Lorch (Württemberg)

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Lorch
Coat of arms of Lorch
Coat of arms
Lorch  is located in Germany
Lorch
Lorch
Location of Lorch within Ostalbkreis district
Schwäbisch Gmünd Heidenheim (district) Schwäbisch-Hall (district) Rems-Murr-Kreis Göppingen (district) Aalen Abtsgmünd Adelmannsfelden Bartholomä Böbingen an der Rems Bopfingen Durlangen Ellenberg Ellwangen Eschach Essingen Göggingen Gschwend Heubach Heuchlingen Hüttlingen Hüttlingen Iggingen Jagstzell Kirchheim am Ries Lauchheim Leinzell Lorch Mögglingen Mutlangen Neresheim Neuler Obergröningen Oberkochen Rainau Riesbürg Riesbürg Rosenberg Ruppertshofen Schechingen Schwäbisch Gmünd Spraitbach Stödtlen Täferrot Tannhausen Tannhausen Unterschneidheim Waldstetten Waldstetten Westhausen Wört BavariaLorch in AA.svg
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Coordinates: 48°47′54″N 09°41′18″E / 48.79833°N 9.68833°E / 48.79833; 9.68833Coordinates: 48°47′54″N 09°41′18″E / 48.79833°N 9.68833°E / 48.79833; 9.68833
Country Germany
State Baden-Württemberg
Admin. region Stuttgart
District Ostalbkreis
Government
 • Mayor Karl Bühler
Area
 • Total 34.28 km2 (13.24 sq mi)
Elevation 288 m (945 ft)
Population (2015-12-31)[1]
 • Total 10,800
 • Density 320/km2 (820/sq mi)
Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2)
Postal codes 73547
Dialling codes 07172
Vehicle registration AA
Website www.stadt-lorch.de

Lorch is a small town situated in the Ostalbkreis district, in Baden-Württemberg, Germany. It is situated on the river Rems, 8 kilometers west of Schwäbisch Gmünd.

Geography[edit]

Lorch is situated in the valley of the river Rems, a tributary of the Neckar River, between Schwäbisch Gmünd to its east and Schorndorf to its west. To the north of Lorch lies the Swabian-Franconian Forest, to the south there are the Swabian Alps. Lorch is part of the Swabian-Franconian Forest Nature Park and is located at the Limes hiking route (HW 6) of the Swabian Alp Association. Lorch merged with the formerly-independent municipality of Waldhausen, since December 31, 1971 it has included 35 different hamlets, villages and farms. As of 2012, Lorch has been divided into 5 boroughs: Kirneck (396 inhabitants), Lorch (6492 inhabitants), Rattenharz (251 inhabitants), Waldhausen (2698 inhabitants) and Weitmars (1030 inhabitants).[2]

History[edit]

During the Roman Era, it served as a vital link in the Limes Germanicus, the monastery at Lorch was founded by Frederick I of Swabia in 1102.[3]

Roman Era[edit]

View of Lorch from the East. Steeple and buildings of monastery are visible on hill at right.
Lorch Monastery, Württemberg

The Roman Empire expanded its sphere of control to the north of the Alps into the borders of today's Switzerland, southern Germany and Austria guided by Emperor Augustus shortly before the Christian era (15 B.C.). First, the rivers Danube and Rhine formed the frontier. About 100 years later, the Romans took possession of the so-called "Dekumatenland", which is the area of Lorch nowadays, during this process the two provinces Raetia (Rhaetia) and Germania Superior (Upper Germany) were founded. Over the decades, this new border was protected and secured by what the Upper Germanic-Rhaetian Limes originated. Thereby the different borders formed a so-called "Limesknie" (limes knee) between today's cities Lorch and Schwabisch Gmund. [4]

The fort Lorch was established under the Emperor Antoninus Pius (reign 138-161 A.D.) as a cohort fort to secure the Limes. It was the southernmost fort of the Upper Germanic Limes; east concurred with the Rhaetian Limes. The center of the fort was in the yard of today's Protestant town church, the sides of the fort were approximately 150 to 160 meters long, the fort was joined by a civilian settlement (vicus), which is about a kilometer away along the run through the Remstal Roman highway developed. [4] The time strategically important road leading from Augsburg ( Augusta Vindelicorum ) on today's Stuttgart-Bad Cannstatt to Mainz ( Mogontiacum ).

Today often the name "Lorch" is not used to describe the city during the Roman period; often Lauriacum is believed to be the medieval name. There is also a Lauriacum in Upper Austria calles Lorch, so there could be an analogy. Between 260 and 268 A.D. the Romans gave up the northwestern part of Raetia and the eastern part of Upper Germany including Lorch because of the pressure from the Alemanni. (Limes case)[4]; The Romans retreated to the west behind the Rhine, to the south behind Lake Constance and the Upper Rhine and eastwards behind the Iller back (Donau-Iller-Rhine-Limes). The Germans, the Romans called them Alemanni, moved to and settled in the cleared area by the Romans down.

Middle Ages[edit]

The early medieval history is unknown; it is unclear whether the city has been inhabited continuously. [4] In the mid-11th century a so-called "Kollegiatstift" was founded in the parish church of Lorch, it was the tomb of the ancestors of the Staufer family. Around 1100, the Staufer donated the monastery Lorch, a Benedictine, as their home monastery on the mountain, where unsecured according to tradition was a castle. [5] The monastery determined from now on the future of the town. Conrad III. had the mortal remains of his ancestors, which were buried in the parish church, moved to the monastery. The city can be found in the 12th century in various documents under the name Loricha and Lorche, in Latin as Laureacus and Laureacum monasterium. [5] The monastery was in the 13th century under the bailiwick of the Counts of Württemberg, the pin on the parish was abolished in the second half of the 14th century. The village had in the late Middle Ages, the market law , at central facilities existed a court and a bathhouse. [5]

Modern period[edit]

Duke Ulrich introduced the Reformation in Lorch in 1535; in the wake of the Schmalkaldic War in 1548 Catholic worship forms were first reintroduced, but from 1553 Protestant pastors were reinstated. Another result of the Reformation was the foundation of a school, for which a special building was built, as Monastery of the Württemberg duchy the Lorch monastery was abolished in the 16th century.[6] During the Thirty Years' War the population of Lorch decreased to one third of the original number; in the following decades a lively reconstruction began. In 1660 the city regained the right to hold two fairs, which it lost before the war, from 1810 to 1819 Lorch was the registered office of a "Oberamt", which was tranferred to Welzheim shortly after. 1831 and 1832 Lorch received permission for another two markets.[6]

With the opening of the Bad Cannstatt-Wasseralfingen section of the Rems Railway in 1861, tourism gained economic importance in Lorch. Accommodation options were reconstructed and rebuilt, on June 22, 1865 King Karl became head of the city. In addition to the City Council, a club promoted tourism, and Lorch turned into a popular health resort, for the year 1898, 464 spa visitors were recorded, including 64 foreigners.[7][8] During the same time, industrial enterprises were founded, for example in 1876 a pasta factory owned by the Daiber brothers was founded; in 1904 it already had 125 employees and was thus the most important local employer. A few years earlier in 1893 it was also the first company to make use of electricity in Lorch, this itself generated power that was passed to private homes in the village.[7][8]

National Socialist period[edit]

In the elections at the beginning of the 1930s, the Nazi Party gained voters in Lorch and Waldhausen, the number was well above the average.[9] One of the reasons for such a result could have been the high rate of unemployment; in January 1932, 340 people in Lorch were unemployed, many of those lost their jobs because of a major fire in the pasta factory. On the other hand there was not a single employee of this company among the eight founding members of the local NSDAP from 1932. [9] Ortsgruppenleiter was the stamp dealer Hermann E. Sieger.[10]

Born in Lorch[edit]

Fraas

Lived in Lorch[edit]

  • Friedrich Schiller (1759-1805) famous german poet and writer lived in Lorch from 1764 to 1766

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Gemeinden in Deutschland nach Fläche, Bevölkerung und Postleitzahl am 30.09.2016". Statistisches Bundesamt (in German). 2016. 
  2. ^ Town of Lorch Facts and Figures, accessed July 9, 2014. http://www.stadt-lorch.de/,Lde/Startseite/Stadt+Lorch/Stadtteile.html
  3. ^ "Monastery of Lorch" at "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2014-07-14. Retrieved 2014-07-05. 
  4. ^ a b c d Hans-Ulrich Nuber: Zur Frühgeschichte der Stadt Lorch, in: Lorch, Band 1, S. 9 ff.
  5. ^ a b c Klaus Graf: Kloster Lorch im Mittelalter, in: Lorch, Band 1, S. 39 ff.
  6. ^ a b Hermann Ehmer: Lorch und die Reformation, in: Lorch, Band 1, S. 229 ff.
  7. ^ a b Kurt Seidel: Lorch im 19. und 20. Jahrhundert, in: Lorch, Band 2, S. 35 ff.
  8. ^ a b Rolf Dieterle: Handel, Handwerk, Industrie, in: Lorch, Band 2, S. 301 ff.
  9. ^ a b Manfred Schramm: Die NSDAP und ihre Gliederungen in Lorch, in: Schramm, S. 29 ff.
  10. ^ Rainer Wahl, Manfred Schramm: Die Gemeinderäte und der Bürgermeister werden nicht mehr gewählt, sondern von der Partei ernannt, in: Schramm, S. 21 ff.