James Lowther, 1st Earl of Lonsdale
James Lowther, 1st Earl of Lonsdale was an English country landowner and politician who sat in the House of Commons for 27 years from 1757 to 1784, when he was raised to the Peerage of Great Britain as Earl of Lonsdale. The son of Robert Lowther of Maulds Meaburn and Catherine Pennington, he was educated at Peterhouse, Cambridge, he succeeded his father in 1745 and to the baronetcy and the estates, including Lowther Castle, of his great-uncle Henry Lowther, 3rd Viscount Lonsdale on 6 March 1751. He inherited the estates of Sir William Lowther, 3rd Baronet of Marske on 15 April 1756 and the estates of his cousin Sir James Lowther, 4th Baronet of Whitehaven in 1755. Lowther exercised influence over a number of "rotten" or "pocket" boroughs, including Appleby, a classic example of this type of constituency. In 1761 he was credited with securing the return of eight MPs — two each for Cumberland and Cockermouth, one each for Appleby and Carlisle, he married Mary Crichton-Stuart, daughter of John Stuart, 3rd Earl of Bute and Mary Wortley-Montagu, 1st Baroness Mount Stuart on 7 September 1761 and had a string of mistresses.
He fell in love with the daughter of one of his tenants and made her his mistress keeping her in luxury. When she died he could not endure to have her buried and the body remained lying in bed until the increasing putrefaction became unbearable, he had her body placed in a glass topped coffin, placed in a cupboard. Her body was buried in Paddington cemetery, he was created Earl of Lonsdale on 24 May 1784 and Viscount Lowther on 26 October 1797, with special remainder to his third cousin Sir William Lowther, 2nd Baronet of Little Preston. On 9 June 1792 he fought a duel with a Captain Cuthbert of the Guards, when the latter refused to let the former's carriage pass through Mount Street in London where some rioting had been taking place; the Earl asked him if he knew who he was which this led to an unpleasant exchange of words following which the Earl felt obliged to challenge the Captain to a duel the next morning. A pistol ball passed through the flap of Cuthbert's coat but after the exchange of fire both men were unhurt.
The matter was concluded with a handshake. He was variously known as "Wicked Jimmy", the "Bad Earl", the "Gloomy Earl" and "Jimmy" or "Jemmy Grasp-all, Earl of Toadstool", he died in 1802. His earldom and baronetcy became extinct but he was succeeded as Viscount Lowther, according to the special remainder, by his third cousin William Lowther, 2nd Viscount Lowther, advanced to Earl of Lonsdale of the second creation; the latter, a coal magnate inherited Lowther Castle, which he rebuilt between 1806 and 1814. Lowther had accumulated debts to John Wordsworth, the father of William Wordsworth. Although Wordsworth worked for Lowther, Lowther never paid Wordsworth for his various expenses, which amounted to ₤4,000 from 1763 until Wordsworth's death in 1783; this debt was discharged after his death by his successor. Portraits of James Lowther, 1st Earl of Lonsdale at the National Portrait Gallery, London Lowther pedigree 2 Leigh Rayment's Peerage Pages
Algernon Percy, 10th Earl of Northumberland
Algernon Percy, 10th Earl of Northumberland, 4th Baron Percy, KG was an English military leader and a prominent supporter of the Parliamentary cause in the English Civil War. Algernon Percy was the third, but eldest surviving, son of Henry Percy, 9th Earl of Northumberland, the so-called'Wizard Earl.' His mother was Dorothy Percy née Devereux, Countess of Northumberland, daughter of Walter Devereux, 1st Earl of Essex and sister of Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex, one of Elizabeth I's favourites, executed for treason in 1601. In 1605, the 9th Earl was accused of either participation or complicity in the Gunpowder Plot, as a result, he was imprisoned in the Tower of London until 1621; the 9th Earl exerted influence on young Algernon's education in spite of his imprisonment, Algernon stayed with the 9th Earl in the Tower for four or five days at a time. On the model of King James I's Basilikon Doron, the 9th Earl wrote an essay of advice to his son in 1609, his sister, Lucy Hay née Percy, dowager countess of Carlisle, his younger brother, Henry Percy, were members of the household of Charles I's queen, Henrietta Maria.
Another sister, was married to Robert Sidney, 2nd Earl of Leicester. In 1615, Algernon was sent to study at St John's College, in 1616 he was admitted to the Middle Temple in London, he received his MA in 1616 and was made a Knight of the Bath, meaning he was now Sir Algernon Percy. In 1618, Algernon and his tutor, Edward Douse, began a six-year tour of continental Europe, visiting the Netherlands and France. Algernon returned to England in 1624 and joined his father released from the Tower, at court. Algernon's first public service involved serving as MP for Sussex during the "Happy Parliament" of 1624–25 and as MP for Chichester during the "Useless Parliament" of 1625–26. In March 1626, Algernon was summoned to the House of Lords, assuming his father's barony and becoming known as "Lord Percy." In November 1626, he was appointed joint Lord Lieutenant of Cumberland and Northumberland. Percy became a leader in the House of Lords of the faction opposed to Charles I's favourite, George Villiers, 1st Duke of Buckingham.
In 1629, Algernon married Lady Anne Cecil, daughter of William Cecil, 2nd Earl of Salisbury, "in spite of his father's deep disapproval, who said that'the blood of a Percy would not mix with the blood of a Cecil if you poured it on a dish". The marriage, produced five daughters, including Lady Anne Percy, who married Philip Stanhope, 2nd Earl of Chesterfield, had no issue, Lady Elizabeth Percy, who married Arthur Capell, 1st Earl of Essex, had issue. Upon the death of the 9th Earl in 1632, Algernon Percy became the 10th Earl of Northumberland. Throughout the early 1630s, the 10th Earl attempted to ingratiate himself with Charles I's court unsuccessfully, although his family connections in the queen's household did manage to get him admitted to the Order of the Garter in 1635. By 1636–37, he was in good enough standing at court to be appointed admiral of the ship money fleet. Northumberland attempted to initiate naval reforms bypassing the lords of the admiralty and submitting his proposals directly to Charles I and the Privy Council.
Although most historians would not consider Northumberland a Puritan, he did enforce the Oath of Supremacy on his fleet and removed three Catholic officers who refused to take the oath. Northumberland's first expedition as admiral in 1636 was to force Dutch ships fishing in waters claimed by England to purchase English fishing licences, in exchange for which the English fleet would offer protection from the Dunkirkers. If Dutch sea captains refused to purchase the licences, their nets were cut. Northumberland was less enthusiastic about his second expedition as admiral, to transport Spanish money to the Netherlands in 1637, his political faction was pro-French and anti-Spanish, so he rankled at the thought of aiding the Spaniards. In 1638, two of Northumberland's prominent supporters at court — Thomas Wentworth and Archbishop of Canterbury William Laud — used their influence at court to have him made Lord High Admiral of England, a position, vacant since the assassination of the 1st Duke of Buckingham in 1628.
At the time he was appointed, it was understood that Charles I's son James would become Lord High Admiral upon attaining his majority, although the Civil Wars occurred before this could happen and Charles removed Northumberland from the post in 1642. In response to the rise of the Scottish Covenanters, who opposed the attempt to introduce the Book of Common Prayer in Scotland in 1637, Charles I appointed an eight-man subcommittee of the Privy Council to deal with the issue. Northumberland's patron, Thomas Wentworth, favoured war with Scotland, while Northumberland did not want to go to war, feared that his estates in northern England would be occupied during the hostilities; as such, when Wentworth had Northumberland appointed general of the English forces during the second of the Bishops' Wars in January 1640, Northumberland was happy to let illness prevent him from joining the army in the field, Northumberland was defeatist about the prospect of defeating the Covenanters militarily. In May 1640, Northumberland was one of only two members of a subcommittee of the Privy Council who opposed the dissolution of the Short Parliament, a move that confirmed his break with Wentworth and earned him the displeasure of the king.
When the Long Parliament met, Northumberland became one of the leading critics of royal policy. Durin
Thomas Howard, 21st Earl of Arundel
Thomas Howard, 21st Earl of Arundel KG, was a prominent English courtier during the reigns of King James I and King Charles I, but he made his name as a Grand Tourist and art collector rather than as a politician. When he died he possessed 700 paintings, along with large collections of sculpture, prints and antique jewellery. Most of his collection of marble carvings, known as the Arundel marbles, was left to the University of Oxford, he is sometimes referred to as the 2nd Earl of Arundel: the numbering depends on whether one views the earldom obtained by his father as a new creation or not. He was 2nd or 4th Earl of Surrey, he is known as "the Collector Earl". Arundel was born in relative penury, at Finchingfield in Essex on 7 July 1585, his aristocratic family had fallen into disgrace during the reign of Queen Elizabeth I owing to their religious conservatism and involvement in plots against the Queen. He was the son of Philip Howard, 20th Earl of Arundel, Anne Dacre, daughter and co-heiress of Thomas Dacre, 4th Baron Dacre of Gilsland.
He never knew his father, imprisoned before Arundel was born, owing to his father's attainder he was styled Lord Maltravers. Arundel's great-uncles returned the family to favour after James I ascended the throne, Arundel was restored to his titles and some of his estates in 1604. Other parts of the family lands ended up with his great-uncles; the next year he married Lady Alatheia Talbot, a daughter of Gilbert Talbot, 7th Earl of Shrewsbury, a granddaughter of Bess of Hardwick. She would inherit a vast estate in Nottinghamshire and Derbyshire, including Sheffield, the principal part of the family fortune since. With this large income, Arundel's collecting and building activities would lead him into debt. Arundel was an effective diplomat during the reign of James I. After coming to court, he travelled abroad, he was created Knight of the Garter in 1611. In 1613 he escorted Elizabeth, the electress consort Palatine, to Heidelberg as part of her marriage celebrations, again visited Italy. On Christmas day 1615 he joined the Church of England, took office, being appointed a Privy Councillor in 1616.
He supported Sir Walter Raleigh's expedition to Guiana in 1617, became a member of the New England Plantations Committee in 1620 and planned the colonization of Madagascar. Arundel presided over the House of Lords Committee in April 1621 for investigating the corruption charges against Francis Bacon, whom he defended from degradation from the peerage, at whose fall he was appointed a commissioner of the Great Seal. On 16 May 1621 he was sent to the Tower of London by the Lords on account of insulting Baron Spencer by referring to their respective ancestry, he incurred Prince Charles's and the Duke of Buckingham's anger by his opposition to the war with Spain in 1624, by his share in the duke's impeachment. On the marriage of his son Henry's to Lady Elizabeth Stewart without the king's approval, he was imprisoned in the Tower by Charles I, shortly after his accession, but was released at the instance of the Lords in June 1626, being again confined to his house till March 1628, when he was once more liberated by the Lords.
In the debates on the Petition of Right, while approving its essential demands, he supported the retention of some discretionary power by the king in committing to prison. The same year he again made a privy councillor. On 29 August 1621 Arundel had been appointed Earl Marshal, in 1623 Constable of England, in 1630 reviving the earl marshal's court, he was sent to The Hague in 1632 on a mission of condolence to Elizabeth Stuart Queen of Bohemia, on her husband's death. In 1634 he was made justice in eyre of the forests north of the Trent. In 1635 he was made Lord Lieutenant of Surrey. In 1636 Arundel undertook an unsuccessful mission to the emperor Ferdinand II to procure the restitution of the Palatinate to the young elector.. In 1638 he was entrusted with the charge of the forts on the border with Scotland, supporting alone amongst the peers the war against the Scots, was made general of the king's forces in the first Bishops' War, though "he had nothing martial about him but his presence and looks."
He was not employed in the second Bishops' War, but in August 1640 was nominated captain general south of the Trent. Arundel was appointed Lord Steward of the royal household in April 1640, in 1641 as lord high steward presided at the trial of the earl of Strafford; this closed his public career. He became again estranged from the court, in 1641 he escorted Marie de' Medici home. In 1642 he accompanied Princess Mary for her marriage to William II of Orange. With the troubles that would lead to the Civil War brewing, he decided not to return to England, instead settled first in Antwerp and at a villa near Padua, in Italy, he contributed a sum of £34,000 to the king’s cause, suffered severe losses in the war. He died in Padua in 1646, having returned to the Roman Catholicism he nominally abandoned on joining the Privy Council, was buried in Arundel, he was succeeded as Earl by his eldest son Henry Howard, 22nd Earl of Arundel, the ancestor of the Dukes of Norfolk and Baron Mowbray. His youngest son William Howard, 1st Viscount Stafford was the ancestor of what was first the Earl of Stafford and Baron Stafford.
Arundel had petitioned the king for restoration of the ancestral Dukedom of Norfolk. While the restoration was not to occur until the time of his grandson, he was created Earl of Norfolk i
Theophilus Howard, 2nd Earl of Suffolk
Theophilus Howard, 2nd Earl of Suffolk, was an English nobleman and politician. Born at the family estate of Saffron Walden, he was the son of Thomas Howard, 1st Earl of Suffolk, by his second wife, Catherine Knyvet of Charlton, succeeded his father to the earldom in 1626, along with some other of his father's offices, including the lord-lieutenancy of the counties of Suffolk and Dorset. Sir Theophilus Howard was named in the Second Charter of Virginia made by King James I on 23 May 1609; the members of this extensive list were "incorporated by the name of The Tresorer and Companie of Adventurers and Planters of the Citty of London for the Firste Collonie in Virginia." He was elected MP for Maldon in a by-election in 1605 caused by the death of Sir Edward Lewknor and sat until he was ennobled in 1610 as Baron Howard de Walden by a Writ of Acceleration. He was the dedicatee of Shelton's translation of Don Quixote, the first translation of the work in any language; the translation of the first part of Don Quixote was published in London in 1612, while Cervantes was still alive.
It is not known why Shelton chose Howard as dedicatee, although he was a distant relative. He was the dedicatee of John Dowland's last book of songs "A Pilgrimes Solace" published in 1612. Howard owned Framlingham Castle in Suffolk which he sold to Sir Robert Hitcham in 1635 for the sum of £14,000, he died at Suffolk House, Charing Cross and was buried on 10 June that year in Saffron Walden. In March 1612, he married daughter of George Home, 1st Earl of Dunbar, they had nine children: James Howard, 3rd Earl of Suffolk Thomas Howard Catherine Howard, married first George Stewart, 9th Seigneur d'Aubigny, second James Livingston, 1st Earl of Newburgh Elizabeth Howard, married on 1 October 1642 Algernon Percy, 10th Earl of Northumberland Margaret Howard, married Roger Boyle, 1st Earl of Orrery George Howard, 4th Earl of Suffolk Henry Howard, 5th Earl of Suffolk Anne Howard, married Thomas Walsingham Frances Howard, married Sir Edward Villiers "Howard pedigree 6". Retrieved 31 December 2006. "Howard, Theophilus".
Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1885–1900. Charles Mosley, Burke's Peerage, Baronetage & Knightage, 107th Edition, Delaware, 2003, vol III, pp. 3814–3817, ISBN 0-9711966-2-1
Henry Howard, 22nd Earl of Arundel
Henry Frederick Howard, 22nd Earl of Arundel PC, styled Lord Maltravers until 1640, Baron Mowbray from 1640 until 1652, was an English nobleman, chiefly remembered for his role in the development of the rule against perpetuities. Arundel was the second son of Thomas Howard, 21st Earl of Arundel and Lady Alethea Talbot 13th Baroness Furnivall. After his father's death in 1646 he became Earl of Arundel and the titular head of the Howard family. Arundel's grandmother Anne, the dowager Countess, arranged for Henry to be baptised and christened as "Frederick Henry" at Woodstock Palace with Anne of Denmark as godmother. Prince Henry and Princess Elizabeth were present, he studied at St John's College, matriculating in 1624. Before ascending to the peerage, Lord Arundel had served as Member of Parliament for Arundel in the Parliament of England from 1628 until 1629, he was again elected to represent Arundel in March 1640, but was called to the House of Lords by writ of acceleration as Baron Mowbray, one of his father's subsidiary titles, before he could take his seat.
He represented Callan in the Parliament of Ireland in 1634. He had been due to inherit his mother's peerage, but he pre-deceased her and upon her death in 1654 it was inherited by his eldest son Thomas. Henry sought to control the succession to some of his real property after his death. Toward that end, he placed in his will a shifting executory limitation so that title to some property would pass to his eldest son and to his second son, title to other property would pass to his second son, to his fourth son; the estate plan included provisions for shifting the titles many generations if certain conditions should occur. When his second son, succeeded to the elder brother's property, he did not want to pass the other property to his younger brother, Charles. Charles sued to enforce his interest, the court held that such a shifting condition could not exist indefinitely; the judges believed that tying up property too long beyond the lives of people living at the time was wrong, although the exact period was not determined for another 150 years.
Lord Arundel married Lady Elizabeth Stuart, daughter of Esme Stuart, 3rd Duke of Lennox, on 7 March 1626. They had nine sons and three daughters: Thomas Howard, 5th Duke of Norfolk, died without issue Henry Howard, 6th Duke of Norfolk, had issue. Edward's great-grandson Thomas Howard, a Quaker, renounced succession c. 1812. Bernard Howard of Glossop. Hon. Francis Howard, died in Geele, Belgium as stated in his brother Cardinal Philip Howard's Biography. Hon. Bernard Howard of Glossop, married Catherine Tattershall and had issue, including Bernard Howard II of Glossop, who married Anne Roper, had issue, including Henry Howard of Glossop and Sheffield, who married Juliana Molyneux, had issue, including Bernard Howard, 12th Duke of Norfolk and Lord Henry Howard-Molyneux-Howard. Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1885–1900
Charles Howard, 1st Earl of Carlisle
Charles Howard, 1st Earl of Carlisle was an English military leader and politician who sat in the House of Commons at various times between 1653 and 1660 and was created Earl of Carlisle in 1661. Howard was the son and heir of Sir William Howard of Naworth in Cumberland, by Mary, daughter of William, Lord Eure, great-grandson of Lord William Howard, "Belted Will", the third son of Thomas Howard, 4th Duke of Norfolk. In 1645 he conformed to the Church of England and supported the government of the Commonwealth, being appointed High Sheriff of Cumberland in 1650, he became governor of the town. He distinguished himself at the Battle of Worcester on Cromwell's side and made a member of the council of state in 1653, chosen captain of the protector's body-guard and selected to carry out various public duties. In 1653 he was nominated as Member of Parliament for the Four Northern Counties in the Barebones Parliament, he was elected MP for Cumberland in 1654. In 1655 Howard was given a regiment, was appointed a commissioner to try the northern rebels, a deputy major-general of Cumberland and Northumberland.
He was re-elected MP for Cumberland in 1656. In 1657 he was included in Cromwell's House of Lords and voted for the protector's assumption of the royal title the same year. In 1659 he urged Richard Cromwell to defend his government by force against the army leaders, but his advice being refused he used his influence in favour of a restoration of the monarchy, after Richard's fall he was imprisoned. In April 1660 he sat again in parliament for Cumberland, at the Restoration was made custos rotulorum and Lord Lieutenant of Cumberland and Lord Lieutenant of Westmorland. On 20 April 1661 Howard was created Baron Dacre of Gillesland, Viscount Howard of Morpeth, Earl of Carlisle. In 1663 he was appointed ambassador to Russia and Denmark, in 1668 he carried the Garter to Charles XI of Sweden. In 1667 Howard was made lieutenant-general of the forces and joint commander-in-chief of the four northernmost counties. In 1672 he became one of the commissioners for the office of Lord Lieutenant of Durham, in 1673 deputy earl marshal.
He commanded a regiment in the fresh-raised Blackheath Army of 1673, intended to see action against the Dutch. Following the Treaty of Westminster the regiment was disbanded. In 1678 he was appointed governor of Jamaica, but his instructions to introduce Poynings' Law to the island were opposed by planters elected to the Jamaican Assembly. Calling the elected members "fools, asses and cowards", the governor arrested their leaders, William Beeston and Samuel Long, father of Jamaican planter-historian Edward Long. However, when they were deported back to England and Long argued their case, the governor's instructions were cancelled, he was reappointed governor of Carlisle. He died in 1685, was buried in York Minster, he married Anne, daughter of Edward Howard, 1st Baron Howard of Escrick and great-granddaughter of Thomas Howard, 4th Duke of Norfolk, by whom he had six children: Edward Howard, 2nd Earl of Carlisle Lady Katherine Howard Hon. Frederick Christian Howard, killed at the Siege of Luxembourg Hon. Charles Howard Lady Mary Howard, married Sir John Fenwick, 3rd Baronet Lady Anne Howard, married Richard Graham, 1st Viscount PrestonColonel Thomas Howard, notorious for the 1662 duel where he left Henry Jermyn, 1st Baron Dover for dead, was his younger brother.
He was soon afterwards married as her third husband Mary Stewart, Duchess of Richmond. "Howard, Charles". Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1885–1900