Lord Lieutenant of Greater Manchester
The Lord Lieutenant of Greater Manchester is the representative of the monarch, Queen Elizabeth II in the metropolitan county of Greater Manchester in North West England. As Greater Manchester remains part of the Lancashire County Palatine, the Lord Lieutenant is appointed by the monarch in their capacity as Duke of Lancaster; the office was created on 1 April 1974. Before 1974 the area had been covered by the Lord Lieutenant of Lancashire, the Lord Lieutenant of Cheshire, a small part by the Lord Lieutenant of the West Riding of Yorkshire; the role of the Lord Lieutenant is to "first and foremost... to uphold the dignity of the Crown". The Lord Lieutenant acts as Keeper of the Rolls, it promoted the work of voluntary service and benevolent organisations. The Lord Lieutenant is aided in his office by over 70 Deputy Lieutenants. High Sheriff of Greater Manchester Lord Lieutenant of Greater Manchester
The Irish are a Celtic nation and ethnic group native to the island of Ireland, who share a common Irish ancestry and culture. Ireland has been inhabited for about 12,500 years according to archaeological studies. For most of Ireland's recorded history, the Irish have been a Gaelic people. Viking invasions of Ireland during the 8th to 11th centuries established the cities of Dublin, Waterford and Limerick. Anglo-Normans conquered parts of Ireland in the 12th century, while England's 16th/17th-century conquest and colonisation of Ireland brought a large number of English and Lowland Scots people to parts of the island the north. Today, Ireland is made up of the Republic of the smaller Northern Ireland; the people of Northern Ireland hold various national identities including British, Northern Irish or some combination thereof. The Irish have their own customs, music, sports and mythology. Although Irish was their main language in the past, today most Irish people speak English as their first language.
The Irish nation was made up of kin groups or clans, the Irish had their own religion, law code and style of dress. There have been many notable Irish people throughout history. After Ireland's conversion to Christianity, Irish missionaries and scholars exerted great influence on Western Europe, the Irish came to be seen as a nation of "saints and scholars"; the 6th-century Irish monk and missionary Columbanus is regarded as one of the "fathers of Europe", followed by saints Cillian and Fergal. The scientist Robert Boyle is considered the "father of chemistry", Robert Mallet one of the "fathers of seismology". Famous Irish writers include Oscar Wilde, W. B. Yeats, Samuel Beckett, George Bernard Shaw, Bram Stoker, James Joyce, C. S. Lewis and Seamus Heaney. Notable Irish explorers include Brendan the Navigator, Sir Robert McClure, Sir Alexander Armstrong, Sir Ernest Shackleton and Tom Crean. By some accounts, the first European child born in North America had Irish descent on both sides. Many presidents of the United States have had some Irish ancestry.
The population of Ireland is about 6.3 million, but it is estimated that 50 to 80 million people around the world have Irish forebears, making the Irish diaspora one of the largest of any nation. Emigration from Ireland has been the result of conflict and economic issues. People of Irish descent are found in English-speaking countries Great Britain, the United States and Australia. There are significant numbers in Argentina and New Zealand; the United States has the most people of Irish descent, while in Australia those of Irish descent are a higher percentage of the population than in any other country outside Ireland. Many Icelanders have Scottish Gaelic forebears. During the past 12,500 years of inhabitation, Ireland has witnessed some different peoples arrive on its shores; the ancient peoples of Ireland—such as the creators of the Céide Fields and Newgrange—are unknown. Neither their languages nor the terms they used to describe; as late as the middle centuries of the 1st millennium the inhabitants of Ireland did not appear to have a collective name for themselves.
Ireland itself was known by a number of different names, including Banba, Fódla, Ériu by the islanders and Hiverne to the Greeks, Hibernia to the Romans. Scotland takes its name from Scota, who in Irish mythology, Scottish mythology, pseudohistory, is the name given to two different mythological daughters of two different Egyptian Pharaohs to whom the Gaels traced their ancestry explaining the name Scoti, applied by the Romans to Irish raiders, to the Irish invaders of Argyll and Caledonia which became known as Scotland. Other Latin names for people from Ireland in Classic and Mediaeval sources include Attacotti and Gael; this last word, derived from the Welsh gwyddel "raiders", was adopted by the Irish for themselves. However, as a term it is on a par with Viking, as it describes an activity and its proponents, not their actual ethnic affiliations; the terms Irish and Ireland are derived from the goddess Ériu. A variety of historical ethnic groups have inhabited the island, including the Airgialla, Fir Ol nEchmacht, Fir Bolg, Érainn, Eóganachta, Conmaicne and Ulaid.
In the cases of the Conmaicne, Érainn, it can be demonstrated that the tribe took their name from their chief deity, or in the case of the Ciannachta, Eóganachta, the Soghain, a deified ancestor. This practice is paralleled by the Anglo-Saxon dynasties' claims of descent from Woden, via his sons Wecta, Baeldaeg and Wihtlaeg; the Greek mythographer Euhemerus originated the concept of Euhemerism, which treats mythological accounts as a reflection of actual historical events shaped by retelling and traditional mores. In the 12th century, Icelandic bard and historian Snorri Sturluson proposed that the Norse gods were historical war leaders and kings, who became cult figures set into society as gods; this view is in agreement with Irish historians such as Francis John Byrne. One legend states that the Irish were descended from one Míl Espáine, whose sons conquered Ireland around 1000 BC or
The History of Parliament
The History of Parliament is a project to write a complete history of the United Kingdom Parliament and its predecessors, the Parliament of Great Britain and the Parliament of England. The history will principally consist of a prosopography, in which the history of an institution is told through the individual biographies of its members. After various amateur efforts the project was formally launched in 1940 and since 1951 has been funded by the Treasury; as of 2010 the volumes covering the House of Commons for the periods 1386–1421, 1509–1629, 1660–1832 have been completed and published. In 2011 the completed sections were republished on the internet; the publication in 1878–79 of the Official Return of Members of Parliament, an incomplete list of the name of every Member elected to serve in lower Houses of Parliaments in the United Kingdom and predecessor states, gave a useful source on which Victorian historians could build, there were several publications which identified and gave some biographical and genealogical details of the Members of Parliament for certain constituencies.
Among those writing histories was Josiah Wedgwood, himself Member of Parliament for Newcastle-under-Lyme from 1906. In 1918–1922 Wedgwood published the Staffordshire Parliamentary History. In 1928, Wedgwood decided to take the subject further. Together with other MPs who were interested in the subject, he wrote a memorial to the Prime Minister urging him to appoint a Committee to prepare a complete record of the personnel of every Parliament since 1264; the memorial noted that the Official Return was incomplete and inaccurate, contained no information beyond a list of names. Wedgwood obtained the signatures of more than 200 MPs. On 17 July 414 had signed, together with a number of members of the House of Lords, a delegation saw Prime Minister Stanley Baldwin, again wary of the cost. Baldwin agreed to take the matter under consideration; the result of the pressure was that Baldwin announced in December that the Government agreed to appoint a Select Committee to report on materials available to write such a history.
The committee so formed in March 1929 included academics as well as politicians, it soon became riven by ferocious differences about the nature of the project with Wedgwood's romanticism alienating most of the historians. The interim report of the Committee, covering 1264 to 1832, was published in September 1932 in the run-up to the centenary of the Reform Act and gave a guide to the information available; the project ran into funding difficulties given the economic situation in the 1930s, no future reports were issued by the Committee. Wedgwood undertook fundraising and worked with a small group of assistants, completing in 1936 and 1938 two volumes entitled The History of Parliament 1439–1509, he took advantage of the one remaining offer of Government help and the books were published by His Majesty's Stationery Office. In 1940, the History of Parliament Trust was established to foster future volumes and arrange for their publication. However, the war and Wedgwood's death in 1943 meant. At the end of the war, strenuous lobbying by L. B.
Namier, a member of the 1930s committee succeeded in getting agreement by the Treasury to provide funding for the History of Parliament Trust. Namier was Professor of History at the University of Manchester; the initial grant was for not more than £17,000 a year, for 20 years, during which it was hoped that the whole period could be completed. Sir Frank Stenton became the first chairman of the editorial board; the historian David Cannadine, in the History of Parliament Trust's 2006 annual lecture on 21 November 2006, noted that while Wedgwood and Namier are predominantly responsible for the foundation of the History, they were quite contrasting characters. Despite working together on the Committee on House of Commons Personnel and Politics, they had quite different inspirations to take up the subject of Parliamentary history. Wedgwood looked on the history of Parliament as a member of the classic Whig school of history: as a romantic story of the spread of freedom and liberty to people of all backgrounds.
Namier regarded such views as fashionable nonsense and was interested in the personalities of Parliament. Once the History of Parliament Trust started looking into the scope of its work, it quite realised the enormity of the task before it. Namier was critical of the quality of Wedgwood's work and so his period of 1439–1509 was included to be rewritten from the start; the History was divided into 15 sections, but by 1956 this was impossible and they were reduced to six. For a decade, Namier himself worked nine hours a day at the Institute of Historical Research to write biographies of eighteenth century Members of Parliament, with three paid assistants and other volunteers. Although Namier died in 1960, the first volumes of the History to be published in April 1964 carried his name along with that of his colleague John Brooke and covered the years 1754–1790; the format of the first three volume set established the standard for all others. It began with an introducto
Lord-Lieutenant of Lincolnshire
The Lord-Lieutenant of Lincolnshire is the British monarch's personal representative in the county of Lincolnshire. The lord-lieutenant was responsible for organising the county's militia. In 1871, the lord-lieutenant's responsibility over the local militia was removed. However, it was not until 1921 that they formally lost the right to call upon able-bodied men to fight when needed. Since 1660, all lord-lieutenants have been Custos Rotulorum of Lincolnshire; the lord-lieutenancy is now an honorary titular position awarded to a retired notable person in the county. Until 1975, this had been awarded to a peer connected to the county; this is a list of people. The lord-lieutenant selects from their deputy lieutenants one to act as the vice lord-lieutenant during their tenure; this office is not automatically renewed on the appoint of a new lord-lieutenant. The current Vice Lord-Lieutenant of Lincolnshire is Mr C G Rowles Nicholson. Deputy Lieutenants are nominated by the lord-lieutenant to assist with any duties as may be required.
In Lincolnshire, they are appointed by the Lord Chancellor on command of the sovereign. The current Deputy Lieutenants for Lincolnshire are: Mrs J M Ashton A E Baxter Esq JP DL Lady Benton Jones N D S Brown Esq J B Burke Esq DL Mrs C E Carlbom Flinn DL D C Chambers Esq DL A S Clark Esq DL Mrs A C Coltman OBE DL R J Douglas Esq DL H C Drake Esq DL F J F M Dymoke Esq DL Colonel D K Harris Mrs J G A M Hughes DL Mrs P G Keeling MBE DL Ms U F R Lidbetter J W Lockwood Esq MBE DL B Marsh Esq N E McCorquodale Esq DL Mrs R M Parker DL Air Chief Marshal Sir Stuart Peach Mrs V M Pettifer C A Pinchbeck Esq DL Mrs S A L Price DL Mrs H M L Reeve DL Professor M A Robinson OBE DL Mrs S E Robinson DL C G Rowles Nicholson Esq DL Sir Reginald Sheffield Sir Reginald Tyrwhitt By DL Mrs A L Ward DL W S Webb Esq DL C W H Welby Esq DLPrecious deputy lieutenants include: Thomas Sherwin Pearson-Gregory 2 January 1901 J. C. Sainty. "Lieutenancies of Counties, 1585–1642". Bulletin of the Institute of Historical Research.
J. C. Sainty. List of Lieutenants of Counties of England and Wales 1660-1974. London: Swift Printers Ltd
County Leitrim is a county in the Republic of Ireland. It is part of the Border Region, it is named after the village of Leitrim. Leitrim County Council is the local authority for the county, which had a population of 32,044 according to the 2016 census; the county encompasses the historic Gaelic territory of West Breffny corresponding to the northern part of the county, Muintir Eolais or Conmaicne Réin, corresponding to the southern part. Leitrim is the 26th largest of the smallest by population on the island, it is the smallest of Connacht's 5 counties in both population. Leitrim is bordered by the counties of Donegal to the north, Fermanagh to the north-east, Cavan to the east, Longford to the south, Roscommon to the south-west and Sligo to the west. Fermanagh is in Northern Ireland while all the other neighbouring counties are within the Republic of Ireland. There are five historic baronies in the county. While baronies continue to be defined units, they are no longer used for many administrative purposes.
Their official status is illustrated by Placenames Orders made since 2003, where official Irish names of baronies are listed under "Administrative units". They are Carrigallen, Leitrim and Rosclogher; as of the 2016 census: Carrick-on-Shannon*, 4,062 Manorhamilton, 1,466 Kinlough, 1,032 Ballinamore, 914 Drumshanbo, 902 Mohill, 855 Dromahair, 808 Leitrim, 594 Roosky*, 564 Dromod, 555 Allentown, County Leitrim Askill Ballinaglera Buckode Cloonsheerevagh Drumkeeran Dromahair Dowra Fivemilebourne Friarstown Glenfarne Glenade Kiltyclogher Kinlough Killarga Largydonnell Lurganboy Manorhamilton Rossinver Tullaghan Aghamore Ballinamore Carrick-on-Shannon Carrigallen Cloone Drumcong Dromod Drumshanbo Drumsna Fenagh Eslinbridge Jamestown Keshcarrigan Leitrim Mohill Newtowngore Roosky Leitrim has a hilly and mountainous landscape in its north-west and is flat in the south-east, each separated from the other by Lough Allen in the middle of the county. Leitrim has the shortest length of coastline of any Irish county.
At Tullaghan, the coastline is only 2.5 miles long. The Shannon is linked to the Erne via the Shannon-Erne Waterway. Notable lakes include: Lough Melvin Lough Allen Lough Gill is to the northwest of Dromahair. Belhavel Lough is located in Dromahair, within the parish of Killargue. Lough Scur, Saint John's Lough, on the Shannon–Erne Waterway. Other lakes include Upper Lough MacNean, Glencar Lough, Glenade Lough, Garadice Lough, Rinn Lough, Lough Scannal, Lough Erril and Lough Machugh. In ancient times Leitrim formed the western half of the Kingdom of Breifne; this region was long influenced by the O'Rourke family of Dromahair, whose heraldic lion occupies the official county shield to this day. Close ties existed with the O'Reilly clan in the eastern half of the kingdom, however a split occurred in the 13th century and the kingdom was divided into East Breifne, now County Cavan, West Breifne, now County Leitrim; the Normans invaded south Leitrim in the 13th century but were defeated at the Battle of Áth an Chip in 1270.
Much of the county was given to Villiers and Hamilton. Their initial objective was to plant the county with English settlers. However, this proved unsuccessful. English Deputy Sir John Perrot had ordered the legal establishment of "Leitrim County" a half-century prior, in 1565. Perrott demarcated the current county borders around 1583. Long ago Ireland was covered in woodland, five great forests are traditionally said to have stood in Leitrim, with a 19th century county survey stating- "a hundred years ago the whole country was one continued, undivided forest, so that from Drumshanbo to Drumkeeran, a distance of nine or ten miles, one could travel the whole way from tree to tree by branches". Many of these great forests were denuded for the making of charcoal for iron works around Slieve Anierin. Working of the county's rich deposits of iron ore began in the 15th century and continued until the mid 18th century. Coal mining became prominent in the 19th century to the east of Lough Allen at Slieve Anierin and to the west in Arigna, on the Roscommon border.
The last coal mine closed in July 1990 and there is now a visitor centre. Sandstone was quarried in the Glenfarne region. Writing in 1791, the geographer Beaufort suggested the county housing population encompassed 10,026 homes with "upwards of 50,000 inhabitants", the primary agriculture being cattle production, the growth of flax sustaining the linen industry. Leitrim was first hit by the recession caused by the mechanisation of linen weaving in the 1830s and its 155,000 residents were ravaged by the Great Famine and the population dropped to 112,000 by 1851; the population subsequently continued to decrease due to emigration. After many years, the wounds of such rapid population decline have started to heal. Agriculture improved over the last century. Leitrim now has the fastest growing population in Connacht; the Book of Fenagh is the most famous medieval manuscript originating here. In the 19th century the poet John McDonald lived in the county, William Butler Yeats spent the turn of the twentieth century fascinated with Lough Allen and much of Leitrim.
Glencar Waterfall, 11 kilometres from Manorhamilton, inspired Yeats and is mentioned in his poem The Stolen Child. Leitrim has the fastest growing population of any county in Connacht; as measured by census, the population rose by 12.2% between 2002 and 2006 to 29,000. 2005 HEA stat
Vicary Gibbs (St Albans MP)
The Hon. Vicary Gibbs was a British barrister and Conservative Party politician, he sat in the House of Commons from 1892 to 1904. Gibbs came from an old Devon family, he was the third son of Hucks Gibbs, 1st Baron Aldenham, his wife Louisa Anne, daughter of William Adams. Alban Gibbs, 2nd Baron Aldenham, Herbert Gibbs, 1st Baron Hunsdon of Hunsdon, were his brothers, while George Cokayne was his great-uncle, his great-grandfather was Antony Gibbs, brother of Sir Vicary Gibbs who became Chief Justice of the Common Pleas. He was educated at Eton College and at Christ Church, where he graduated in 1876 with a Bachelor of Arts degree in Classical Moderations, he was called to the bar at Lincolns Inn in 1880, became a partner in the merchant and banking firm Anthony Gibbs and Sons. At the 1892 general election he was returned to Parliament for St Albans division of Hertfordshire, he was returned unopposed in 1895 and 1900, but was disqualified in February 1904. He and his brother Alban were partners in the firm Antony Gibbs & Sons, which had organised the sale to the Admiralty of two warships, built in England for the Chilean Navy, to avoid them being sold to a rival power when Chile did not complete the purchase.
However, in so doing he was disqualified from the House of Commons, under provisions which debarred MPs from accepting contracts from the Crown. He told his constituents on 18 January that he would resign from the Commons by taking the Chiltern Hundreds, present himself for re-election. Both Gibbs and the Liberal Party candidate John Bamford Slack were by campaigning in the constituency, but The Times newspaper reported on 20 January that the by-election was unlikely to be contested by the Liberals. However, since Gibbs was disqualified, he did not need to take the usual step of disqualifying himself by taking the Chiltern Hundreds, in a letter of 1 February 1904 he informed the Speaker of the contract that "I am advised that by so doing I have, under an Act of George III, vacated my seat in Parliament", his letter was read to the Commons on 2 February, the writ was moved the following day. In the meantime, the Liberals had decided to contest the seat, at a meeting on 24 January they had adopted Slack as their candidate.
At the resulting by-election on 12 February 1904, Slack won the seat with a majority of 132 votes. At the 1906 general election Gibbs stood unsuccessfully in Bradford Central, campaigning as a tariff reformer, but never returned to the Commons, he was a member of the Tariff Commission and of the Council of the Industrial Freedom League, an organisation which opposed the involvement of the state and municipalities in trading companies. Gibbs was a Justice of the Peace for Hertfordshire, the first co-author of the second edition of The Complete Peerage. While he retired well before it completed publication, his extensive notes are represented throughout the volumes, he was a director of numerous companies, the chairman of National Provident Institution. At his seat Aldenham House near Elstree in Hertfordshire, he cultivated a garden which became notable for its flowering trees and shrubs, he won many prizes for the flowers and vegetables grown by his head gardener Edwin Beckett FRHS, including a first prize at the Franco-British Exhibition in 1908.
In January 1932 Gibbs died aged 78 at his London home in Upper Belgrave Street. Baron Aldenham Baron Hunsdon of Hunsdon Lundy, Darryl. "p. 3328 § 33273". The Peerage. Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by Vicary Gibbs
Nathaniel Clements was an Irish politician and financial figure, important in the political and financial administration of Ireland in the mid-18th century. Clements was the fifth son of Robert Clements, he married Hannah Gore, daughter of William Gore, D. D. Dean of Down, on 31 January 1730. Clements became Member of Parliament for Duleek in 1727 under the patronage of Luke Gardiner, a powerful political and business figure in Dublin, he held extensive offices there. He became the main financial manager of the British and Irish Government in Ireland during the period, was de facto Minister for Finance from 1740 to 1777, he assumed the offices of Deputy Vice-Treasurer and Deputy Paymaster General on Gardiner's retirement in 1755. In 1761, Clements was returned for Cavan Borough in, holding this seat until 1768. In this year, he was elected for Roscommon Borough as well as Leitrim, chose to sit for the latter. In 1776, Clements stood for again for Cavan Borough as well as Carrick and represented the latter constituency until his death in 1777.
Clements was appointed to the office of Chief Ranger of the Phoenix Park and Master of Game and built the Ranger's lodge (now Áras an Uachtaráin to his own design in 1751. He had an extensive property portfolio, including Abbotstown, County Dublin, estates in County Leitrim and County Cavan, he was a developer of property in Georgian Dublin, including part of Henrietta Street where he lived at No. 7 from 1734 to 1757. He was one of the richest commoners in Ireland, notwithstanding his involvement in a failed banking venture in 1759. Clements was involved in many charitable activities including Dr Steevens' Hospital, the Erasmus Smith Educational Foundation, the Royal Hospital Kilmainham for retired soldiers, others. Nathaniel Clements and Hannah Gore had six children: Robert Clements, created Earl of Leitrim in 1795, elected a representative peer in 1800 Rt. Hon. Henry Theophilus Clements, MP Elizabeth, m. 1750, Francis Burton, second Baron Conyngham Hannah, m. 1752, George Montgomery, Ballyconnell, MP Catherine, m.
Eyre Massey, 1st Baron Clarina Alice, m. 1773, Gen. Sir Ralph Gore, sixth Baronet, created Earl of Ross. Malcolmson, Anthony. Nathaniel Clements: government and the governing elite in Ireland, 1725-75. Dublin: Four Courts Press. ISBN 1-85182-913-X. Archived from the original on 2006-05-27. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown Review. Irish House of Commons Áras an Uachtaráin