antiquity, South Holland was part of the Roman Province of Germania Inferior, the Romans built fortresses along the border, such as Praetorium Agrippinae near modern-day Valkenburg, Matilo near modern-day Leiden, and Albaniana near modern-day Alphen aan den Rijn. A city was founded near modern-day Voorburg, Forum Hadriani and it was built according to the grid plan, and facilitated a square, a court, a bathhouse and several temples.
After the departure of the Romans, the area belonged to the Frisian Kingdom, in 690, the Anglo-Saxon monk Willibrord arrived near Katwijk and was granted permission to spread Roman Catholicism by the Frankish king Pepin II. He accordingly founded a church in Oegstgeest, after which the area was gradually Christianised. The area was appointed to East Francia in the Treaty of Verdun in 843, after which the king granted lands to Gerolf and this was the birth of the County of Holland. Gerolf was succeeded by Dirk I, who continued to rule Holland under the Frankish king, in 1248, count William II ordered the construction of the Ridderzaal, which was finished by his son and successor Floris V. The first city in South Holland to receive city rights was Dordrecht, the city retained a dominant position in the area until it was struck by a series of floods in the late 14th century. The same century saw a series of civil wars, the Hook and Cod wars. Both his daughter Jaqueline and his brother John, the supported by Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy.
The conflict ended in 1490, with John victorious, the area of South Holland remained largely agrarian throughout the late Middle Ages. This changed around 1500, when Holland became Europes most urbanised area, during the Eighty Years War, the area of South Holland was the scene of the Capture of Brielle, the Siege of Leiden and the assassination of William the Silent. The United Netherlands declared their independence in 1581, and Holland quickly emerged as the dominant province, with important trading cities such as Leiden, Gouda. In 1575, the Netherlands first university was founded in Leiden by William the Silent, the Hague, which had originated around the castle of the counts of Holland, became its new political centre. Both the States of Holland and the States General seated in the Binnenhof, the Dutch Golden Age blossomed in the 17th century
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used mainly for documentation in libraries and increasingly by archives, the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero license, the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, and an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format
Dirk VII, Count of Holland
Dirk VII of Holland, known as Dietrich in German, Thierry in French, and Theodoric in English, was Count of Holland from 1190 to 1203. He was the son of Floris III and Ada of Huntingdon. Thanks to a war in the Holy Roman Empire, Henry VI. The Emperor supported Dirk by giving him the right to tolls on Flemish traders in Geervliet. Henry gave Holland the Grote Waard, at the cost of the bishopric of Utrecht and he set aside the Salic law for the succession to the County of Holland, which meant that it could be inherited by a female heir. In 1196, Dirk temporarily gained the authority of the bishopric of Utrecht. This meant war with Count Otto I of Guelders, Otto was defeated at the Battle of the Grebbeberg. In 1197 Dirk van Are was elected as the new bishop, as such, he recovered the princely authority of Utrecht. The Hohenstaufens were losing the war, so Count Dirk changed sides. The Frisians in Oostergo and Westergo supported Dirks brother William, who invaded Holland, William was supported by some of the West Frisians as well.
In 1202 Dirk allied himself with Otto of Guelders, and they both attacked Brabant, Brabant claimed Holland and Guelders as dukes of Lotharingia. Den Bosch and Geertruidenberg were sacked during this campaign, Duke Henry I of Brabant took Dirk prisoner at Heusden. As well as having to pay a ransom, he had to accept the Duke of Brabant as his overlord in southern Holland. Dirks daughter Ada inherited the County of Holland in 1203 and she married Louis II, Count of Loon, who became Count of Holland. In 1186 Dirk married Adelaide of Cleves, a daughter of Arnold of Cleves, petronilla Ada, Countess of Holland, married in 1203 Louis II, Count of Loon, Count of Holland from 1203 to 1206
Den Haag Centraal railway station
Den Haag Centraal is the largest railway station in the Dutch seat of government, the city of The Hague, and with twelve tracks, the largest terminal station in the Netherlands. The station was completed in 1973, adjacent to its predecessor, station Den Haag Staatsspoor and it is the western terminus of the Gouda–Den Haag railway. The oldest station in The Hague is Den Haag Hollands Spoor on the line from Amsterdam to Rotterdam. This station was built at some distance from the city centre, in 1870, the Nederlandsche Rhijnspoorweg-Maatschappij opened a second station in The Hague, Den Haag Rijnspoor for trains to Gouda and Utrecht. This station was much closer to the city centre. From 1888 this railroad was the property of the Maatschappij tot Exploitatie van Staatsspoorwegen, in the 1970s, Nederlandse Spoorwegen decided to build a new Central Station in The Hague and it was decided to build the new station next to Staatsspoor station. The old station was demolished after the new station was completed, a chord was built to connect the station to the line to Amsterdam.
Now, The Hague is the city in the Netherlands which still has two major railway stations. The main hall of Den Haag Centraal is currently undergoing a renovation in order to increase the stations capacity. It is now higher, and made of glass placed in a framework of stainless steel. Moreover, more space has been added next to both side entrances, and new tiling is due to be placed. The renovation was planned to finish by the end of 2014 but is going on as of July 2015. The railway station features two stations, one on a platform above the rail tracks and one parallel to them. Upper tram station Lower tram station Besides the Tramservices offered by the HTM, there is a bus platform above the rail roads, which is connected to the Prins Bernhardviaduct running over the tracks. The platform is accessible from the main hall. Several city and regional lines of three different carriers stop here, hTMs bus lines starting with an N are night buses and only run on Fridays and Saturdays. NS website Live departure times and cancellations in English Dutch Public Transport journey planner Den Haag Nieuw Centraal HTM Personenvervoer Veolia Haaglanden Arriva RET HTMbuzz
Great Famine (Ireland)
The Great Famine or the Great Hunger was a period of mass starvation and emigration in Ireland between 1845 and 1852. It is sometimes referred to, mostly outside Ireland, as the Irish Potato Famine, during the famine, approximately one million people died and a million more emigrated from Ireland, causing the islands population to fall by between 20% and 25%. The proximate cause of famine was potato blight, which ravaged potato crops throughout Europe during the 1840s, the famine was a watershed in the history of Ireland, which was part of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. The famine and its effects permanently changed the demographic, political. For both the native Irish and those in the diaspora, the famine entered folk memory. Ireland sent 105 members of parliament to the House of Commons of the United Kingdom, between 1832 and 1859, 70% of Irish representatives were landowners or the sons of landowners. The laws had largely been reformed by 1793, and the Roman Catholic Relief Act 1829 allowed Irish Catholics to again sit in parliament, during the 18th century, the middleman system for managing landed property was introduced.
Rent collection was left in the hands of the landlords agents and this assured the landlord of a regular income, and relieved them of direct responsibility, while leaving tenants open to exploitation by the middlemen. Catholics, the bulk of whom lived in conditions of poverty and insecurity despite Catholic emancipation in 1829, made up 80% of the population. At the top of the pyramid was the ascendancy class, the English and Anglo-Irish families who owned most of the land. Some of their estates were vast, for example, the Earl of Lucan owned over 60,000 acres, many of these landlords lived in England and were known as absentee landlords. The rent revenue—collected from impoverished tenants who were paid wages to raise crops. In 1843, the British Government considered that the question in Ireland was the root cause of disaffection in the country. They established a Royal Commission, chaired by the Earl of Devon, Daniel OConnell described this commission as perfectly one-sided, being composed of landlords, with no tenant representation.
In February 1845, Devon reported, It would be impossible adequately to describe the privations which they habitually and silently endure, in many districts their only food is the potato, their only beverage water. Their cabins are seldom a protection against the weather, a bed or a blanket is a rare luxury. And nearly in all their pig and a manure heap constitute their only property, the Commission stated that bad relations between landlord and tenant were principally responsible. There was no loyalty, feudal tie, or mitigating tradition of paternalism as existed in England
Floris V, Count of Holland
Floris V reigned as Count of Holland and Zeeland from 1256 until 1296. His life was documented in detail in the Rijmkroniek by Melis Stoke and his dramatic murder, engineered by King Edward I of England and Guy, Count of Flanders, made him a hero in Holland. He was the son of Count William II, who was slain in 1256 by Frisians when Floris was just two old, and Elisabeth of Brunswick-Lüneburg. First his uncle, his aunt fought over custody of Holland, at the battle of Reimerswaal on 22 January 1263, Count Otto II, Count of Guelders defeated Aleidis and was chosen regent by the nobles who opposed Aleidis. Otto II served as Floris Vs guardian until he was years old. Floris’s mother continued to reside in Holland after her husband’s death in 1256 and she died on 27 May 1266 and is buried in Middelburg abbey church. She died in the year that Count Floris V was declared old enough to rule without guardianship. Floris was supported by the count of Hainaut of the house of Avesnes, Floris married Beatrix of Dampierre, the daughter of Guy of Dampierre, count of Flanders, in 1269.
In 1272 he unsuccessfully attacked the Frisians in a first attempt to retrieve the body of his father and Herman were supported by the craftsmen of Utrecht, the peasants of Kennemerland and Amstelland and the West Frisians. He assisted the bishop, John I of Nassau, by making a treaty with the craftsmen. The bishop would become dependent on Hollands support, and eventually added the lands of the lords to Holland in 1279. He gave concessions to the peasants of Kennemerland, Kennemerland was a duneland, where the farmers had far fewer rights than the farmers in the polders. Floris got rid of the Avesnes influence and switched allegiance to the Dampierres, in 1282 he again attacked the troublesome Frisians in the north, defeating them at the battle of Vronen, and succeeded in retrieving the body of his father. After a campaign in 1287–1288 he finally defeated the Frisians, in the meantime he had received Zeeland-bewester-Schelde as a loan from the Holy Roman King Rudolf I of Germany in 1287, but the local nobility sided with the count of Flanders who invaded in 1290.
Floris arranged a meeting with count Guy of Flanders, but he was taken prisoner in Biervliet and was forced to abandon his claims and set free. After Edward I moved his trade in wool from Dordrecht in Holland to Mechelen in Brabant, to gain Flanderss support against France, Edward I now prohibited all English trade with Holland and conspired with Guy of Flanders to have Floris kidnapped and taken to France. The humiliated lords Gijsbrecht IV of Amstel and Herman of Woerden enter the scene again as part of the conspiracy, together with Gerard van Velsen they captured Floris during a hunting party and brought him to Muiderslot castle. The news of the spread quickly, afraid of the people
Regional transports are serviced by Veolia Transport, Arriva and RET. Since 9 December 2012, citybus-services run by HTMbuzz, a joint-venture of HTM and Qbuzz, regional transports being serviced by Veolia, fares on the network fall under the National Tariff System. Since 2004 there is a tunnel with two underground tramstations in The Hague city centre, it is shared by tramline 6 and RR-lines 2,3 and 4. Trams & LRVs,600 volt DC-series,144 GTL8-trams,600 &750 volt DC-series,72 LRVs called RegioCitadis, in November 2011 an order has been signed by HTM and Siemens for 40 new trams of the Siemens Avenio-type, with an option for another 40 trams. Delivery should be starting in February 2014, HTM once owned shares in SVD, the city bus company of Dordrecht. However, HTM has sold its shares because the ministry of transport, in addition to this Arriva took over the service as of January 1,2007, due to a better offer. RR3 Savornin Lohmanplein - Den Haag Centraal railway station Operated by RandstadRail as tram-trains, RR4 Monstersestraat - Zoetermeer Javalaan Operated by RET of Rotterdam as part of Randstadrail and the underground/subway-system of Rotterdam Operated by RandstadRail
Good Friday is a Christian holiday commemorating the crucifixion of Jesus Christ and his death at Calvary. It is observed during Holy Week as part of the Paschal Triduum on the Friday preceding Easter Sunday and it is known as Holy Friday, Great Friday, Black Friday, or Easter Friday, though the last term properly refers to the Friday in Easter week. The date of the holiday on the Gregorian calendar varies from one year to the next and it is a widely instituted legal holiday in many national governments around the world, including in most Western countries as well as in 12 U. S. states. Some countries, such as Germany, have laws prohibiting certain acts, such as dancing and horse racing, the etymology of the term good in the context of Good Friday is contested. Some sources claim good to mean pious or holy, while others contend that it is a corruption of God Friday. In German-speaking countries, Good Friday is generally referred to as Karfreitag, the Kar prefix is an ancestor of the English word care in the sense of cares and woes, it meant mourning.
The day is known as Stiller Freitag and Hoher Freitag. According to the accounts in the Gospels, the Temple Guards, guided by Jesus disciple Judas Iscariot, Judas received money for betraying Jesus and told the guards that whomever he kisses is the one they are to arrest. Following his arrest, Jesus was taken to the house of Annas, there he was interrogated with little result and sent bound to Caiaphas the high priest where the Sanhedrin had assembled. Conflicting testimony against Jesus was brought forth by many witnesses, to which Jesus answered nothing. Finally the high priest adjured Jesus to respond under solemn oath, saying I adjure you, by the Living God, to us, are you the Anointed One. Jesus testified ambiguously, You have said it, and in time you see the Son of Man seated at the right hand of the Almighty. The high priest condemned Jesus for blasphemy, and the Sanhedrin concurred with a sentence of death, waiting in the courtyard, denied Jesus three times to bystanders while the interrogations were proceeding just as Jesus had predicted.
In the morning, the assembly brought Jesus to the Roman governor Pontius Pilate under charges of subverting the nation, opposing taxes to Caesar. Pilate questioned Jesus and told the assembly there was no basis for sentencing. Upon learning that Jesus was from Galilee, Pilate referred the case to the ruler of Galilee, King Herod, Herod questioned Jesus but received no answer, Herod sent Jesus back to Pilate. Pilate told the assembly that neither he nor Herod found guilt in Jesus, under the guidance of the chief priests, the crowd asked for Barabbas, who had been imprisoned for committing murder during an insurrection. Pilate asked what they would have him do with Jesus, and they demanded, pilates wife had seen Jesus in a dream earlier that day, and she forewarned Pilate to have nothing to do with this righteous man
Civil wars and executions continued, culminating in the victory of Octavian, Caesars adopted son, over Mark Antony and Cleopatra at the Battle of Actium in 31 BC and the annexation of Egypt. Octavians power was unassailable and in 27 BC the Roman Senate formally granted him overarching power, the imperial period of Rome lasted approximately 1,500 years compared to the 500 years of the Republican era. The first two centuries of the empires existence were a period of unprecedented political stability and prosperity known as the Pax Romana, following Octavians victory, the size of the empire was dramatically increased. After the assassination of Caligula in 41, the senate briefly considered restoring the republic, under Claudius, the empire invaded Britannia, its first major expansion since Augustus. Vespasian emerged triumphant in 69, establishing the Flavian dynasty, before being succeeded by his son Titus and his short reign was followed by the long reign of his brother Domitian, who was eventually assassinated.
The senate appointed the first of the Five Good Emperors, the empire reached its greatest extent under Trajan, the second in this line. A period of increasing trouble and decline began with the reign of Commodus, Commodus assassination in 192 triggered the Year of the Five Emperors, of which Septimius Severus emerged victorious. The assassination of Alexander Severus in 235 led to the Crisis of the Third Century in which 26 men were declared emperor by the Roman Senate over a time span. It was not until the reign of Diocletian that the empire was fully stabilized with the introduction of the Tetrarchy, which saw four emperors rule the empire at once. This arrangement was unsuccessful, leading to a civil war that was finally ended by Constantine I. Constantine subsequently shifted the capital to Byzantium, which was renamed Constantinople in his honour and it remained the capital of the east until its demise. Constantine adopted Christianity which became the state religion of the empire. However, Augustulus was never recognized by his Eastern colleague, and separate rule in the Western part of the empire ceased to exist upon the death of Julius Nepos.
The Eastern Roman Empire endured for another millennium, eventually falling to the Ottoman Turks in 1453, the Roman Empire was among the most powerful economic, cultural and military forces in the world of its time. It was one of the largest empires in world history, at its height under Trajan, it covered 5 million square kilometres. It held sway over an estimated 70 million people, at that time 21% of the entire population. Throughout the European medieval period, attempts were made to establish successors to the Roman Empire, including the Empire of Romania, a Crusader state. Rome had begun expanding shortly after the founding of the republic in the 6th century BC, then, it was an empire long before it had an emperor
Delft is a city and a municipality in the Netherlands. It is located in the province of South Holland, to the north of Rotterdam, the city of Delft came into being aside a canal, the Delf, which comes from the word delven, meaning delving or digging, and led to the name Delft. It presumably started around the 11th century as a landlord court, from a rural village in the early Middle Ages, Delft developed to a city, that in the 13th century received its charter. The towns association with the House of Orange started when William of Orange, nicknamed William the Silent, at the time he was the leader of growing national Dutch resistance against Spanish occupation, known as the Eighty Years War. By Delft was one of the cities of Holland. An attack by Spanish forces in October of that year was repelled, after the Act of Abjuration was proclaimed in 1581, Delft became the de facto capital of the newly independent Netherlands, as the seat of the Prince of Orange. When William was shot dead in 1584, by Balthazar Gerards in the hall of the Prinsenhof, therefore, he was buried in the Delft Nieuwe Kerk, starting a tradition for the House of Orange that has continued to the present day.
The Delft Explosion, known in history as the Delft Thunderclap, occurred on 12 October 1654 when a gunpowder store exploded, over a hundred people were killed and thousands were wounded. About 30 tonnes of gunpowder were stored in barrels in a magazine in a former Clarissen convent in the Doelenkwartier district, cornelis Soetens, the keeper of the magazine, opened the store to check a sample of the powder and a huge explosion followed. Luckily, many citizens were away, visiting a market in Schiedam or a fair in The Hague, Delft artist Egbert van der Poel painted several pictures of Delft showing the devastation. Historical buildings and other sights of interest include, Oude Kerk, buried here, Piet Hein, Johannes Vermeer, Anthony van Leeuwenhoek. Nieuwe Kerk, constructed between 1381 and 1496 and it contains the Dutch royal familys burial vault, which between funerals is sealed with a 5,000 kg cover stone. A statue of Hugo Grotius made by Franciscus Leonardus Stracké in 1886 and this is the only remaining gate of the old city walls.
The Gemeenlandshuis Delfland, or Huyterhuis, built in 1505, which has housed the Delfland regional water authority since 1645, the Vermeer Centre in the rebuilt Guild house of St. Luke. Windmill De Roos, a mill built c.1760. Restored to working order in 2013, another windmill that formerly stood in Delft, Het Fortuyn, was dismantled in 1917 and re-erected at the Netherlands Open Air Museum, Gelderland in 1920. Delft is well known for the Delft pottery ceramic products which were styled on the imported Chinese porcelain of the 17th century, the city had an early start in this area since it was a home port of the Dutch East India Company. It can still be seen at the pottery factories De Koninklijke Porceleyne Fles, the painter Johannes Vermeer was born in Delft