Cleveland Street scandal
The Cleveland Street scandal occurred in 1889, when a homosexual male brothel in Cleveland Street, was discovered by police. The government was accused of covering up the scandal to protect the names of aristocratic and other prominent patrons. At the time, sexual acts between men were illegal in Britain, the brothel's clients faced possible prosecution and certain social ostracism if discovered, it was rumoured that Prince Albert Victor, the eldest son of the Prince of Wales and second-in-line to the British throne had visited, though this has never been substantiated. Unlike overseas newspapers, the English press never named the Prince, but the allegation influenced the handling of the case by the authorities, has coloured biographers' perceptions of him since; the police acquired testimonies that Lord Arthur Somerset, an equerry to the Prince of Wales, was a patron. Both he and the brothel keeper, Charles Hammond, managed to flee abroad before a prosecution could be brought; the male prostitutes, who worked as telegraph messenger boys for the Post Office, were given light sentences and no clients were prosecuted.
After Henry James FitzRoy, Earl of Euston, was named in the press as a client, he sued for libel. The scandal fuelled the attitude that male homosexuality was an aristocratic vice that corrupted lower-class youths; such perceptions were still prevalent in 1895 when the Marquess of Queensberry accused Oscar Wilde of being an active homosexual. In July 1889, Police Constable Luke Hanks was investigating a theft from the London Central Telegraph Office. During the investigation, a fifteen-year-old telegraph boy named Charles Thomas Swinscow was discovered to be in possession of fourteen shillings, equivalent to several weeks of his wages. At the time, messenger boys were not permitted to carry any personal cash in the course of their duties, to prevent their own money being mixed with that of the customers. Suspecting the boy's involvement in the theft, Constable Hanks brought him in for questioning. After hesitating, Swinscow admitted that he earned the money working as a prostitute for a man named Charles Hammond, who operated a male brothel at 19 Cleveland Street.
According to Swinscow, he was introduced to Hammond by a General Post Office clerk, eighteen-year-old Henry Newlove. In addition, he named two seventeen-year-old telegraph boys who worked for Hammond: George Alma Wright and Charles Ernest Thickbroom. Constable Hanks obtained corroborating statements from Wright and Thickbroom and, armed with these, a confession from Newlove. Constable Hanks reported the matter to his superiors and the case was given to Detective Inspector Frederick Abberline. Inspector Abberline went to the brothel on 6 July with a warrant to arrest Hammond and Newlove for violation of Section 11 of the Criminal Law Amendment Act 1885; the Act made all homosexual acts between men, as well as procurement or attempted procurement of such acts, punishable by up to two years' imprisonment with or without hard labour. He found the house locked and Hammond gone, but Abberline was able to apprehend Newlove at his mother's house in Camden Town. In the time between his statement to Hanks and his arrest, Newlove had gone to Cleveland Street and warned Hammond, who had escaped to his brother's house in Gravesend.
On the way to the police station, Newlove named Lord Arthur Somerset and Henry FitzRoy, Earl of Euston, as well as an army colonel by the name of Jervois, as visitors to Cleveland Street. Somerset was the head of the Prince of Wales's stables. Although Somerset was interviewed by police, no immediate action was taken against him, the authorities were slow to act on the allegations of Somerset's involvement. A watch was placed on the now-empty house and details of the case shuffled between government departments. On 19 August, an arrest warrant was issued in the name of George Veck, an acquaintance of Hammond's who pretended to be a clergyman. Veck had worked at the Telegraph Office, but had been sacked for "improper conduct" with the messenger boys. A seventeen-year-old youth found in Veck's London lodgings revealed to the police that Veck had gone to Portsmouth and was returning shortly by train; the police arrested Veck at London Waterloo railway station. In his pockets they discovered letters from Algernon Allies.
Abberline sent Constable Hanks to interview Allies at his parents' home in Suffolk. Allies admitted to receiving money from Somerset, having a sexual relationship with him, working at Cleveland Street for Hammond. On 22 August, police interviewed Somerset for a second time, after which Somerset left for Bad Homburg, where the Prince of Wales was taking his summer holiday. On 11 September and Veck were committed for trial, their defence was handled by Somerset's solicitor, Arthur Newton, with Willie Mathews appearing for Newlove, Charles Gill for Veck. Somerset paid the legal fees. By this time, Somerset had moved on to Hanover, to inspect some horses for the Prince of Wales, the press was referring to "noble lords" implicated in the trial. Newlove and Veck pleaded guilty to indecency on 18 September and the judge, Sir Thomas Chambers, a former Liberal Member of Parliament who had a reputation for leniency, sentenced them to four and nine months' hard labour respectively; the boys were given sentences that were considered at the time to be lenient.
Hammond escaped to France. Hammond moved on to Belgium from. Newton, acting for Somerset, paid for Hammond's passage. On the advice of the Prime Minister, Lord Salisbury, no extradition proceedings were attempted, the case against Hammond was dropped. Somerset returned to Britain in late September to attend horse sales at N
Hyères, Provençal Occitan: Ieras in classical norm, or Iero in Mistralian norm) is a commune in the Var department in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region in southeastern France. The old town lies 4 km from the sea clustered around the Castle of Saint Bernard, set on a hill. Between the old town and the sea lies the pine-covered hill of Costebelle, which overlooks the peninsula of Giens. Hyères is the oldest resort on the French Riviera; the Hellenic city of Olbia was refounded on the Phoenician settlement that dated to the fourth century BC. Greek and Roman antiquities have been found in the area; the first reference to the town dates from 964. A possession of the Viscount of Marseilles, it was transferred to Charles of Anjou. Louis IX King of France landed at Hyères in 1254. A commandry of the Knights Templar was based at the town in the 12th century, outside the town walls; the remaining remnant is the tower Saint-Blaise. After defecting from Soviet intelligence in 1937, Walter Krivitsky hid in Hyères.
As part of Operation Dragoon on 15 August 1944, the joint United States-Canada First Special Service Force came ashore off the coast of Hyères to take the islands of Port-Cros and Levant. The small German garrisons offered little resistance and the whole eastern part of Port-Cros was secured by 06:30. All fighting was over on Levant by the evening, but, on Port-Cros, the Germans withdrew into old thick-walled forts, it was only when naval guns were brought to bear that they realised that further resistance was useless. An intense naval barrage on 18 August 1944 heralded the next phase of the operation—the assault on the largest of the Hyères islands, Porquerolles. French forces—naval units and colonial formations, including Senegalese infantry—became involved on 22 August and subsequently occupied the island. A US-Canadian Special Forces landing at the eastern end of Porquerolles took large numbers of prisoners, the Germans preferring not to surrender to the Senegalese, its position facing the Mediterranean to the south makes it popular with tourists in the winter and makes it ideal for the cultivation of palm trees.
About 100,000 trees are exported from the area each year. As a result, the town is referred to as Hyères-les-Palmiers; the three islands of the Îles d'Hyères are just offshore. Porquerolles and Port-Cros form the Port-Cros National Park; the commune has a land area of 132.38 square kilometres. The city of Hyères has a hot-summer Mediterranean climate and it's one of the warmest cities in France. Winters are mild and summers are hot, with maximum temperatures surpassing 30 °C, it is one of the driest cities in France, with 57 rainy days per year and rainless summers. Lord Albemarle, the British ambassador, stayed in Hyères during the winter 1767-1768, Prince Augustus, sixth son of George III, stayed there in the winter of 1788 for health reasons; the English agronomist Arthur Young visited Hyères on the advice of Lady Craven on 10 September 1789. He mentioned the many British living there in his book Travels in France; the London-born and Eton-educated Anglo-Grison Charles de Salis died in Hyères in July 1781, aged 45, was buried in the Convent des Cordeliers.
In 1791, Charlotte Turner Smith published her novel Celestina, set in Hyères. During the period of the French Revolution and the Napoleonic Wars, the British left the area, but they returned after 1815. Joseph Conrad, who lived for a while in Hyères, wrote his novel, The Rover, set in Hyères, during those years. William FitzRoy, 6th Duke of Grafton spent the winter and spring each year at Hyères because he and his wife suffered from ill health. Edwin Lee M. D. published in 1857 a book on the virtues of the climate of Hyères for the recovery of pulmonary consumption and in November 1880 Adolphe Smith first published The Garden of Hyères, still in print. In 1883, Robert Louis Stevenson came to Hyères and for about two years lived first at the Grand Hotel, in a chalet called Solitude in the present rue Victor-Basch, he wrote then: "That spot our garden and our view are sub-celestial. I sing daily with that great bard. I dwell next door to Heaven!" In years, he wrote from his retreat in Valima: "Happy.
In 1884, Elisabeth Douglas, daughter of Alfred, Lord Douglas, had a small "cottage", as she called it, built on the Costebelle hill by the architect Thomas Donaldson, who used to spend his winters in Hyères during those years. The British presence culminated in the winter of 1892 when Queen Victoria came for a stay of three weeks at the Albion Hotel. At that time, the British influence was so strong that shop signs were in both English. There was an English butcher, a chemist, two banks, two golf courses. There were two English churches, whose buildings still exist: All Saint's Church at Costebelle and Saint Paul's English Church, Avenue Beauregard; some signs of this English presence have vanished, like the small dell in the cemetery where there were once some hundred graves. Some of these, such as those of Lord Arthur Somerset or Richard John Meade, bore testimony to the aristocratic nature
Henry Somerset, 8th Duke of Beaufort
Captain Henry Charles FitzRoy Somerset, 8th Duke of Beaufort KG, PC, DL, styled Earl of Glamorgan until 1835 and Marquess of Worcester from 1835 to 1853, was a British peer and Conservative Party politician. He served as Master of the Horse between 1858 and 1859 and again between 1866 and 1868. Born in Paris, he was the only son of Henry Somerset, 7th Duke of Beaufort by his second wife Emily Frances, daughter of Charles Culling Smith and his wife Lady Anne Wellesley, he was educated at Eton College. Beaufort was commissioned a Cornet and Sublieutenant in the 1st Life Guards on 17 August 1841. From 1842 to 1852, he was an aide-de-camp to the Duke of Wellington Commander-in-Chief of the Forces, he was promoted lieutenant on 7 July 1843. On 13 August 1847, he purchased a captaincy in the 7th Hussars. On 15 June 1852, Beaufort was appointed a deputy lieutenant of Gloucestershire, after the death of Wellington in September, he continued to serve as aide-de-camp to the new Commander-in-Chief, Viscount Hardinge, until the latter's death in 1856.
On 21 April 1854, Beaufort purchased a commission as an unattached major, on 5 May, he was appointed Lieutenant-Colonel Commandant of the Royal Gloucestershire Yeomanry, replacing his late father. During this time it was proposed to start "a cattle show" in Monmouth, in 1857 Beaufort and John Etherington Welch Rolls each put money into a fund to start the show. Rolls was the greater financial contributor and he became President of the show; this cattle show is now known as the Monmouthshire Show. Beaufort was breveted lieutenant colonel on 26 October 1858, but sold his commission and left the Army on 11 June 1861. On 16 September 1863, he was made a deputy lieutenant of Monmouthshire, he was appointed Honorary Colonel of the 1st Gloucestershire Engineer Volunteers on 20 November 1867. On 29 April 1874, he resigned the lieutenant-colonelcy of the Gloucestershire Yeomanry and became Honorary Colonel of the regiment, he resigned that commission on 2 July 1887. He resigned the honorary colonelcy of the 1st Gloucestershire Engineer Volunteers on 2 December 1888.
In 1846, Beaufort was returned as a Member of Parliament for East Gloucestershire, holding the seat until succeeding his father in the dukedom in November 1853. He was appointed Master of the Horse on 26 February 1858, as part of Lord Derby's second government and was made a Privy Counsellor the same day, he left office in 1859. Beaufort was again appointed Master of the Horse in Derby's third government in 1866. On 19 March 1867, he was made a Knight of the Garter and appointed Lord Lieutenant of Monmouthshire that year, he lost the Mastership of the Horse in 1868 when the government fell, but remained Lord Lieutenant for the remainder of his life. Beaufort conceived and planned the Badminton Library series of sporting books, the publication of which began in 1885 with a volume on Hunting, acted as its overseeing editor. Beaufort married Lady Georgiana Charlotte Curzon, daughter of Richard Curzon-Howe, 1st Earl Howe, on 3 July 1845, they had six children: 9th Duke of Beaufort. Lord Henry Richard Charles Somerset.
Major Lord Henry Arthur George Somerset. Major Lord Henry Edward Brudenell Somerset. Lady Blanche Elizabeth Adelaide Somerset. Fitzroy George Henry Somerset. Somerset died in 1899, aged 75 at Stoke Gifford, from gout and was buried on 5 May 1899 at St Michael and All Angels Church, Badminton. Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by the Duke of Beaufort Pedigree at Genealogics
House of Beaufort
The House of Beaufort is an English noble family, which originated in the fourteenth century and played an important role in the Wars of the Roses in the fifteenth century. The name Beaufort refers to Montmorency-Beaufort, once the possession of John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster, third son of King Edward III; the family is descended from John of Gaunt by his then-mistress Katherine Swynford. Gaunt married Swynford in 1396, their children were legitimized by Richard II and Pope Boniface IX, they had four children: John, Henry and Joan. The House of Tudor was descended from the Beauforts in the female line and all subsequent English and British monarchs are descended from the Tudors; the House of Beaufort continues to exist. The current, 12th Duke of Beaufort is Henry Somerset, a direct male-line descendant of Edward III; the Beauforts were a powerful and wealthy family from the start, rose to greater power after their half-brother and uncle became King Henry IV in 1399. However, in 1406, Henry IV decided that although the Beauforts were legitimate, their genetic line could not be used to make any claim to the throne.
John Beaufort had been created Earl of Somerset in 1397. His second son John became the first Duke of Somerset in 1443; the second son, became a bishop, Lord Chancellor, a Cardinal. Joan had the most pedigree, her many descendants including the Dukes of York, Warwick the "Kingmaker", the Dukes of Norfolk, the Dukes of Buckingham, the Earls of Northumberland, Henry VIII's last queen, Catherine Parr; when the dynastic struggle known as the Wars of the Roses broke out in the fifteenth century, the Beauforts were the chief supporters of Henry VI and the House of Lancaster. Henry VII traced his claim to the English crown through his mother, Margaret Beaufort, granddaughter of John Beaufort, great-granddaughter of John of Gaunt; the Beauforts suffered in the Wars of the Roses. Edmund Beaufort, 2nd Duke of Somerset and his three elder sons were killed in the war, leaving no legitimate male heir; the male line was continued through Charles Somerset, 1st Earl of Worcester, illegitimate son of Henry Beaufort, 3rd Duke of Somerset.
Henry Somerset, 3rd Marquess of Worcester was the great-great-great-great-grandson of Charles Somerset. He assisted in the Restoration to the throne of Charles II. In 1682, Charles created Henry Somerset the first Duke of Beaufort; the Beaufort family in the male line is today represented by its cadet branch the House of Somerset, whose senior representative is Henry Somerset, 12th Duke of Beaufort. These included: 1st Earl of Somerset. Henry Beaufort, 2nd Earl of Somerset. John Beaufort, 1st Duke of Somerset. Margaret Beaufort, Countess of Richmond and Derby, mother of King Henry VII of England Joan Beaufort, Queen of Scotland Thomas Beaufort, Count of Perche Edmund Beaufort, 2nd Duke of Somerset. Henry Beaufort, 3rd Duke of Somerset. Margaret Beaufort, Countess of Stafford Edmund Beaufort, 4th Duke of Somerset. John Beaufort, Marquess of Dorset Margaret Beaufort, Countess of Devon Henry Beaufort, Cardinal Bishop of Winchester Thomas Beaufort, Duke of Exeter Joan Beaufort, Countess of Westmorland Cecily Neville, Duchess of York, mother of Kings Edward IV and Richard III of England Attribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed..
"Beaufort". Encyclopædia Britannica. 3. Cambridge University Press. BibliographyAiles, The Origins of The Royal Arms of England, Reading: Graduate Centre for Medieval Studies, University of Reading, ISBN 0704907763 Amin, The House of Beaufort, The Bastard Line That Captured The Crown, Stroud: Amberley, ISBN 9781445684734 Brooke-Little, J. P. FSA, Boutell's Heraldry, London: Frederick Warne LTD, ISBN 0-7232-2096-4 Fox-Davies, Complete Guide to Heraldry, New York: Bonanza Books, ISBN 1602390010 Louda, Jiří. ISBN 0517545586 Pinches, John Harvey.
Prince of Wales
Prince of Wales was a title granted to princes born in Wales from the 12th century onwards. One of the last Welsh princes, Llywelyn ap Gruffudd, was killed in battle in 1282 by Edward I, King of England, whose son Edward was invested as the first English Prince of Wales in 1301. Since the 14th century, the title has been a dynastic title granted to the heir apparent to the English or British monarch, but the failure to be granted the title does not affect the rights to royal succession; the title is granted to the heir apparent as a personal honour or dignity, is not heritable, merging with the Crown on accession to the throne. The title Earl of Chester is always given in conjunction with that of Prince of Wales; the Prince of Wales has other titles and honours. The current and longest-serving Prince of Wales is Prince Charles, the eldest son of Elizabeth II, Queen of the United Kingdom and 15 other independent Commonwealth realms as well as Head of the 53-member Commonwealth of Nations; the wife of the Prince of Wales is entitled to the title Princess of Wales.
Prince Charles's first wife, used that title but his second wife, uses only the title Duchess of Cornwall because the other title has become so popularly associated with Diana. The Prince of Wales is the heir apparent of the monarch of the United Kingdom. No formal public role or responsibility has been legislated by Parliament or otherwise delegated to him by law or custom, either as heir apparent or as Prince of Wales; the current Prince now assists the Queen in the performance of her duties, for example, representing the Queen when welcoming dignitaries to London and attending State dinners during State visits. He has represented the Queen and the United Kingdom overseas at state and ceremonial occasions such as state funerals; the Queen has given the Prince of Wales the authority to issue royal warrants. For most of the post-Roman period, Wales was divided into several smaller states. Before the Norman conquest of England, the most powerful Welsh ruler at any given time was known as King of the Britons.
In the 12th and 13th centuries, this title evolved into Prince of Wales. In Latin, the new title was Princeps Walliae, in Welsh it was Tywysog Cymru; the literal translation of Tywysog is "leader". Only a handful of native princes had their claim to the overlordship of Wales recognised by the English Crown; the first known to have used such a title was Owain Gwynedd, adopting the title Prince of the Welsh around 1165 after earlier using rex Waliae. His grandson Llywelyn the Great is not known to have used the title "Prince of Wales" as such, although his use, from around 1230, of the style "Prince of Aberffraw, Lord of Snowdon" was tantamount to a proclamation of authority over most of Wales, he did use the title "Prince of North Wales" as did his predecessor Dafydd ab Owain Gwynedd. In 1240, the title was theoretically inherited by his son Dafydd ap Llywelyn, though he is not known to have used it. Instead he styled himself as "Prince of Wales" around 1244. In 1246, his nephew Llywelyn ap Gruffudd succeeded to the throne of Gwynedd, used the style as early as 1258.
In 1267, with the signing of the Treaty of Montgomery, he was recognised by both King Henry III of England and the representative of the Papacy as Prince of Wales. In 1282, Llywelyn was killed during Edward I of England's invasion of Wales and although his brother Dafydd ap Gruffudd succeeded to the Welsh princeship, issuing documents as prince, his principality was not recognised by the English Crown. Three Welshmen, claimed the title of Prince of Wales after 1283; the first was Madog ap Llywelyn, a member of the House of Gwynedd, who led a nationwide revolt in 1294-5, defeating English forces in battle near Denbigh and seizing Caernarfon Castle. His revolt was suppressed, after the Battle of Maes Moydog in March 1295, the prince was imprisoned in London. In the 1370s, Owain Lawgoch, an English-born descendant of one of Llywelyn ap Gruffudd's brothers, claimed the title of Prince of Wales, but was assassinated in France in 1378 before he could return to Wales to claim his inheritance, it is Owain Glyndŵr, whom many Welsh people regard as having been the last native Prince.
On 16 September 1400, he was proclaimed Prince of Wales by his supporters, held parliaments at Harlech Castle and elsewhere during his revolt, which encompassed all of Wales. It was not until 1409 that his revolt in quest of Welsh independence was suppressed by Henry IV; the tradition of conferring the title "Prince of Wales" on the heir apparent of the monarch is considered to have begun in 1301, when King Edward I of England invested his son Edward of Caernarfon with the title at a Parliament held in Lincoln. According to legend, the king had promised the Welsh that he would name "a prince born in Wales, who did not speak a word of English" and produced his infant son, born at Caernarfon, to their surprise. However, the story may well be apocryphal, as it can only be traced to the 16th century, and, in the time of Edward I, the English aristocracy spoke Norman French, not English. William Camden wrote in his 1607 work Britannia that the title "Prince of Wales" was not conferred automatically upon the eldest living son o
France the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean, it is bordered by Belgium and Germany to the northeast and Italy to the east, Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic and Indian oceans; the country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Toulouse, Bordeaux and Nice. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia.
The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into Middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia which became the Kingdom of France in 987 emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages following its victory in the Hundred Years' War. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world; the 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Protestants. France became Europe's dominant cultural and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French Revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, established one of modern history's earliest republics, saw the drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day. In the 19th century, Napoleon established the First French Empire, his subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870.
France was a major participant in World War I, from which it emerged victorious, was one of the Allies in World War II, but came under occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War; the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains today. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s and retained close economic and military connections with France. France has long been a global centre of art and philosophy, it hosts the world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country with the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, human development.
France is considered a great power in global affairs, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member state of the European Union and the Eurozone, a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, La Francophonie. Applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name "France" comes from the Latin "Francia", or "country of the Franks". Modern France is still named today "Francia" in Italian and Spanish, "Frankreich" in German and "Frankrijk" in Dutch, all of which have more or less the same historical meaning. There are various theories as to the origin of the name Frank. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm, the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank in English, it has been suggested that the meaning of "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation.
Another theory is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankon, which translates as javelin or lance as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca. However, it has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use by the Franks, not the other way around; the oldest traces of human life in what is now France date from 1.8 million years ago. Over the ensuing millennia, Humans were confronted by a harsh and variable climate, marked by several glacial eras. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life. France has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved, Lascaux. At the end of the last glacial period, the climate became milder. After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium working gold and bronze, iron. France has numerous megalithic sites from the Neolithic period, including the exceptiona