Archbishop of Glasgow
The Archbishop of Glasgow is an archiepiscopal title that takes its name after the city of Glasgow in Scotland. The position and title was abolished by the Church of Scotland in 1689. In the Roman Catholic Church, the title was restored by Pope Leo XIII in 1878. Mario Conti, Roman Catholic Metropolitan Archbishop of Glasgow, retired on 24 July 2012. On the same day, the Holy See announced the appointment of Bishop Philip Tartaglia of Paisley as Archbishop of Glasgow to succeed Archbishop Mario Conti; the Diocese of Glasgow originates in the period of the reign of David I, Prince of the Cumbrians, but the earliest attested bishops come from the 11th century, appointees of the Archbishop of York. The episcopal seat was located at Glasgow Cathedral. In 1492, the diocese was elevated to an archdiocese by Pope Innocent VIII. After the Scottish church broke its links with Rome in 1560, the archbishopric continued under the independent Scottish church until 1689 when Episcopacy in the established Church of Scotland was abolished in favour of Presbyterianism, requiring bishopric continuity to occur in the disestablished Scottish Episcopal Church.
In the following centuries Roman Catholicism began a process of re-introduction, culminating in 1829 with legalisation through the Catholic Emancipation Act. A new papally-appointed archbishopric in the Roman Catholic Church was introduced when the Vicariate Apostolic of the Western District was elevated to archdiocese status on 4 March 1878 on the Restoration of the Scottish hierarchy, to Metropolitan archdiocese status on 25 May 1947; the archdiocese covers an area of 1,165 km². The Metropolitan See is in the City of Glasgow where the seat is located at the Cathedral Church of Saint Andrew. Catholicism in Scotland Presbyterianism Church of Scotland Presbytery of Glasgow Bishops in the Church of Scotland Bishop's Castle, Glasgow
John Campbell, 1st Earl of Loudoun
John Campbell, 1st Earl of Loudoun was a Scottish politician and Covenanter. As a young man Campbell travelled abroad. In 1620 married the heiress of the barony of Loudoun. In 1622 his patent for an earldom stopped by Charles I because of his strenuous opposition to episcopacy. In 1633 he took leading part in organising the covenant, 1637-1638, he was a leader of the armed insurrection in Scotland in 1639 and an envoy from Scotland to Charles I in 1640. He was imprisoned in the Tower of London but was freed and joined the Scottish army of invasion in August 1640, he was sent again as an envoy to London and was made Lord Chancellor of Scotland from 1641-1660. In 1641 he was created Earl of Loudoun. During the years 1642–1647 he was envoy to Charles I from the Parliament of Scotland. In 1650 he present at the coronation of Charles II of Scotland and fought at Dunbar, he joined the highland rising of 1653, but submitted to General Monck when it became obvious that further resistance was futile. He was excepted from Cromwell's Act of Grace in 1654 and fined by Charles II in 1662.
Campbell, was the eldest son of Sir James Campbell of Lawers, his wife, daughter of James, Lord Colville of Culross. He was born in 1598, on his return from travelling abroad was knighted by James VI of Scotland. In 1620 Campbell married Margaret, the eldest daughter of George Campbell, master of Loudoun. Upon the death of her grandfather, Hugh Campbell, 1st Baron Loudoun, in December 1622, she became baroness Loudoun, her husband took his seat in the Parliament of Scotland in her right, he was created Earl of Loudoun, lord Farrinyeane and Mauchline by patent dated at Theobalds on 12 May 1633, but in consequence of his joining with the George Leslie, Earl of Rothes and others in parliament in their opposition to the court with regard to the act for empowering King Charles I to prescribe the apparel of churchmen, the patent was by a special order stopped at the chancery, the title superseded. Soon after the passing of this act, the Scottish bishops resumed their episcopal costume, in 1636 the Book of Canons Ecclesiastical and the order for using the new service-book were issued upon the sole authority of the King without consulting the general assembly.
By his opposition to the policy of the court, Loudoun became a favourite of the adherents of the popular cause. In 1638 the "tables" were formed and the covenant renewed. In these proceedings Loudoun took a prominent part, being elected elder for the Burgh of Irvine in the general assembly, which met at Glasgow in November 1638, he was appointed one of the assessors to the Moderator. In the following year, with the assistance of his friends, he seized the castles of Strathaven and Tantallon, garrisoned them for the popular party, he marched with the Scottish army, under General Leslie, to the border, acted as one of the Scottish commissioners at the short-lived Pacification of Berwick, concluded on 18 June 1639. On 3 March 1640 Loudoun and the Charles Seton, Earl of Dunfermline, as commissioners from the estates, had an interview with Charles I at Whitehall, remonstrated against the prorogation of the Parliament of Scotland by the king's commissioner before the business, brought before them had been disposed of.
No answer was given to the remonstrance, but a few days after Loudoun was committed to the Tower of London upon acknowledging that a letter produced by the Earl of Traquair was in his own handwriting. This letter was addressed "Au Roy", requested assistance from the French king, it was signed by the Earls of Montrose and Mar, Lords Loudoun and Forester, General Leslie, but was not dated. Loudoun protested without avail that it had been written before the pacification of Berwick, that it had never been sent, that if he had committed any offence, he ought to be questioned for it in Scotland and not in England. According to Dr. Birch, a warrant was made out for Loudoun's execution without trial, but this has not been sufficiently corroborated, after some months' confinement in the Tower he was liberated upon the intercession of James, Marquis of Hamilton, returned to Scotland. On 21 August in the same year the Scottish army entered England, Loudoun with it, he took part in the Battle of Newburn on 28 August, was one of the Scottish commissioners at Ripon in the following October.
Having come to an agreement for the cessation of hostilities on the 25th of the same month, the further discussion of the treaty was adjourned to London, where the Scottish commissioners "were caressed by the parliament". In August 1641 the King opened the Parliament of Scotland in person, the treaty with England was ratified, offices and titles of honour were conferred on the "prime covenanters who were thought most capable to do him service". Accordingly, "the principal manager of the rebellion", as Clarendon calls him, was appointed Lord Chancellor of Scotland on 30 September 1641, on 2 October took the oath of office, received from the King the Great Seal, since the resignation of John Spottiswoode, the Archbishop of St. Andrews, had been kept by the Marquis of Hamilton. A pension of £1,000 a year was granted him, his title of Earl of Loudoun was allowed him, with precedency from the date of the original grant; when the king found that the estates would not give their consent to the nomination either of the Earl of Morton or of Lord Almond, as lord high treasurer, the treasury was put into commission, Lo
Florence of Holland
Florence was a late 12th century and early 13th century nobleman and cleric. He was the son of Florence III, Count of Holland, Ada of Huntingdon, sister of kings Malcolm IV and William I of Scotland. Florence chose an ecclesiastical career, before 1202 was provost of Utrecht, but his status as nephew of the current King of Scots, undoubtedly persuaded Florence to pursue a career in Scotland. In 1202, Florence was elected bishop of Glasgow, one of the most powerful and wealthy sees in the kingdom, is recorded as Chancellor of Scotland on 4 November 1203, it appears though that Florence was never consecrated, yet is found reserving his right when still only bishop-elect before 15 May 1207. He resigned that position to Pope Innocent III in December 1207; the reasons for his non-consecration are unknown. Florence died as a monk at Middelburg in Zeeland. Dowden, The Bishops of Scotland, ed. J. Maitland Thomson
William de Malveisin
Guillaume or William de Malveisin was Chancellor of Scotland, Bishop of Glasgow and Bishop of St. Andrews. William Malveisin was born in France, it is possible that he was the son of the nephew of the Count of Brittany, however it is much more that he came from a family of the name based on the lower Seine valley. William was the nephew of Samson de Malveisin, Archbishop of Rheims from 1140 to 1161. In this context, William's career can come as no surprise. William appears in Scottish records for the first time in the 1180s. In 1193, the royal patronage he had earned brought him his first known ecclesiastical post, as Archdeacon of Lothian, he was made the king's Chancellor on 8 September 1199, was elected to the Bishopric of Glasgow in October the same year. He was consecrated at Lyon by Reginald de Forez, Archbishop of Lyon, in September 1200. However, two years in the same month, he was translated to the higher ranking Bishopric of St. Andrews. William got into a little trouble for exercising his episcopal powers before his episcopate had been confirmed by the Pope Innocent III.
The charge was heard by the Papal legate, John of Salerno, who held a council at Perth in December 1201, before leaving for business in Ireland. Legate John once again visited Scotland on his way back from Ireland, staying for more than fifty days at Melrose. However, nothing came of the charge. Walter Bower relates that William received the permission of King William to visit his relatives in France; this was between May 1212 and Spring 1213, when Bishop William disappears from the records. When not visiting home, Bishop William, like most other Bishops of St. Andrews, was keen to expand the power of the bishopric. In one instance, when Gille Ísu, the hereditary priest of Wedale died, he took the opportunity to absorb the church into his diocese. Bishop William enjoyed good relations with the native Scottish clerical order of his diocese, the people "qui Keledei vulgariter appellantur". At some point between 1206 and 1216, again in 1220, he managed to obtain absolution from the sentence of excommunication bestowed on the Céli Dé by the Pope.
According to the arguments of D. D. R. Owen, William was not only a bishop, but an author of Arthurian romance; the author of the romance known to us as the Roman de Fergus identifies himself as Guillaume le Clerc, or William the Clerk. In the words of Owen, "it is most reasonable to keep our eyes open for any French clerk by the name of William" in the period concerned, Owen uses textual and contextual evidence to show that William de Malveisin is one of the most known candidates. Bishop William died at a place called "Inchemordauch", one of the Bishopric's manors, in 1238 on 9 July; the next consecrated Bishop of St. Andrews was David de Bernham. Barrow, G. W. S. "The Anglo-Scottish Border", in Barrow The Kingdom of the Scots, 2nd Ed. Barrow, G. W. S. "The Clergy at St Andrews", in Barrow The Kingdom of the Scots, 2nd Ed. Corner, David J. Scott, A. B. Scott, William W. & Watt, D. E. R. Scotichronicon by Walter Bower in Latin and English, Vol. 4, John, The Bishops of Scotland, ed. J. Maitland Thomson, Owen, D.
D. R. Fergus of Galloway, Owen, D. D. R; the Reign of William the Lion: Kingship and Culture, 1143-1214
John Hay, 2nd Marquess of Tweeddale
John Hay, 2nd Marquess of Tweeddale was a Scottish nobleman. Hay was the eldest son of John Hay, 1st Marquess of Tweeddale and his wife, daughter of Walter Scott, 1st Earl of Buccleuch. In 1666, at Highgate in London, he married Lady Mary Maitland, daughter of John Maitland, 1st Duke of Lauderdale. However, Lauderdale set himself against Hay, forced to leave for the continent and did not regain his position until Lauderdale's death in 1682, he was Colonel of the Militia Regiment of Foot in Linlithgow and Peebles. He was Burgess of Edinburgh, Commissioner for the Borders, Commissioner of Supply for Haddington, Edinburgh, Berwick, he was Lord Treasurer in 1695. He succeeded his father in the marquessate in 1697, he was appointed Lord High Commissioner to the Scots Parliament in 1704, was Lord Chancellor of Scotland from 1704–05. He led the Squadrone Volante, but supported the Union, he was appointed one of 18 Scottish representative peers in 1707. His eldest son, succeeded him as 3rd Marquess. A younger son, Lord John Hay, commanded the famous regiment of dragoons, afterwards called the Scots Greys, at the Battle of Ramillies and elsewhere.
He had been elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1666 but was expelled in 1685. Stephen, Leslie. "Hay, John". Dictionary of National Biography. 25. London: Smith, Elder & Co. Leigh Rayment's Peerage Pages
Alexander Seton, 1st Earl of Dunfermline
Alexander Seton, 1st Earl of Dunfermline was a Scottish lawyer and politician. He served as Lord President of the Court of Session from 1598 to 1604, Lord Chancellor of Scotland from 1604 to 1622 and as a Lord High Commissioner to the Parliament of Scotland. Born at Seton Palace, East Lothian, Alexander was the son of George Seton, 7th Lord Seton and Isobell Hamilton; the Setons remained a Roman Catholic family after the Scottish Reformation of 1560, continued to support Mary, Queen of Scots after her abdication and exile in England. Alexander was educated at the German and Roman College in Rome from June 1571 to December 1578. Alexander was noted learning Italian and science in Rome by Baptista da Trento in 1577 in a letter describing plots to marry Elizabeth I of England to the Earl of Leicester and re-instate Mary in Scotland; the family historian Viscount Kingston heard it said that he was skilled in mathematics and architecture, Alexander might have been made a Cardinal if he had stayed at Rome.
In 1583, Alexander joined his father's embassy to France. William Schaw, the Master of Work to the Crown of Scotland was his companion, they left from Leith in Andrew Lamb's ship. According to the Jesuit Robert Parsons, Lord Seton considered sending the youthful Alexander back to Scotland as his representative at one point. Alexander became a Privy Councillor in 1585 and was appointed a Lord of Session as Lord Urquhart in 1586, he rose to be Lord President of the Court of Session and was created Lord Fyvie on 4 March 1598. Anne of Denmark in her capacity as "Lady of Dunfermline" made him'bailie and justiciary of the regality of Dunfermline on both sides of Forth on 15 February 1596. Richard Douglas wrote that Seton's mother was a great favourite of Anne of Denmark, that she "rules the king her husband" as an explanation for his promotions. At the end of August 1596 according to James Melville, the King arranged a Convention of the Estates at Falkland Palace which included the allies of the forfeited earls.
Alexander Seton made a speech like those of Coriolanus or Themistocles calling for the re-instatement of these earls to strengthen the country. The reference to Themistocles, who spoke about naval power to the Athenians refers to the forfeited Lord High Admiral of Scotland, Francis Stewart, 5th Earl of Bothwell. On 7 November 1598 he was made Guild-brother and Provost of Edinburgh. In March 1598 he took delivery of Spanish and Bordeaux wine for the banquet for Ulrik, the younger brother of Anne of Denmark at Riddle's Court. Other notes in the town's records include a dozen torches supplied by a waxmaker for the baptism of Princess Margaret in April 1599, another dozen for the baptism of Prince Charles, his was regarded as one of the finest legal minds of the time, he became an advisor to James VI and guardian and tutor to Prince Charles called the Duke of Albany. After the Union of the Crowns, Seton remained on the committee supervising Anne's Scottish incomes, while James VI went to England, the infant Charles remained with Seton at Dunfermline Palace.
On 14 March 1604 Seton wrote to Robert Cecil on the subject of the opinion in Scotland. I find none of any account here but glad in heart to embrace the same in general: some suspect the particular conditions may engender greater difficulties. I hope the wisdom of the Prince, both the ground and the cornerstone of this happy Union, with your and other wise men's assistance shall set by all such difficulties: as I think there can be no particular condition desired for the weal of one of the nations, but it must be profitable to the other, nor nothing prejudicial to one, but must be hurtful to the other, albeit only by the distracting of their due concord which wise men will think of greater consequence, nor any particular may be subtly cozened in; this is all I can write of our thoughts here-away: I doubt not there are divers apprehensions there also." In 1604 he was appointed Lord Chancellor of Scotland and was created Earl of Dunfermline in 1605. Alexander Seton brought Prince Charles, Duke of Albany, to England in August 1604.
He stayed in London till January 1605 in London, co-inciding with the visit of the Ulrik, Duke of Holstein, had a tour of armouries of the Tower of London. While he was at Whitehall, Viscount Cranborne arranged for him to read the original Treaty of Greenwich, which had led to the war of the Rough Wooing in 1543, other documents, which he returned to Cecil on 3 November. Alexander returned to Scotland with more funding to reward his keeping of Prince Charles, made Duke of York on Twelfth Night, his expenses for his'pains in the Union' amounting to £200 a year. In February 1616 he was in London and saw Anne of Denmark at Greenwich, writing that he spoke to her in the old familiar manner, although she was ill and kept to her bedchamber, he felt that the Scots were left out of government business as "we ar leitill bettir nor idill cifres heir" - "we are little better than idle ciphers here."Later in 1616, in preparation for the royal visit to Scotland, he was required by the Privy Council of Scotland to declare what remained of the Scottish Royal tapestry collection at Dunfermline Palace.
He stated there were 10 pieces "of auld and worne tapestrie of the storie of Aeneas, the storie of Troy, of the story of Mankynd."His modern humanist and neo-stoic attitude was demonstrated by his energetic defence of Geillis Johnstone accused of witchcraft in 1614. A portrait of his wife Margaret Hay, painted by Marcus Gheeraerts the Younger in 1615 is in the Dunedin Public Art Gallery. Part of a painted ceiling bearing his monogram and heraldry is displayed at Edinburgh's Huntly House museum: his p
Great Seal of Scotland
The Great Seal of Scotland allows the monarch to authorise official documents without having to sign each document individually. Wax is melted in a metal mould or matrix and impressed into a wax figure, attached by cord or ribbon to documents that the monarch wishes to make official; the earliest seal impression, in the Treasury of Durham Cathedral, is believed to be the Great Seal of Duncan II and dates to 1094. The Chancellor had the custody of the King's Seal; the continuation of the Great Seal of Scotland was guaranteed by the Treaty of Union which provided that "a Seal in Scotland after the Union be alwayes kept and made use of in all things relating to private Rights or Grants, which have passed the Great Seal of Scotland, which only concern Offices, Grants and private Rights within that Kingdom". Hence, the Scotland Act 1998 refers to the current seal as "the seal appointed by the Treaty of Union to be kept and made use of in place of the Great Seal of Scotland"; the seal is still referred to as the Great Seal of Scotland.
Section 12 of the Treason Act 1708, still in force today, makes it treason in Scotland to counterfeit the seal. The design of the Great Seal is a responsibility of the Lord Lyon King of Arms; the reverse of the seal shows the monarch on horseback, but is not changed from reign to reign—the current version is that engraved in 1911 for the accession of King George V. The obverse is inscribed "ELIZABETH II D G BRITT REGNORVMQVE SVORVM CETER REGINA CONSORTIONIS POPULORUM PRINCEPS F D" and the figure on it is the same as on the Great Seal of the United Kingdom; the Great Seal is administered by the Keeper of one of the Great Officers of State. From 1885 this office was held by the Secretary for Scotland the Secretary of State for Scotland, it transferred in 1999 to the First Minister of Scotland, whose place in the order of precedence in Scotland is determined by his or her office as Keeper of the Great Seal. In practice the Seal is in the custody of the Keeper of the Registers of Scotland, appointed as Deputy Keeper.
1389–96: Sir Alexander de Cockburn Date unknown: Alexander de Cockburn 1474–1483 John Laing Bishop of Glasgow 1514: Gavin Douglas, Bishop of Dunkeld 1525: Gavin Dunbar, Bishop of Aberdeen Date unknown: James Beaton Date Unknown: John Lyon, 7th Lord Glamis 1558: John Lyon, 8th Lord Glamis 1562–1567: Sir Richard Maitland... 1635–1638: John Spottiswoode, Archbishop of St. Andrews 1638–1641: James, Marquis of Hamilton 1641–1660: John Campbell, 1st Earl of Loudoun 1657–1660: Samuel Disbrowe Date unknown: Sir Adam Forrester Date unknown: Sir John Forrester 1708: Hugh Campbell, 3rd Earl of Loudoun 1713: James Ogilvy, 4th Earl of Findlater, 1st Earl of Seafield 1714: William Johnstone, 1st Marquess of Annandale 1716: James Graham, 1st Duke of Montrose 1733: Archibald Campbell, 1st Earl of Islay 1761: Charles Douglas, 3rd Duke of Queensberry, 2nd Duke of Dover 1763: James Murray, 2nd Duke of Atholl 1764: Hugh Hume-Campbell, 3rd Earl of Marchmont 1794: Alexander Gordon, 4th Duke of Gordon 1806: James Maitland, 8th Earl of Lauderdale 1807: Alexander Gordon, 4th Duke of Gordon 1827: George William Campbell, 6th Duke of Argyll 1828: George Gordon, 5th Duke of Gordon 1830: George William Campbell, 6th Duke of Argyll 1840: John Hamilton Dalrymple, 8th Earl of Stair 1841: John Douglas Edward Henry Campbell, 7th Duke of Argyll 1846: John Hamilton Dalrymple, 8th Earl of Stair 1852: Dunbar James Douglas, 6th Earl of Selkirk 1853: Cospatrick Alexander Home, 11th Earl of Home 1858: Dunbar James Douglas, 6th Earl of SelkirkThe following are Keepers of the Great Seal, who served as Secretary for Scotland.
1885: Charles Henry Gordon-Lennox, 6th Duke of Richmond 1886: George Otto Trevelyan 1886: John William Ramsay, 13th Earl of Dalhousie 1886: Arthur Balfour 1887: Schomberg Henry Kerr, 9th Marquess of Lothian 1892: George Otto Trevelyan 1895: Alexander Hugh Bruce, 6th Lord Balfour of Burleigh 1903: Andrew Murray, 1st Viscount Dunedin 1905: John Hope, 1st Marquess of Linlithgow 1905: John Sinclair, 1st Baron Pentland 1912: Thomas McKinnon Wood 1916: Harold Tennant 1916: Robert Munro, 1st Baron Alness 1922: Ronald Munro Ferguson, 1st Viscount Novar 1924: William Adamson 1926: Sir John GilmourThe following are Keepers of the Great Seal, who served as Secretary of State for Scotland. 1926: Sir John Gilmour 1929: William Adamson 1931: Sir Archibald Sinclair 1932: Sir Godfrey Collins 1936: Walter Elliot 1938: John Colville 1940: Ernest Brown 1941: Thomas Johnston 1945: Harry Primrose, 6th Earl of Rosebery 1945: Joseph Westwood 1947: Arthur Woodburn 1950: Hector McNeil 1951: James Stuart 1957: John Maclay 1962: Michael Noble 1964: William Ross 1970: Gordon Campbell 1974: William Ross 1976: Bruce Millan 1979: George Younger 1986: Malcolm Rifkind 1990: Ian Lang 1995: Michael Forsyth 1997: Donald DewarThe office of the Keeper of the Great Seal was transferred on 6 May 1999, to the First Minister, in accordance to the terms of section 45 of the Scotland Act 1998.
1999: Donald Dewar 2000: Henry McLeish 2001: Jack McConnell 2007: Alex Salmond 2014: Nicola Sturgeon Records of charters under the Great Seal of Scotland from 1306 to 1668 are published in the Register of the Great Seal of Scotland. Director of Chancery https://archive.org/stream/registrummagnisi07scot#page/n5/mode/2up