Edward James Saunderson
Colonel Edward James Saunderson was an Anglo-Irish landowner and prominent Irish unionist politician. He led the Irish Unionist Alliance between 1891 and 1906. Saunderson was born at the family seat of Castle Saunderson in County Cavan, he was the younger son of Colonel Alexander Saunderson, who served as the Tory Member of Parliament for Cavan, Hon. Sarah Juliana Maxwell, he was the grandson of 6th Baron Farnham. The Irish Saundersons were a 17th-century branch of an old family from Durham. Saunderson was educated abroad in Nice by private tutors, inherited his father's Cavan estates following his death in 1857. On 22 June 1865 he married Hon. Helena Emily de Moleyns, a daughter of Thomas Townsend Aremberg de Moleyns, 3rd Baron Ventry. Together the couple had a daughter. Two of his sons were British Army officers. In 1947, his grandson, married Princess Louise, great-granddaughter of Titanic victim, John Jacob Astor IV, the ex-wife of two different Georgian Mdivani princes. In his private life, Saunderson was well known as a keen yachtsman, his character was marked by stern religious feeling.
He was a devout Evangelical Anglican. Saunderson was first elected to the Parliament of the United Kingdom as the Palmerstonian Liberal member for Cavan in 1865. In 1869, he became a Conservative. Other than opposing the disestablishment of the Irish church in 1869, he otherwise gave little sign of political interest or activity at this stage. Saunderson lost his seat to the Home Rule League candidates, Joseph Biggar and Charles Joseph Fay, at the 1874 general election. In 1885 he stood again for parliament and was elected as a Conservative for the North Armagh constituency. By this stage, he had become a prominent figure in the Orange Order and in the unionist political movement, he retained his North Armagh seat in the 1886 election. He was subsequently involved in organising the establishment of the Irish Unionist Alliance, a political party which sought to unite the unionist movement across Ireland, he became the IUA's first leader in a position which he held until his death. Saunderson became known for his uncompromising speeches in the House of Commons, he was nicknamed'the Dancing Dervish' by friends and opponents.
He was invested as a member of the Privy Council of the United Kingdom in 1898 in recognition of his political service. Saunderson had entered the Cavan militia in 1862, was made a major in 1875, he became a colonel in 1886 and was in command of the battalion from 1891 to 1893. In March 1893, Saunderson was one of the signatories of the manifesto of the Ulster Defence Union, launched to organise resistance to the Second Home Rule Bill of 1893, he was a Justice of the Peace and Deputy Lieutenant for Cavan, was appointed High Sheriff of Cavan in 1859. He served as the grand master of the Orange Order lodge in Belfast from 1901 to 1903, he died of pneumonia in 1906 and a statue, erected by public subscription, was unveiled at Portadown in 1910. Reginald Lucas, Memoir. "Col. Saunderson Dead.", The New York Times, 22 October 1906. This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Saunderson, Edward James". Encyclopædia Britannica. 24. Cambridge University Press.
P. 237. Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by Edward James Saunderson
Vicary Gibbs (St Albans MP)
The Hon. Vicary Gibbs was a British barrister and Conservative Party politician, he sat in the House of Commons from 1892 to 1904. Gibbs came from an old Devon family, he was the third son of Hucks Gibbs, 1st Baron Aldenham, his wife Louisa Anne, daughter of William Adams. Alban Gibbs, 2nd Baron Aldenham, Herbert Gibbs, 1st Baron Hunsdon of Hunsdon, were his brothers, while George Cokayne was his great-uncle, his great-grandfather was Antony Gibbs, brother of Sir Vicary Gibbs who became Chief Justice of the Common Pleas. He was educated at Eton College and at Christ Church, where he graduated in 1876 with a Bachelor of Arts degree in Classical Moderations, he was called to the bar at Lincolns Inn in 1880, became a partner in the merchant and banking firm Anthony Gibbs and Sons. At the 1892 general election he was returned to Parliament for St Albans division of Hertfordshire, he was returned unopposed in 1895 and 1900, but was disqualified in February 1904. He and his brother Alban were partners in the firm Antony Gibbs & Sons, which had organised the sale to the Admiralty of two warships, built in England for the Chilean Navy, to avoid them being sold to a rival power when Chile did not complete the purchase.
However, in so doing he was disqualified from the House of Commons, under provisions which debarred MPs from accepting contracts from the Crown. He told his constituents on 18 January that he would resign from the Commons by taking the Chiltern Hundreds, present himself for re-election. Both Gibbs and the Liberal Party candidate John Bamford Slack were by campaigning in the constituency, but The Times newspaper reported on 20 January that the by-election was unlikely to be contested by the Liberals. However, since Gibbs was disqualified, he did not need to take the usual step of disqualifying himself by taking the Chiltern Hundreds, in a letter of 1 February 1904 he informed the Speaker of the contract that "I am advised that by so doing I have, under an Act of George III, vacated my seat in Parliament", his letter was read to the Commons on 2 February, the writ was moved the following day. In the meantime, the Liberals had decided to contest the seat, at a meeting on 24 January they had adopted Slack as their candidate.
At the resulting by-election on 12 February 1904, Slack won the seat with a majority of 132 votes. At the 1906 general election Gibbs stood unsuccessfully in Bradford Central, campaigning as a tariff reformer, but never returned to the Commons, he was a member of the Tariff Commission and of the Council of the Industrial Freedom League, an organisation which opposed the involvement of the state and municipalities in trading companies. Gibbs was a Justice of the Peace for Hertfordshire, the first co-author of the second edition of The Complete Peerage. While he retired well before it completed publication, his extensive notes are represented throughout the volumes, he was a director of numerous companies, the chairman of National Provident Institution. At his seat Aldenham House near Elstree in Hertfordshire, he cultivated a garden which became notable for its flowering trees and shrubs, he won many prizes for the flowers and vegetables grown by his head gardener Edwin Beckett FRHS, including a first prize at the Franco-British Exhibition in 1908.
In January 1932 Gibbs died aged 78 at his London home in Upper Belgrave Street. Baron Aldenham Baron Hunsdon of Hunsdon Lundy, Darryl. "p. 3328 § 33273". The Peerage. Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by Vicary Gibbs
James II of England
James II and VII was King of England and Ireland as James II and King of Scotland as James VII, from 6 February 1685 until he was deposed in the Glorious Revolution of 1688. The last Roman Catholic monarch of England and Ireland, his reign is now remembered for struggles over religious tolerance. However, it involved the principles of absolutism and divine right of kings and his deposition ended a century of political and civil strife by confirming the primacy of Parliament over the Crown. James inherited the thrones of England and Scotland with widespread support in all three countries based on the principle of divine right or birth. Tolerance for his personal Catholicism did not apply to it in general and when the English and Scottish Parliaments refused to pass his measures, James attempted to impose them by decree. In June 1688, two events turned dissent into a crisis; the second was the prosecution of the Seven Bishops for seditious libel. Anti-Catholic riots in England and Scotland now made it seem only his removal as monarch could prevent a civil war.
Representatives of the English political elite invited William to assume the English throne. In February 1689, Parliament held he had'vacated' the English throne and installed William and Mary as joint monarchs, establishing the principle that sovereignty derived from Parliament, not birth. James landed in Ireland on 14 March 1689 in an attempt to recover his kingdoms but despite a simultaneous rising in Scotland, in April a Scottish Convention followed their English colleagues by ruling James had'forfeited' the throne and offered it to William and Mary. After defeat at the Battle of the Boyne in July 1690, James returned to France where he spent the rest of his life in exile at Saint-Germain, protected by Louis XIV. James, the second surviving son of King Charles I and his wife, Henrietta Maria of France, was born at St James's Palace in London on 14 October 1633; that same year, he was baptised by William Laud, the Anglican Archbishop of Canterbury. He was educated by private tutors, along with his older brother, the future King Charles II, the two sons of the Duke of Buckingham and Francis Villiers.
At the age of three, James was appointed Lord High Admiral. He was designated Duke of York at birth, invested with the Order of the Garter in 1642, formally created Duke of York in January 1644; the King's disputes with the English Parliament grew into the English Civil War. James accompanied his father at the Battle of Edgehill, where he narrowly escaped capture by the Parliamentary army, he subsequently stayed in Oxford, the chief Royalist stronghold, where he was made a M. A. by the University on 1 November 1642 and served as colonel of a volunteer regiment of foot. When the city surrendered after the siege of Oxford in 1646, Parliamentary leaders ordered the Duke of York to be confined in St James's Palace. Disguised as a woman, he escaped from the Palace in 1648 with the help of Joseph Bampfield, crossed the North Sea to The Hague; when Charles I was executed by the rebels in 1649, monarchists proclaimed James's older brother king as Charles II of England. Charles II was recognised as king by the Parliament of Scotland and the Parliament of Ireland, was crowned King of Scotland at Scone in 1651.
Although he was proclaimed King in Jersey, Charles was unable to secure the crown of England and fled to France and exile. Like his brother, James sought refuge in France, serving in the French army under Turenne against the Fronde, against their Spanish allies. In the French army James had his first true experience of battle where, according to one observer, he "ventures himself and chargeth gallantly where anything is to be done". Turenne's favour led to James being given command of a captured Irish regiment in December 1652, being appointed Lieutenant-General in 1654. In the meantime, Charles was attempting to reclaim his throne, but France, although hosting the exiles, had allied itself with Oliver Cromwell. In 1656, Charles turned instead to Spain – an enemy of France – for support, an alliance was made. In consequence, James was forced to leave Turenne's army. James quarrelled with his brother over the diplomatic choice of Spain over France. Exiled and poor, there was little that either Charles or James could do about the wider political situation, James travelled to Bruges and joined the Spanish army under Louis, Prince of Condé in Flanders, where he was given command as Captain-General of six regiments of British volunteers and fought against his former French comrades at the Battle of the Dunes.
During his service in the Spanish army, James became friendly with two Irish Catholic brothers in the Royalist entourage and Richard Talbot, became somewhat estranged from his brother's Anglican advisers. In 1659, the French and Spanish made peace. James, doubtful of his brother's chances of regaining the throne, considered taking a Spanish offer to be an admiral in their navy, he declined the position.
The Irish are a Celtic nation and ethnic group native to the island of Ireland, who share a common Irish ancestry and culture. Ireland has been inhabited for about 12,500 years according to archaeological studies. For most of Ireland's recorded history, the Irish have been a Gaelic people. Viking invasions of Ireland during the 8th to 11th centuries established the cities of Dublin, Waterford and Limerick. Anglo-Normans conquered parts of Ireland in the 12th century, while England's 16th/17th-century conquest and colonisation of Ireland brought a large number of English and Lowland Scots people to parts of the island the north. Today, Ireland is made up of the Republic of the smaller Northern Ireland; the people of Northern Ireland hold various national identities including British, Northern Irish or some combination thereof. The Irish have their own customs, music, sports and mythology. Although Irish was their main language in the past, today most Irish people speak English as their first language.
The Irish nation was made up of kin groups or clans, the Irish had their own religion, law code and style of dress. There have been many notable Irish people throughout history. After Ireland's conversion to Christianity, Irish missionaries and scholars exerted great influence on Western Europe, the Irish came to be seen as a nation of "saints and scholars"; the 6th-century Irish monk and missionary Columbanus is regarded as one of the "fathers of Europe", followed by saints Cillian and Fergal. The scientist Robert Boyle is considered the "father of chemistry", Robert Mallet one of the "fathers of seismology". Famous Irish writers include Oscar Wilde, W. B. Yeats, Samuel Beckett, George Bernard Shaw, Bram Stoker, James Joyce, C. S. Lewis and Seamus Heaney. Notable Irish explorers include Brendan the Navigator, Sir Robert McClure, Sir Alexander Armstrong, Sir Ernest Shackleton and Tom Crean. By some accounts, the first European child born in North America had Irish descent on both sides. Many presidents of the United States have had some Irish ancestry.
The population of Ireland is about 6.3 million, but it is estimated that 50 to 80 million people around the world have Irish forebears, making the Irish diaspora one of the largest of any nation. Emigration from Ireland has been the result of conflict and economic issues. People of Irish descent are found in English-speaking countries Great Britain, the United States and Australia. There are significant numbers in Argentina and New Zealand; the United States has the most people of Irish descent, while in Australia those of Irish descent are a higher percentage of the population than in any other country outside Ireland. Many Icelanders have Scottish Gaelic forebears. During the past 12,500 years of inhabitation, Ireland has witnessed some different peoples arrive on its shores; the ancient peoples of Ireland—such as the creators of the Céide Fields and Newgrange—are unknown. Neither their languages nor the terms they used to describe; as late as the middle centuries of the 1st millennium the inhabitants of Ireland did not appear to have a collective name for themselves.
Ireland itself was known by a number of different names, including Banba, Fódla, Ériu by the islanders and Hiverne to the Greeks, Hibernia to the Romans. Scotland takes its name from Scota, who in Irish mythology, Scottish mythology, pseudohistory, is the name given to two different mythological daughters of two different Egyptian Pharaohs to whom the Gaels traced their ancestry explaining the name Scoti, applied by the Romans to Irish raiders, to the Irish invaders of Argyll and Caledonia which became known as Scotland. Other Latin names for people from Ireland in Classic and Mediaeval sources include Attacotti and Gael; this last word, derived from the Welsh gwyddel "raiders", was adopted by the Irish for themselves. However, as a term it is on a par with Viking, as it describes an activity and its proponents, not their actual ethnic affiliations; the terms Irish and Ireland are derived from the goddess Ériu. A variety of historical ethnic groups have inhabited the island, including the Airgialla, Fir Ol nEchmacht, Fir Bolg, Érainn, Eóganachta, Conmaicne and Ulaid.
In the cases of the Conmaicne, Érainn, it can be demonstrated that the tribe took their name from their chief deity, or in the case of the Ciannachta, Eóganachta, the Soghain, a deified ancestor. This practice is paralleled by the Anglo-Saxon dynasties' claims of descent from Woden, via his sons Wecta, Baeldaeg and Wihtlaeg; the Greek mythographer Euhemerus originated the concept of Euhemerism, which treats mythological accounts as a reflection of actual historical events shaped by retelling and traditional mores. In the 12th century, Icelandic bard and historian Snorri Sturluson proposed that the Norse gods were historical war leaders and kings, who became cult figures set into society as gods; this view is in agreement with Irish historians such as Francis John Byrne. One legend states that the Irish were descended from one Míl Espáine, whose sons conquered Ireland around 1000 BC or
Privy Council of the United Kingdom
Her Majesty's Most Honourable Privy Council known as the Privy Council of the United Kingdom or just the Privy Council, is a formal body of advisers to the Sovereign of the United Kingdom. Its membership comprises senior politicians who are current or former members of either the House of Commons or the House of Lords; the Privy Council formally advises the sovereign on the exercise of the Royal Prerogative, corporately it issues executive instruments known as Orders in Council, which among other powers enact Acts of Parliament. The Council holds the delegated authority to issue Orders of Council used to regulate certain public institutions; the Council advises the sovereign on the issuing of Royal Charters, which are used to grant special status to incorporated bodies, city or borough status to local authorities. Otherwise, the Privy Council's powers have now been replaced by its executive committee, the Cabinet of the United Kingdom. Certain judicial functions are performed by the Queen-in-Council, although in practice its actual work of hearing and deciding upon cases is carried out day-to-day by the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council.
The Judicial Committee consists of senior judges appointed as Privy Counsellors: predominantly Justices of the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom and senior judges from the Commonwealth. The Privy Council acted as the High Court of Appeal for the entire British Empire, continues to hear appeals from the Crown Dependencies, the British Overseas Territories, some independent Commonwealth states; the Privy Council of the United Kingdom was preceded by the Privy Council of Scotland and the Privy Council of England. The key events in the formation of the modern Privy Council are given below: In Anglo-Saxon England, Witenagemot was an early equivalent to the Privy Council of England. During the reigns of the Norman monarchs, the English Crown was advised by a royal court or curia regis, which consisted of magnates and high officials; the body concerned itself with advising the sovereign on legislation and justice. Different bodies assuming distinct functions evolved from the court; the courts of law took over the business of dispensing justice, while Parliament became the supreme legislature of the kingdom.
The Council retained the power to hear legal disputes, either in the first instance or on appeal. Furthermore, laws made by the sovereign on the advice of the Council, rather than on the advice of Parliament, were accepted as valid. Powerful sovereigns used the body to circumvent the Courts and Parliament. For example, a committee of the Council—which became the Court of the Star Chamber—was during the 15th century permitted to inflict any punishment except death, without being bound by normal court procedure. During Henry VIII's reign, the sovereign, on the advice of the Council, was allowed to enact laws by mere proclamation; the legislative pre-eminence of Parliament was not restored until after Henry VIII's death. Though the royal Council retained legislative and judicial responsibilities, it became a administrative body; the Council consisted of forty members in 1553, but the sovereign relied on a smaller committee, which evolved into the modern Cabinet. By the end of the English Civil War, the monarchy, House of Lords, Privy Council had been abolished.
The remaining parliamentary chamber, the House of Commons, instituted a Council of State to execute laws and to direct administrative policy. The forty-one members of the Council were elected by the House of Commons. In 1653, Cromwell became Lord Protector, the Council was reduced to between thirteen and twenty-one members, all elected by the Commons. In 1657, the Commons granted Cromwell greater powers, some of which were reminiscent of those enjoyed by monarchs; the Council became known as the Protector's Privy Council. In 1659, shortly before the restoration of the monarchy, the Protector's Council was abolished. Charles II restored the Royal Privy Council, but he, like previous Stuart monarchs, chose to rely on a small group of advisers. Under George I more power transferred to this committee, it now began to meet in the absence of the sovereign, communicating its decisions to him after the fact. Thus, the British Privy Council, as a whole, ceased to be a body of important confidential advisers to the sovereign.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the definition of the word privy in Privy Council is an obsolete meaning "of or pertaining to a particular person or persons, one's own". It is related to the word private, derives from the French word privé; the sovereign, when acting on the Council's advice, is known as the King-in-Council or Queen-in-Council. The members of the Council are collectively known as The Lords of Her Majesty's Most Honourable Privy Council; the chief officer of the body is the Lord President of the Council, the fourth highest Great Officer of State, a Cabinet member and either the Leader of the House of Lords or of the House of Commons. Another important official is the Clerk, whose signature is appended to all orders made in the Council. Both Privy Counsellor and Privy Councillor may be used to refer to a member of the Council; the former, however, is preferred by the Privy Council Office, emphasising English usage of the term Counsellor a
Lord-Lieutenant of Lincolnshire
The Lord-Lieutenant of Lincolnshire is the British monarch's personal representative in the county of Lincolnshire. The lord-lieutenant was responsible for organising the county's militia. In 1871, the lord-lieutenant's responsibility over the local militia was removed. However, it was not until 1921 that they formally lost the right to call upon able-bodied men to fight when needed. Since 1660, all lord-lieutenants have been Custos Rotulorum of Lincolnshire; the lord-lieutenancy is now an honorary titular position awarded to a retired notable person in the county. Until 1975, this had been awarded to a peer connected to the county; this is a list of people. The lord-lieutenant selects from their deputy lieutenants one to act as the vice lord-lieutenant during their tenure; this office is not automatically renewed on the appoint of a new lord-lieutenant. The current Vice Lord-Lieutenant of Lincolnshire is Mr C G Rowles Nicholson. Deputy Lieutenants are nominated by the lord-lieutenant to assist with any duties as may be required.
In Lincolnshire, they are appointed by the Lord Chancellor on command of the sovereign. The current Deputy Lieutenants for Lincolnshire are: Mrs J M Ashton A E Baxter Esq JP DL Lady Benton Jones N D S Brown Esq J B Burke Esq DL Mrs C E Carlbom Flinn DL D C Chambers Esq DL A S Clark Esq DL Mrs A C Coltman OBE DL R J Douglas Esq DL H C Drake Esq DL F J F M Dymoke Esq DL Colonel D K Harris Mrs J G A M Hughes DL Mrs P G Keeling MBE DL Ms U F R Lidbetter J W Lockwood Esq MBE DL B Marsh Esq N E McCorquodale Esq DL Mrs R M Parker DL Air Chief Marshal Sir Stuart Peach Mrs V M Pettifer C A Pinchbeck Esq DL Mrs S A L Price DL Mrs H M L Reeve DL Professor M A Robinson OBE DL Mrs S E Robinson DL C G Rowles Nicholson Esq DL Sir Reginald Sheffield Sir Reginald Tyrwhitt By DL Mrs A L Ward DL W S Webb Esq DL C W H Welby Esq DLPrecious deputy lieutenants include: Thomas Sherwin Pearson-Gregory 2 January 1901 J. C. Sainty. "Lieutenancies of Counties, 1585–1642". Bulletin of the Institute of Historical Research.
J. C. Sainty. List of Lieutenants of Counties of England and Wales 1660-1974. London: Swift Printers Ltd