Sir Watkin Williams-Wynn, 10th Baronet
Sir Watkin Williams-Wynn, 10th Baronet, KStJ, CBE, of Bodelwyddan in the County of Flint, of Gray's Inn in the county of Middlesex, was a Welsh soldier and landowner. He was Lord Lieutenant of Denbighshire from 1966 to 1974 Lord Lieutenant of Clwyd from 1976 to 1979. Williams-Wynn was the son of Sir Robert William Herbert Watkin Williams-Wynn, 9th Baronet, KCB DSO, who employed a Welsh-speaking nanny to ensure that his son would be able to speak Welsh, he was educated at the Royal Military Academy, Woolwich. One of the few members of the surviving ancient Welsh nobility, Williams-Wynn was the closest certain heir of the House of Aberffraw, the former ruling family of Gwynedd and Wales, who were deposed in the English Conquest of 1282; the Williams-Wynn baronets were an important family of Denbighshire landowners, whose 17th century ancestor had married into the Wynn family of Gwydir, the patrilineal descendants of Owain Gwynedd, Prince of Gwynedd, in time they became the senior surviving branch of his family.
On the death of Sir John Wynn in 1719, his heiress Jane Thelwall inherited both the Wynnstay estate and the Wynn claim to Aberffraw. Her husband Watkin Williams added the Wynn family name to his own. In 1925, after graduating from Woolwich, Williams-Wynn was commissioned into the Royal Regiment of Artillery, he was second in command of his regiment while it was part of the British Expeditionary Force to France and was at the evacuation of Dunkirk was posted to the Far East. During service with the 18th Infantry Division at Singapore he was twice mentioned in despatches, after the fall of Singapore in February 1942 was a prisoner of war of the Imperial Japanese Army on the Burma Railway until the end of the war in 1945. In 1946 Williams-Wynn was promoted Lieutenant Colonel and given command of the 361st Medium Regiment of the Royal Artillery, retaining it until 1952, after which he was Honorary Colonel of the Regiment until October 1957. In 1947, he was appointed a Deputy Lieutenant for Denbighshire.
On 23 November 1951, on the death of his father, he inherited the Williams-Wynn Baronetcy, was High Sheriff of Denbighshire in 1954. He was Master of the Flint and Denbigh Foxhounds from 1946 to 1961 and became Joint Master of his own Sir W. W. Wynn's Hounds in 1957. From 1961 to 1970 Williams-Wynn was Liaison Officer to the Ministry of Agriculture for North Wales, from 1963 to 1966 a member of the Nature Conservancy for Wales, he was a president of the National Eisteddfod of Wales, Vice-Lieutenant of Denbighshire from 1957 to 1966 Lord Lieutenant from 1966 to 1974. With a reorganisation of Welsh counties in that year, he served as Vice-Lieutenant of Clwyd from 1974 to 1976 and as Lord Lieutenant of Clwyd until 1979, when he retired. At the time of his death on 13 May 1988, Williams-Wynn was living at Llangedwyn Hall, Powys, in the border country near Oswestry, Shropshire; the ruins of Owain Glyndŵr's Sycharth stand nearby. An obituary in The Times said "He was a countryman to his bones. From his estate at Llangedwyn, South Clwyd, he exercised his wide agricultural and conservationist interests".
In his Will, he left an estate worth £736,062. In 1939, Williams-Wynn married firstly, at Holy Trinity, Margaret Jean, the daughter of Colonel William Alleyne Macbean, late Royal Artillery, the Hon. Mrs Gerald Scarlett, step-daughter of Major General Gerald Scarlett, they were married by Bishop of St Asaph. They estates, his wife died in 1961, in 1968 Williams-Wynn married secondly Gabrielle Haden Matheson, the daughter of Herbert Alexander Caffin. Commander of the Order of the British Empire, 1968 Knight of the Venerable Order of Saint John, 1972 Fellow of the Royal Agricultural Society
Clwyd is a preserved county of Wales, situated in the north-east corner of the country. To the north lies the Irish Sea, with the English counties of Cheshire to the east and Shropshire to the south-east; the Welsh counties of Powys and Gwynedd lie to the west respectively. Clwyd shares a maritime boundary with the English county of Merseyside along the River Dee. Between 1974 and 1996, it was a county with a county council, one of the eight counties into which Wales was divided, was subdivided into six districts. In 1996, the county of Clwyd was abolished, the new unitary authorities of Wrexham, Conwy County Borough and Flintshire were created; this area of north-eastern Wales has been settled since prehistoric times. They built their castles at strategic locations as they advanced and retreated, but in the end England prevailed, Edward I conquered the country in 1282; the Act of Union in 1535 incorporated Wales under the English Crown and made it subject to English law. Traditionally, agriculture was the mainstay of the economy of this part of Wales, but with the Industrial Revolution, the North Wales Coalfield was developed and parts of eastern Clwyd around the Dee estuary and Wrexham became industrialised.
The advent of the railway running from Chester along the North Wales coast in the mid-19th century made it easy for urban dwellers from Lancashire and Cheshire to visit the seaside towns of North Wales, nowadays, tourism is the main source of income in Clwyd. North Wales has had human settlements since prehistoric times. By the time the Romans reached Britain, the area, now Clwyd was occupied by the Celtic Deceangli tribe, they lived in a chain of hill forts running through the Clwydian Range and their tribal capital was Canovium, at an important crossing of the River Conwy. This fell to the Romans, who built their own fort here, in about 75 AD. After the Roman departure from Britain in 410 AD, the successor states of Gwynedd and Powys controlled what is now Clwyd. From about 800 onwards, a series of dynastic marriages led to Rhodri Mawr inheriting the kingdoms of Gwynedd and Powys. After his death, this kingdom was divided among his three sons and further strife followed: not only Welsh battles were fought, but there were many raids by Danes and Saxons.
The Normans conquest of England at first had little effect on North Wales. This was to change as the city of Chester on the River Dee became the base for successive campaigns against the country in the 13th century; the coastal plain of Clwyd was the main invasion route, a number of castles were built there to assist these advances. The castles at Flint and Rhuddlan date from this period, were the first to be built by Edward I of England in North Wales during his successful conquest in 1282. After this, the rule of the Welsh princes was at an end and Wales was annexed to England; the country was known as the Principality of Wales from 1216 to 1536. From 1301, the Crown's lands in north and west Wales, including Clwyd, formed part of the appanage of England's heir apparent, given the title "Prince of Wales". Under the Act of Union of 1535, Wales became permanently incorporated under the English Crown and subject to English law. Although the Industrial Revolution did not much affect the rural parts of Clwyd, there was considerable industrial activity in the North Wales Coalfield in the north-east of the county around Wrexham.
The Bersham Ironworks at Bersham, in the same area, was at the forefront of technological advances and was most famous for being the original working site of the industrialist John Wilkinson who invented new processes for boring cannons. The Williams-Wynn family of Wynnstay had become rich after the dissolution of the monasteries and owned vast estates in Clwyd with resources including lead and copper as well as corn and timber; the county of Clwyd is in the northeastern corner of Wales. It is bounded by the Irish Sea to the north, the Welsh counties of Gwynedd to the west and Powys to the south, the English counties of Shropshire and Cheshire to the southeast and east respectively. Other large rivers in the county include the River Alyn, a tributary of the Dee, the River Clwyd and the River Conwy in the west; the northern coastal strip of the county is developed for tourism and has many resorts, including Llandudno, Colwyn Bay, Abergele and Prestatyn. In the northeast lies Deeside, the coastal plain beside the Dee estuary, this part of Clwyd is developed for industry.
The area around Wrexham and the commuter settlements close to Chester are heavily built up. To the west of this is a ridge of mountains with a steep scarp slope to the west, the Clwydian Range; the highest point of these hills is Moel Famau at 1,820 ft. The north-central part of the county is the broad Vale of Clwyd, the best agricultural land lies here. To the south of this, the land is much higher and more rugged, the Denbigh Moors and the Berwyn range are here; the central and western parts of the county are much more rural than the coastal area and the east, with part of the Snowdonia National Park lying in the western part of the county. The population as of 2007 is estimated at 491,100, based on figures for the four component unitary authority areas. Clwyd is bordered by the preserved counties of Gwynedd to the west, Powys to the south, S
Lord-Lieutenant of Lincolnshire
The Lord-Lieutenant of Lincolnshire is the British monarch's personal representative in the county of Lincolnshire. The lord-lieutenant was responsible for organising the county's militia. In 1871, the lord-lieutenant's responsibility over the local militia was removed. However, it was not until 1921 that they formally lost the right to call upon able-bodied men to fight when needed. Since 1660, all lord-lieutenants have been Custos Rotulorum of Lincolnshire; the lord-lieutenancy is now an honorary titular position awarded to a retired notable person in the county. Until 1975, this had been awarded to a peer connected to the county; this is a list of people. The lord-lieutenant selects from their deputy lieutenants one to act as the vice lord-lieutenant during their tenure; this office is not automatically renewed on the appoint of a new lord-lieutenant. The current Vice Lord-Lieutenant of Lincolnshire is Mr C G Rowles Nicholson. Deputy Lieutenants are nominated by the lord-lieutenant to assist with any duties as may be required.
In Lincolnshire, they are appointed by the Lord Chancellor on command of the sovereign. The current Deputy Lieutenants for Lincolnshire are: Mrs J M Ashton A E Baxter Esq JP DL Lady Benton Jones N D S Brown Esq J B Burke Esq DL Mrs C E Carlbom Flinn DL D C Chambers Esq DL A S Clark Esq DL Mrs A C Coltman OBE DL R J Douglas Esq DL H C Drake Esq DL F J F M Dymoke Esq DL Colonel D K Harris Mrs J G A M Hughes DL Mrs P G Keeling MBE DL Ms U F R Lidbetter J W Lockwood Esq MBE DL B Marsh Esq N E McCorquodale Esq DL Mrs R M Parker DL Air Chief Marshal Sir Stuart Peach Mrs V M Pettifer C A Pinchbeck Esq DL Mrs S A L Price DL Mrs H M L Reeve DL Professor M A Robinson OBE DL Mrs S E Robinson DL C G Rowles Nicholson Esq DL Sir Reginald Sheffield Sir Reginald Tyrwhitt By DL Mrs A L Ward DL W S Webb Esq DL C W H Welby Esq DLPrecious deputy lieutenants include: Thomas Sherwin Pearson-Gregory 2 January 1901 J. C. Sainty. "Lieutenancies of Counties, 1585–1642". Bulletin of the Institute of Historical Research.
J. C. Sainty. List of Lieutenants of Counties of England and Wales 1660-1974. London: Swift Printers Ltd
Isle of Ely
The Isle of Ely is a historic region around the city of Ely in Cambridgeshire, England. Between 1889 and 1965, it formed an administrative county, its name is said to mean "island of eels", a reference to the creatures that were caught in the local rivers for food. This etymology was first recorded by the Venerable Bede; until the 17th century, the area was an island surrounded by a large area of fenland, a type of swamp. It was coveted as an area difficult to penetrate, was controlled in the early medieval period by the Gyrwas, an Anglo-Saxon tribe. Upon their marriage in 652, Tondbert, a prince of the Gyrwas, presented Æthelthryth, the daughter of King Anna of the East Angles, with the Isle of Ely, she afterwards founded a monastery at Ely, destroyed by Viking raiders in 870, but was rebuilt and became a famous Abbey and Shrine. The Fens were drained; this began in 1626 using a network of canals designed by Dutch experts. Many Fenlanders were opposed to the draining as it deprived some of them of their traditional livelihood.
The area's natural defences led to it playing a role in the military history of England. Following the Norman Conquest, the Isle became a refuge for Anglo-Saxon forces under Earl Morcar, Bishop Aethelwine of Durham and Hereward the Wake in 1071; the area was taken by William the Conqueror only after a prolonged struggle. In 1139 civil war broke out between the forces of the Empress Matilda. Bishop Nigel of Ely, a supporter of Matilda, unsuccessfully tried to hold the Isle. In 1143 Geoffrey de Mandeville rebelled against Stephen, made his base in the Isle. Geoffrey was mortally wounded at Burwell in 1144. In 1216, during the First Barons' War, the Isle was unsuccessfully defended against the army of King John. Ely took part in the Peasants' Revolt of 1381. During the English Civil War the Isle of Ely was held for the parliamentarians. Troops from the garrison at Wisbech Castle were used in the siege of Crowland and parts of the Fens were flooded to prevent Royalist forces entering Norfolk from Lincolnshire.
The Horseshoe sluice on the river at Wisbech and the nearby castle and town defences were upgraded and cannon brought from Ely. From 1109 until 1837, the Isle was under the jurisdiction of the Bishop of Ely who appointed a Chief Justice of Ely and exercised temporal powers within the Liberty of Ely; this temporal jurisdiction originated in a charter granted by King Edgar in 970, confirmed by Edward the Confessor and Henry I to the abbot of Ely. The latter monarch established Ely as the seat of a bishop in 1109, creating the Isle of Ely a county palatine under the bishop. An act of parliament in 1535/6 ended the palatine status of the Isle, with all justices of the peace to be appointed by letters patent issued under the great seal and warrants to be issued in the king's name. However, the bishop retained exclusive jurisdiction in civil and criminal matters, was custos rotulorum. A chief bailiff was appointed for life by the bishop, performed the functions of high sheriff within the liberty, who headed the government of the city of Ely.
In July 1643 Oliver Cromwell was made governor of the isle. The Liberty of Ely Act 1837 ended the bishop's secular powers in the Isle; the area was declared a division of Cambridgeshire, with the right to appoint justices revested in the crown. Following the 1837 Act the Isle maintained separate Quarter Sessions, formed its own constabulary. Under the Local Government Bill of 1888, which proposed the introduction of elected county councils, the Isle was to form part of Cambridgeshire. Following the intervention of the local member of parliament, Charles Selwyn, the Isle of Ely was constituted a separate administrative county in 1889; the county was small in terms of both area and population, its abolition was proposed by the Local Government Boundary Commission in 1947. The report of the LGBC was not acted upon, the administrative county survived until 1965. Following the recommendations of the Local Government Commission for England, on 1 April 1965 the bulk of the area was merged to form Cambridgeshire and Isle of Ely, with the Thorney Rural District going to Huntingdon and Peterborough.
In 1894 the county was divided into county districts, with the rural districts being Ely Rural District, Thorney Rural District, Whittlesey Rural District, Wisbech Rural District, North Witchford Rural District, the urban districts were Ely, March and Wisbech. Whittlesey Rural district consisted of only one parish, added to Whittlesey urban district, in 1926; the Isle of Ely parliamentary constituency was created as a two-member seat in the First and Second Protectorate Parliaments from 1654 to 1659. The constituency was re-created with a single seat in 1918. In the boundary changes of 1983 it was replaced by the new constituency of North East Cambridgeshire. Original historical documents relating to the Isle of Ely are held by Cambridgeshire Archives and Local Studies at the County Record Office in Cambridge; the Isle of Ely County Council was granted a coat of arms on 1 May 1931. Previous to the grant the council had been using the arms of Diocese of Ely: Gules, three ducal coronets and one or.
In the 1931 grant and blue waves were added to the episcopal arms, to suggest that the county was an "isle". The crest above the shield was a human hand grasping a trident around which an eel was entwined, referring to the popular derivation of "Ely". On the wrist of the hand was a "Wake knot", representing Hereward the Wake. Fairweather, Janet. "introduction". Liber Eliensis. Translated by Fairweather, Janet. Woodbridge, UK: Boyd
Lord Lieutenant of Greater Manchester
The Lord Lieutenant of Greater Manchester is the representative of the monarch, Queen Elizabeth II in the metropolitan county of Greater Manchester in North West England. As Greater Manchester remains part of the Lancashire County Palatine, the Lord Lieutenant is appointed by the monarch in their capacity as Duke of Lancaster; the office was created on 1 April 1974. Before 1974 the area had been covered by the Lord Lieutenant of Lancashire, the Lord Lieutenant of Cheshire, a small part by the Lord Lieutenant of the West Riding of Yorkshire; the role of the Lord Lieutenant is to "first and foremost... to uphold the dignity of the Crown". The Lord Lieutenant acts as Keeper of the Rolls, it promoted the work of voluntary service and benevolent organisations. The Lord Lieutenant is aided in his office by over 70 Deputy Lieutenants. High Sheriff of Greater Manchester Lord Lieutenant of Greater Manchester