HMS Lord Clyde (1864)
HMS Lord Clyde was the name ship of the wooden-hulled Lord Clyde class of armoured frigates built for the Royal Navy during the 1860s. She and her sister ship, Lord Warden, were the heaviest wooden ships built and were the fastest steaming wooden ships. Lord Clyde was assigned to the Channel Fleet in 1866, but was transferred to the Mediterranean Fleet in 1868; the ship suffered engine problems throughout her career and it needed to be replaced after only two years of service. She rejoined the Mediterranean Fleet in 1871, but was badly damaged when she ran aground the next year; when Lord Clyde was under repair, her hull was found to be rotten and she was sold for scrap in 1875 HMS Lord Clyde was 280 feet long between perpendiculars and had a beam of 58 feet 11 inches. The ship had 27 feet 2 inches aft, she had a tonnage of 4,067 tons burthen. Lord Clyde had a low centre of gravity which meant that she rolled badly; this characteristic was so dramatic that when the rolling propensities of ships were compared, it was usual to say "as bad a roller as the Prince Consort", the Lord Clydes being beyond compare.
Lord Clyde performed worse than did her sister ship, Lord Warden. In sea trials in 1867 with Bellerophon, Lord Clyde was rolling her gun ports under, while Bellerophon could have fought her main armament in safety, she was, however handy and sailed well in all weathers under sail or steam. Her crew consisted of 605 officers and enlisted men; the ship had a single two-cylinder trunk steam engine, made by Ravenhill and Hodgson, that drove a single propeller using steam provided by nine rectangular boilers. The engine, the largest and most powerful yet built, produced 6,064 indicated horsepower which gave Lord Clyde a speed of 13.4 knots under steam. The severe vibration of the engine, coupled with the flexibility of the wooden hull, caused major problems during the ship's career. After only two years, the engine was worn out and everything but the condensers and shafting had to be replaced, she carried a maximum of 600 long tons of coal. Lord Clyde had a sail area of 31,000 square feet. To reduce drag, the funnels could be lowered.
Her best speed under sail alone was nearly the slowest of any British ironclad. The ship holds "the double record of being the largest ship of any type or of any nationality to enter Plymouth Sound or Spithead on sail alone"; the ship was armed with 24 seven-inch rifled muzzle-loading guns. Four pairs of guns were positioned as fore and aft chase guns on the main decks; the remaining 16 guns were mounted on the broadside amidships. The seven-inch gun weighed 6.5 long tons and fired a 112-pound shell, able penetrate 7.7-inch of armour. Lord Clyde's original armament was replaced during her 1870 refit with a pair of RML nine-inch guns and 14 RML eight-inch guns; the latter guns remained in position as forward chase guns on the main deck. On the upper deck were a pair of eight-inch guns on the broadside and the remaining 12 eight-inch guns were mounted on the main deck on the broadside amidships; the shell of the nine-inch gun weighed 254 pounds. It had a muzzle velocity of 1,420 ft/s and was rated with the ability to penetrate 11.3 inches of wrought-iron armour.
The eight-inch gun weighed nine long tons. The entire side of Lord Clyde's hull, except for the side of the upper deck, was protected by wrought-iron armour that tapered from 4.5 inches at the ends to 5.5 inches amidships. It extended 6 feet below the waterline; the forward chase guns on the upper deck were protected by 4.5-inch armour plates on the sides of the hull and a 4.5-inch transverse bulkhead to their rear protected them from raking fire. The armour was backed by the 1.5 inches iron skin of the ship. Lord Clyde, named after the deceased Field Marshal Colin Campbell, 1st Baron Clyde, was ordered on 3 July 1863 from Pembroke Naval Dockyard, she was laid down on 29 September 1863 and launched on 13 October 1864. The ship was commissioned in June 1866 to run her sea trials and completed on 15 September, for the cost of £285,750 or £294,481, exclusive of armament. Commanded by Captain Roderick Dew, the ship was assigned to the Channel Fleet where she spent three months as temporary flagship before she was transferred to the Mediterranean in 1868.
Lord Clyde made one cruise with the Mediterranean Fleet during which she fractured her steel mainyard in a squall. Her engines continued to deteriorate and they were condemned as no longer safe to use by the fleet engineer when she arrived in Naples; the ship was sent to the Malta Dockyard under sail for repair, but they could only make temporary repairs that would enable her to reach home. Upon arrival at Plymouth, Lord Clyde was paid off and a new engine was built for her at Devonport Dockyard. In addition, her four-bladed propeller was replaced by a lighter, two-bladed propeller with less drag and the ship was rearmed. S
Colin Campbell, 1st Baron Clyde
Field Marshal Colin Campbell, 1st Baron Clyde, was a British Army officer. After serving in the Peninsular War and the War of 1812, he commanded the 98th Regiment of Foot during the First Opium War and commanded a brigade during the Second Anglo-Sikh War, he went on to command the Highland Brigade at the Battle of Alma and with his "thin red line of Highlanders" he repulsed the Russian attack on Balaclava during the Crimean War. At an early stage of the Indian Mutiny, he became Commander-in-Chief, India and, in that role, he relieved and evacuated Lucknow and, after attacking and decisively defeating Tatya Tope at the Second Battle of Cawnpore, captured Lucknow again. Whilst still commander-in-chief he dealt with the'White Mutiny' among East India Company troops, organised the army sent east in the Second Opium War. Historian Adrian Greenwood argued in a 2015 biography of Campbell that he was a much more effective and significant commander than thought. Campbell was born Colin Macliver, the eldest of the four children of John Macliver, a cabinetmaker in Glasgow, Agnes Macliver.
His mother and one of his twin sisters died. His only brother was killed fighting in the Peninsular War. Having been educated at the High School of Glasgow his uncle, Major John Campbell, took over his care and sent him to the Royal Military and Naval Academy at Gosport; the most oft-quoted story explaining Campbell's name change is that upon Colin's entry into the 9th Regiment of Foot as an ensign in 1808, his uncle presented him to the Duke of York, who assumed the boy's surname was Campbell and had him enlisted in the Army under that name. This story was first promulgated during the Crimean War; the press were fascinated to find why he had changed his name, rumours abounded that he was in fact the illegitimate son of Major Campbell, so Peter Macliver, a journalist and Colin's cousin, invented the story about the Duke of York. Not only was it unusual for an ensign to meet the commander-in-chief, the Duke of York, but Campbell was on the Isle of Wight, not in London when commissioned. Furthermore, General Robert Brownrigg, colonel of the regiment of the 9th Foot, wrote to the Duke of York prior to Campbell's commission, referring to the fifteen-year-old boy as'Mr Colin Campbell'.
Evidently, Campbell changed his name before being gazetted. Campbell was commissioned as an ensign in the 9th Regiment of Foot on 26 May 1808, his first experience of war was under Sir Arthur Wellesley at the Battle of Vimeiro on 21 August 1808 during the Peninsular War. His battalion remained in Portugal and served under Sir John Moore during his foray into Spain, subsequent retreat to Corunna, his battalion remained in reserve. Promoted to lieutenant on 15 July 1809, he took part in the disastrous Walcheren Campaign in Autumn 1809 and contracted malaria there. Campbell was posted to Gibraltar in 1810 and fought at the Battle of Barrosa in March 1811, taking command of the 9th Foot's flank companies as the senior officer not hors de combat, his bravery was noted by General Sir Thomas Graham. Serving in his battalion's light company, he fought at the Battle of Vitoria in June 1813 and at the Siege of San Sebastián. Here, in the first assault on 25 July 1813, he led the forlorn hope and was wounded twice while leading a storming party.
He led the 9th Foot's light company at the Battle of the Bidassoa in October 1813 where he was wounded for a third time. He was promoted to captain in the 7th Battalion 60th Regiment on 3 November 1813. Sent to Halifax, Nova Scotia, he was too late to see action in the War of 1812 and soon returned to Europe suffering from his wounds. Due to the contraction of the army after Waterloo the number of Royal American battalions was cut back drastically. To avoid being put on half-pay Campbell transferred to the 21st Royal North British Fusiliers on 26 November 1818; the regiment was sent first to Barbados and to Demerara, where Campbell became aide-de-camp to the governor. His part in quelling the slave rebellion in Demerara in August 1823 is hazy, he is not recorded as joining in the reprisals against slaves pursued by his commanding officer, Lieutenant-Colonel Leahy, but he was on the court martial which sentenced Reverend John Smith, the suspected instigator of the revolt, to death. He purchased his majority on 26 November 1825.
His regiment returned to England and in 1828 was posted to Ireland. From late 1830 they were called upon to police the Irish Tithe War. Campbell purchased an unattached lieutenant-colonelcy on 26 October 1832 Campbell became commanding officer of the 9th Regiment of Foot on 8 May 1835 but exchanged to become commanding officer of the 98th Regiment of Foot on 19 June 1835 and commanded that regiment at the Battle of Chinkiang in July 1842 during the First Opium War. Promoted to colonel on 23 December 1842, he became commandant of Hong Kong at the end of that year, he was appointed an aide-de-camp to the Queen on 23 December 1842 and a Companion of the Order of the Bath on 24 December 1842. Campbell was given command of a brigade of British troops in Lahore in India in 1847, he led his brigade at the Battle of Ramnagar in November 1848, a division at the Battle of Chillianwala in January 1849 and at the decisive Battle of Gujrat in February 1849 during the Second Anglo-Sikh War. He was appointed Knight Commander of the Order of the Bath on 5 June 1849.
After defusing a local mutiny of native troops at Rawalpindi, he was posted to Peshawar. Lord Dalhousie, Governor-General of India, requested Campbell lead increasing punitive expeditions against Pathan tribesmen; when Dalhousie asked Campbell to mount an invasion of the Swat Valley, Campbell resign
James Avon Clyde, Lord Clyde
James Avon Clyde, Lord Clyde, was a Scottish politician and judge. Clyde was born on 14 November 1863, the son of Dr James Clyde LLD, his father was Rector of the Dollar Academy and of the Edinburgh Academy. He was educated at the Edinburgh Academy and at the University of Edinburgh, where he graduated with an MA 1884 and an LLB in 1888. Clyde was called to the Scots Bar in 1889, by the times he was appointed a King's Counsel in August 1901, he was the leading junior counsel in Scotland; as a KC, he was retained by several railway companies and appeared before the Law Lords. He was Dean of the Faculty of Advocates from 1915–1918, he held office as Solicitor General for Scotland from October 1905 to December 1905. He was the unsuccessful Tory candidate for Clackmannanshire and Kinross-shire in 1906, he was elected at a by-election in May 1909 as the Liberal Unionist Member of Parliament for Edinburgh West, held the seat until 1918. He was Coalition Unionist member for Edinburgh North from 1918–1920.
He was appointed a Privy Counsellor in December 1916. He was appointed to the Dardanelles Commission, he served as Lord Advocate from December 1916 to 1920 in Lloyd George's coalition government. He was appointed to the bench and served as Lord Justice General and Lord President of the Court of Session from 1920 to 1935, with the judicial title Lord Clyde. During this time Lord Clyde gave this famous quote in the case of Ayrshire Pullman Motor Services v Inland Revenue 14 Tax Case 754, at 763,764: "No man in the country is under the smallest obligation, moral or other, so to arrange his legal relations to his business or property as to enable the Inland Revenue to put the largest possible shovel in his stores; the Inland Revenue is not slow, quite rightly, to take every advantage, open to it under the Taxing Statutes for the purposes of depleting the taxpayer's pocket. And the taxpayer is in like manner entitled to be astute to prevent, so far as he can, the depletion of his means by the Inland Revenue" He was a Deputy Lieutenant of Kinross-shire, became Lord Lieutenant of Kinross-shire from 1937 until his death.
He was Chairman of the Trustees of the National Library of Scotland from 1936 to 1944. In 1895 Clyde married Anna Margaret MacDiarmid, they had two sons. Clyde died in Edinburgh on 16 June 1944. Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by James Clyde
USS Advance (1862)
USS Advance, the second United States Navy ship to be so named, was known as USS Frolic, was the blockade runner Advance captured by the Union Navy during the latter part of the American Civil War. She was purchased by the Union Navy and outfitted as a gunboat and assigned to the blockade of the waterways of the Confederate States of America, she served as dispatch ship and supply vessel when military action slowed down. Lord Clyde, named for the British Army commander in Crimea and India, was built for the packet service between Ireland and Scotland operated by the Dublin & Glasgow Sailing and Steam Packet Company, she was launched at Greenock, Scotland, by Caird & Co. as Yard No.97 on 3 July 1862. Lord Clyde was an iron-hulled vessel with a length of 237.5 ft, a beam of 26.1 ft, a depth of 14.8 ft and a draft of 11.0 ft. She measured 778 GRT and 457 NRT and was powered by a 2-cylinder oscillating side-lever steam engine of 350 nhp made by Caird, driving two side paddle wheels. On completion she conducted sea trials on 18 September 1862 and sailed from Greenock five days for Kingstown, Dublin to commence her regular service with Glasgow.
During the American Civil War, a growing shortage of supplies for the manufacture of uniforms for North Carolina troops in 1862 prompted incoming governor Zebulon B. Vance to propose. With the assistance of British businessman Alexander Collie, Lord Clyde was purchased by the state of North Carolina and on 28 June 1863 she successfuly ran the Union blockade into Wilmington. At Wilmington the ship was renamed Advance. Three months a half share in Advance was sold to the firm of Power, Low & Co. in order to raise funds towards purchasing additional ships. She passed through the blockade between the Cape Fear River and Nassau or Bermuda some seventeen times between June 1963 and September 1864, under the command of Lt. John J. Guthrie, CSN. Advance was commanded by Capt. Tom Crossan when captured by USS Santiago de Cuba on 10 September 1864 when she attempted to put to sea from Wilmington, North Carolina. Gov. Vance attributed her capture to use of low grade North Carolina bituminous coal and denounced Confederate Secretary of the Navy Stephen Mallory for giving the stockpile of smokeless anthracite to CSS Tallahassee so that none was left for Advance to run out of Wilmington safely.
Writing on 3 January 1865, Vance complained: Why a State struggling for the common good, to clothe and provide for its troops in the public service, should meet with no more favor than a blockade gambler passes my comprehension. Advance was condemned by the New York prize court, she was purchased by the Navy that same month. John H. Upshur in command. Advance departed New York City on 30 October. In addition to her reversed role—catching blockade runners as opposed to being one—she participated in the two expeditions against Fort Fisher, located on Confederate Point at the mouth of the Cape Fear River; the first – abortive—attempt was carried out between 24 and 26 December 1864 after a bizarre attempt to flatten some of the defenses by running what amounted to a fire-ship stocked with some 30 tons of gunpowder aground at a point some 250 to 300 yards north of the fort. Needless to say, that unique shore bombardment proved to be a huge flash in the pan causing little or no damage; when the fleet moved in on 24 December, Advance was in the 1st Reserve Division which appears to have constituted a second line of bombarding ships behind the ironclads.
She fired only her large 20-pounder rifle and stopped that when she had to go to the assistance of the stricken USS Osceola and tow her to a safe anchorage. The following day, Christmas 1864, she and five or six other warships moved off to draw fire from Half Moon Battery as preparation for the Army's landings. Though an 8-inch gun in the Confederate battery drove off other vessels in the division as well as some Union Army transports, Advance claimed credit for silencing that gun with her heavy rifle; the Army landed late Christmas Day. Firing continued through the day and intermittently that night—fire that degenerated into covering fire to protect the bogged-down Federals instead of a bombardment preparatory to the by-then cancelled assault. Advance retired from Cape Fear on the 26th and the remnants of General Butler's Army force embarked on the 27th. After a visit to Norfolk, for supplies between 31 December 1864 and 11 January 1865, Advance returned to her blockade station off the Cape Fear River mouth on 13 January – Friday the 13th, to be exact, an ominous day for the Southerners defending Fort Fisher.
Before dawn that day, the Federal fleet unleashed a terrific bombardment on the fort. Not long thereafter, around 0800, about 8,000 Union troops began landing on the peninsula north of the fortifications; the following day, the fleet resumed its bombardment while the Union Army began landing its own supporting artillery. Advance, in one of the reserve divisions, helped support the landing of the Army guns and supplies while the bulk of the fleet continued to batter the Fort Fisher defenses; the main attack commenced on 15 January 1865. The Army, aided by sailors and marines from the fleet, stormed the Southern positions. Outnumbered and outgunned, the Confederates fought with the tenacity and ferocity of desperation—more than not at close quarters with bayonets and rifle butts, they into the evening but to no avail. The last fortificat