Order of the Bath
The Most Honourable Order of the Bath is a British order of chivalry founded by George I on 18 May 1725. The name derives from the elaborate medieval ceremony for appointing a knight, which involved bathing as one of its elements; the knights so created were known as "Knights of the Bath". George I "erected the Knights of the Bath into a regular Military Order", he did not revive the Order of the Bath, since it had never existed as an Order, in the sense of a body of knights who were governed by a set of statutes and whose numbers were replenished when vacancies occurred. The Order consists of the Sovereign, the Great Master, three Classes of members: Knight Grand Cross or Dame Grand Cross Knight Commander or Dame Commander Companion Members belong to either the Civil or the Military Division. Prior to 1815, the order had Knight Companion, which no longer exists. Recipients of the Order are now senior military officers or senior civil servants. Commonwealth citizens who are not subjects of the Queen and foreign nationals may be made Honorary Members.
The Order of the Bath is the fourth-most senior of the British Orders of Chivalry, after The Most Noble Order of the Garter, The Most Ancient and Most Noble Order of the Thistle, The Most Illustrious Order of St Patrick. In the Middle Ages, knighthood was conferred with elaborate ceremonies; these involved the knight-to-be taking a bath during which he was instructed in the duties of knighthood by more senior knights. He was put to bed to dry. Clothed in a special robe, he was led with music to the chapel. At dawn he made confession and attended Mass retired to his bed to sleep until it was daylight, he was brought before the King, who after instructing two senior knights to buckle the spurs to the knight-elect's heels, fastened a belt around his waist struck him on the neck, thus making him a knight. It was this accolade, the essential act in creating a knight, a simpler ceremony developed, conferring knighthood by striking or touching the knight-to-be on the shoulder with a sword, or "dubbing" him, as is still done today.
In the early medieval period the difference seems to have been that the full ceremonies were used for men from more prominent families. From the coronation of Henry IV in 1399 the full ceremonies were restricted to major royal occasions such as coronations, investitures of the Prince of Wales or Royal dukes, royal weddings, the knights so created became known as Knights of the Bath. Knights Bachelor continued to be created with the simpler form of ceremony; the last occasion on which Knights of the Bath were created was the coronation of Charles II in 1661. From at least 1625, from the reign of James I, Knights of the Bath were using the motto Tria juncta in uno, wearing as a badge three crowns within a plain gold oval; these were both subsequently adopted by the Order of the Bath. Their symbolism however is not clear. The'three joined in one' may be a reference to the kingdoms of England and either France or Ireland, which were held by English and British monarchs; this would correspond to the three crowns in the badge.
Another explanation of the motto is. Nicolas quotes a source who claims that prior to James I the motto was Tria numina juncta in uno, but from the reign of James I the word numina was dropped and the motto understood to mean Tria juncta in uno; the prime mover in the establishment of the Order of the Bath was John Anstis, Garter King of Arms, England's highest heraldic officer. Sir Anthony Wagner, a recent holder of the office of Garter, wrote of Anstis's motivations: It was Martin Leake's opinion that the trouble and opposition Anstis met with in establishing himself as Garter so embittered him against the heralds that when at last in 1718 he succeeded, he made it his prime object to aggrandise himself and his office at their expense, it is clear at least that he set out to make himself indispensable to the Earl Marshal, not hard, their political principles being congruous and their friendship established, but to Sir Robert Walpole and the Whig ministry, which can by no means have been easy, considering his known attachment to the Pretender and the circumstances under which he came into office...
The main object of Anstis's next move, the revival or institution of the Order of the Bath was that which it in fact secured, of ingratiating him with the all-powerful Prime Minister Sir Robert Walpole. The use of honours in the early eighteenth century differed from the modern honours system in which hundreds, if not thousands, of people each year receive honours on the basis of deserving accomplishments; the only honours available at that time were hereditary peerages and baronetcies and the Order of the Garter, none of which were awarded in large numbers The political environment was significantly different from today: The Sovereign still exercised a power to be reckoned with in the eighteenth century. The Court remained the centre of the political w
Peveril Castle is a ruined 11th-century castle overlooking the village of Castleton in the English county of Derbyshire. It was the main settlement of the feudal barony of William Peverel, known as the Honour of Peverel, was founded some time between the Norman Conquest of 1066 and its first recorded mention in the Domesday Survey of 1086, by Peverel, who held lands in Nottinghamshire and Derbyshire as a tenant-in-chief of the king; the town became the economic centre of the barony. The castle has views across the Hope Cave Dale. William Peveril the Younger inherited his father's estates, but in 1155 they were confiscated by King Henry II. While in royal possession, Henry visited the castle in 1157, 1158, 1164, the first time hosting King Malcolm IV of Scotland. During the Revolt of 1173–1174, the castle's garrison was increased from a porter and two watchmen to a force led by 20 knights shared with the castles of Bolsover and Nottingham; the Earls of Derby had a claim to the Peveril family's estates through marriage, in 1199 William de Ferrers, the fourth earl, paid 2,000 marks for the Peak lordship, although the castle remained under royal control.
The closest Peveril Castle came to seeing battle was in 1216, when King John gave the castle to William de Ferrers, but the castellan refused to relinquish control. Although they were both John's supporters, the king authorised the earl to use force to evict the castellan, who capitulated, although there is no evidence that the castle was assaulted. In 1223 the castle returned to the Crown. In the 13th century there were periods of building work at the castle, by 1300 its final form had been established. Toward the end of the 14th century, the barony was granted to John of Duke of Lancaster. Having little use for the castle, he ordered some of its material to be stripped out for re-use, marking the beginning of its decline. From the time of John of Gaunt to the present day, the castle has been owned and administered by the Duchy of Lancaster. Peveril Castle became less important administratively, by 1609 it was "very ruinous and serveth for no use". In the 19th century, Sir Walter Scott featured the castle in his novel Peveril of the Peak.
The site is situated in a national park, cared for by English Heritage. Peveril Castle is protected as a Grade I listed building. Peveril Castle stands on a limestone outcrop overlooking the west end of Hope Valley, in the midst of an ancient landscape. Overlooking the head of the valley, 2 km to the west, is Mam Tor, a Bronze Age hill fort, 2 miles to the east at Brough-on-Noe is the Roman fort of Navio; the valley formed a natural line of communication and had extra importance due to valuable mineral resources in the area lead. The small Hope Castle lay halfway along the valley; the castle's founder, William Peveril, was a follower of William the Conqueror and was rewarded for supporting him during the Norman Conquest. The first mention of him in England records that in 1068 he was granted the new castle at Nottingham by William the Conqueror, in the process of subduing the Midlands and northern England. An unsubstantiated legend states. By the Domesday Book of 1086, Peveril had become a powerful landowner, with holdings in Nottinghamshire and Derbyshire.
The exact year he founded the castle is uncertain, although it must have been started by 1086 as it is recorded in the Domesday Book, one of 48 castles mentioned in the survey and the only one in Derbyshire. The castle was recorded as standing at Pechesers, translated as both "Peak's Tail" and "Peak's Arse". Although the earliest Norman castles were built in timber, Peveril Castle seems to have been designed from outset to be built in stone. William Peveril had custody of royal lands such as the district of Hope, although he had his own estates, he relied on continued royal favour to maintain power in this way. In 1100 the new king, Henry I, granted William "his demesne in the Peak", thus the Peak became an independent lordship under William Peveril's control, the castle became an important centre of administration for the area, allowing the collection of taxes. Castleton began to grow as the lordship's economic heart. William Peveril was succeeded by his son, William Peveril the Younger. In the civil war known as The Anarchy between King Stephen and the Empress Matilda, Peveril backed the losing side and his fortunes suffered after his capture at the Battle of Lincoln in 1141.
In 1153 Peveril was suspected of attempting to 4th Earl of Chester. In 1153 the future King Henry II accused Peveril of "plundering and treachery" and threatened to confiscate his estates and hand them over to the Earl of Chester. Two years Henry, now king, followed through his threat; the Earl of Chester was dead by this time, the king kept the property for himself. Once under royal control, Peveril became the administrative centre of the Forest of High Peak. William Peveril the Younger died in 1155, as his only male heir had predeceased him, the family's claim on the confiscated estates was taken up by the husband of William's daughter, Margaret Peveril. Margaret had married Robert de Ferrers, 2nd Earl of Derby. King Henry II visited Peveril Castle three times during his reign. During the first visit, in 1157, he hosted King Malcolm IV of Scotland who paid homage to Henry after ceding Cumberland and Westmorland to the English king. Henry II visited again in 1158 and 1164; when a group of barons led by Henry's sons Henry the Young King, Duke of Brittany, Prince Richard Richard the Lionheart, took part in the Revolt of 1173–1174 aga
Bolingbroke Castle is a ruined castle in Bolingbroke Lincolnshire, England. Most of the castle is built of Spilsby greenstone; the local greenstone is a limestone that proved to be porous, prone to rapid deterioration when exposed to weather and a substandard building material. The castle was constructed as an irregular polygonal enclosure; the castle is one of the earliest examples of a uniform castle built without a keep. It was surrounded by a large water-filled moat 31 metres wide; the curtain wall was up to 5 metres feet thick and defended by five D-shaped towers and a twin-towered gate house. Similar to another castle built by Ranulf during the same period at Beeston in Cheshire, Bolingbroke had no inner defensive keep; the castle relied instead on thick walls and the five D shaped defensive corner towers. Some design similarities are noted with the contemporary castle at Boulogne-sur-Mer, France, constructed without a central donjon; the area was first fortified by the Saxons in the 7th century.
In the 12th century the Normans built a Motte-and-bailey on a nearby hill above the settlement of Bolingbroke. The present structure was founded by Ranulf, Earl of Chester, in 1220 shortly after he returned from the Fifth Crusade. Ranulf died in 1232 without a male heir, his titles and castles passed to his sisters. Following the death of Henry of Grosmont, 1st Duke of Lancaster in 1361 Bolingbroke passed through marriage into the ownership of John of Gaunt, his wife Blanche of Lancaster, daughter of Henry of Grosmont, was born at the castle in 1345. John and Blanche's son, was born at Bolingbroke Castle in 1367 and was known as "Henry Bolingbroke" before he became king in 1399. By the 15th and 16th century, the castle had fallen into disrepair although repairs were carried out during the Tudor period. In 1636 a survey found that all of the towers were beyond repair. At the start of the First English Civil War, Bolingbroke was again put to use as a military fortification garrisoned by Royalist forces.
In 1643 it was badly damaged in a siege during the Battle of Winceby. The following year, the castle was recaptured from the Parliamentarians but due to defeats elsewhere was relinquished again. In 1652 the castle was slighted to prevent any further use; the towers and walls were dumped into the moat. The last major structure collapsed in 1815; the castle, now a national monument, was excavated in the 1960s and 1970s. It was maintained by English Heritage up until 1995. Much of the lower walls are still visible. In the summertime, the castle is home to numerous events including performances of Shakespeare. Castles in Great Britain and Ireland List of castles in England Brown, A. L.. "Henry IV". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. Matarasso, Francois; the English Castle. London: Cassell. P. 224. ISBN 1-84067-230-7. Allen Brown, R; the history of the King's Works: the Middle Ages. 2. London: Her Majesty's Stationery Office. Pp. 571–2. "Sylvanius Urban". "Bolingbroke Castle". Gentleman's Historical Review.
91 part 2. London: John Harris & Son. P. 305. Retrieved 3 May 2013. Gatehouse Gazetteer record for Bolingbroke Castle, containing a comprehensive bibliography Friends of Bolingbroke Castle Heritage Trust of Lincolnshire: Bolingbroke Castle Friends of Bolingbroke castle. "Bolingbroke Castle". Lincolnshire county council. Retrieved 6 May 2013
Higham Ferrers is a market town in the Nene Valley in East Northamptonshire, close to the Cambridgeshire and Bedfordshire borders. It forms a single built-up area with Rushden to the south and has an estimated population of 7,145; the town centre contains many historic buildings around the Market College Street. The first Charter of 1251 was due to the Lord of the Manor, William de Ferrers, who created the Borough in order to promote a prosperous community at the gates of his castle, where people had begun to settle in numbers and to trade in the ancient market. Henry Chichele was born in Higham Ferrers, he founded All Souls College, Oxford. In 1422 Higham Ferrers School was founded; the second Charter was granted in 1556 in the reign of Mary Tudor. For many years the town provided a safe seat in Parliament for a supporter of the Crown nominated by the Duchy of Lancaster, the biggest landowner; when James I came to the throne the town obtained a confirmation and further extension of civic powers and liberties by the Charter of 1604.
Again after the Restoration of Charles II to the throne and the passing of the Corporations Act of 1662 the liberties were confirmed and extended. The town was a rotten borough and sent one MP to the unreformed House of Commons until it was stripped of its representation by the Reform Act 1832. After the Municipal Corporations Act of 1882, the modern Charter of Queen Victoria reorganised the composition of the Corporation on modern lines to conform to the pattern of local government laid down in that Act; this Charter is the only one of the town's charters written in English: the earlier charters were in Latin. The castle is thought to have been built not long after the Norman Conquest in 1066; however towards the end of the 15th century the castle suffered years of neglect. It was demolished in 1523 and the stone removed to build Kimbolton Castle. A grass bank and a pond are all. In the garden of the Green Dragon Inn within the area of the outer ward of the castle, are the remains of a rectangular dove-house.
Higham Ferrers is twinned with Hachenburg in Germany. The town was at the crossroads of the A45 east-west route from Northampton to Cambridge, the A6 north-south road from London to Leicester, it was a busy junction. The A45 bypassed the town in the early 1990s with a dual-carriageway, the former route becoming the B645; as the A6 carried less traffic, a bypass around Higham Ferrers and Rushden came opening on 14 August 2003, with the old road through both towns becoming the A5028. Higham Ferrers railway station was the terminus of a short railway branch line on the Midland Railway from Wellingborough. There was an intermediate station at Rushden; the station closed to passenger services in 1959 and closed in 1969 with the end of goods services. Nowadays, the nearest operational railway station is at Wellingborough about four miles away, but there is no bus route connecting Higham Ferrers to Wellingborough station; however Rushden station still stands and is preserved and the RH&WR plan to extend the line to the old station site and to Wellingborough.
Higham Ferrers is served by the BT Rushden telephone exchange, enabled for local-loop unbundling. However, due to the length of telephone lines, the north of the town furthest from the exchange can only achieve around 3Mbit/s as it suffers from high attenuation. BT have assigned the Rushden exchange to the FTTC upgrade programme due to commence in December 2010; the town is unusual in the UK if not Europe in having been a centre of short-run footwear production along with its neighbours of Rushden and Northampton. This trade was much reduced in the 1980s-2000s by a high exchange rate, but specialised firms and individual trades people remain in the area. Higham Ferrers Farmer's Market is held on the last Saturday of each month, except in December when it is moved to the last available day before Christmas. Higham Ferrers Farmer's Market is a Certified Farmer's Market, is part of the FARMA organisation. Higham Ferrers Public Library is on Midland Road; the Town Hall was built in 1808 to replace an earlier building.
Rushden & Higham RUFC was founded in 1951 and is based on the Bedford Road in Rushden with a 1st XV, 2nd XV, 3rd XV and Colts XV. Rushden and Higham United Football Club, the successor to both Higham Town and Rushden Rangers clubs, are members of the Hereward Teamwear United Counties League and have their ground at Hayden Road. Higham Ferrers Town Cricket Club, based at the recreation ground on Vinehill Drive, was established in 1881 and has a 1st XI and 2nd XI as well as an under 17s XI and under 15s XI. Higham Ferrers Town Bowls Club was founded in 1946 and is at the recreation ground on Vinehill Drive. Alpha Pre-School on Westfield Terrace is a committee-run community school and has been running for over 40 years, providing part-time nursery places. Higham Ferrers Nursery and Infant School on Wharf Road has a Nursery unit with 52 part-time places for pre-school children and 3 classes of about 25 pupils per year group: Reception and Years 1 & 2; this is a feeder infant school for Higham Ferrers Junior School.
Higham Ferrers Junior School on the corner of Wharf Road and Saffron Road has classes for Years 3 to 6 but 3&4 and 5&6 share classes. Henry Chichele Primary School is on the new estate to the north of the
High Sheriff of Lancashire
The High Sheriff of Lancashire is an ancient officer, now ceremonial, granted to Lancashire, a county in North West England. High Shrievalties are the oldest secular titles under the Crown, in Wales; the High Sheriff of Lancashire is the representative of the monarch in the county, is the "Keeper of The Queen's Peace" in the county, executing judgements of the High Court through an Under Sheriff. Throughout the Middle Ages, the High Sheriff was a powerful political position; some of its powers were relinquished in 1547 as the Lord Lieutenant of Lancashire was instated to deal with military duties. It was in 1908 under King Edward VII of the United Kingdom that the Lord Lieutenant position became more senior than the High Sheriff. Since that time the High Sheriff has broadly become an honorific title, with many of its previous roles been taken up by High Court judges, coroners, local authorities, the police; the sheriff conventionally serves with the term of office starting in March. Unlike other counties, the honour in Lancashire is bestowed by the monarch in their role as Duke of Lancaster, by pricking the Lites.
This page lists persons to have held the position, is divided by sovereign state and Royal house. Another list of sheriffs of Lancashire from 1087 to 1886 is compiled in Edward Baines's "History of the County Palatine and Duchy of Lancaster"; this names many other individuals for the earliest years of the office. In April 2015 Amanda Parker of Browsholme Hall, became High Sheriff and launched a website to promote the office: highsheriffoflancashire.co.uk. The High Sheriffs' Association of England & Wales: High Sheriffs of Lancashire Holt Ancestry: High Sheriffs of Lancashire 1129–1947 www.earlestown.com: Newton-le-Willows & Earlestown: Newtons High Sheriffs
Lord Lieutenant of Greater Manchester
The Lord Lieutenant of Greater Manchester is the representative of the monarch, Queen Elizabeth II in the metropolitan county of Greater Manchester in North West England. As Greater Manchester remains part of the Lancashire County Palatine, the Lord Lieutenant is appointed by the monarch in their capacity as Duke of Lancaster; the office was created on 1 April 1974. Before 1974 the area had been covered by the Lord Lieutenant of Lancashire, the Lord Lieutenant of Cheshire, a small part by the Lord Lieutenant of the West Riding of Yorkshire; the role of the Lord Lieutenant is to "first and foremost... to uphold the dignity of the Crown". The Lord Lieutenant acts as Keeper of the Rolls, it promoted the work of voluntary service and benevolent organisations. The Lord Lieutenant is aided in his office by over 70 Deputy Lieutenants. High Sheriff of Greater Manchester Lord Lieutenant of Greater Manchester
Ogmore Castle is a Grade I listed castle ruin located near the village of Ogmore-by-Sea, south of the town of Bridgend in Glamorgan, South Wales. It is situated on the east bank of the River Ogmore, its construction might have begun in 1106. Ogmore was one of three castles built in the area in the early 12th century, the others being Coity Castle and Newcastle Castle, it was in use until the 19th century for a range of purposes, including a court of justice and a prison, but is now a substantial set of remains and a local landmark. It is managed by local authorities; when John Leland wrote his Itinerary, he referred to this fortress as "Ogor Castelle". The name comes from the River Ogmore. Construction of Ogmore Castle might have started around 1106, its foundation predating the Norman conquest. In Caradoc of Llancarfan's The historie of Cambria, now called Wales: a part of the most famous yland of Brytaine, Caradoc wrote that the manor and castle were given to William de Londres, one of the legendary Twelve Knights of Glamorgan, by Robert Fitzhamon, the Norman conqueror of Glamorgan.
In 1116, William de Londres was forced to abandon the castle. His butler, Arnold, is credited with protecting the castle from the Welsh attack during the absence of William de Londres, for this, he was knighted Sir Arnold Butler receiving the castle and manor of Dunraven as reward. According to the custom of the times, the founding of a religious institution followed the acquisition of power. William de Londres, or his descendant John, built Ewenny Abbey 1 mile from the castle. Nearby was a religious place appended to Ogmore Castle by Morris de Londres or his descendant John, in 1141; when Thomas' heiress married into the Chaworth family of Kidwelly, the lands passed in 1298 to the first Duke of Lancaster, ownership remains in the hands of the Duchy of Lancaster to this day. The earthworks were steeply banked and oval in shape, enclosing an area of 164 feet in length by 115 feet in width; the inner ward was flat and constructed of timber structures. After completion of the ringwork, the building material was stone.
The windows were round-headed with Sutton stone ashlar. The first-floor great hall had an ornate fireplace. William's son Maurice is credited with building the oblong keep. Situated north of the main gateway, the keep was the first masonry building and was built in the 1120s, it is both the castle's tallest surviving building, one of the oldest buildings in South Wales. Though only three of the original walls survive, their structure is characterized by irregularly shaped field stones, glacial pebbles, Lias limestone slabs, brown mortar. Thomas de Londres replaced a timber palisade with a stone wall in around 1200. In the early 13th century, a second storey was added. Garderobes were featured on two levels and a latrine tower was part of the exterior. A well-preserved lime kiln was built over an indeterminate 13th-century structure. Subsequently, a courthouse dating to the 14th century and rebuilt in the mid-15th century, was the third building to occupy the same spot; the building was flanked by two chambers.
Having sustained damage during Owain Glyndŵr's revolt, a new courthouse, situated in the castle's outer bailey, was built in 1454 and was in use until at least 1631. The present-day castle remains consist of the keep and some outer walls. A deep, rock-cut ditch surrounded the castle grounds, which were dry except when the River Ewenny flooded the area during high tide. While the ditch that enclosed the castle's inner bailey filled at high tide, the flow was regulated by an embedded stone wall that blocked rising waters so that the interior of the castle did not flood. Looking towards the sea from the castle ruins, the view includes sandhills that proceed up the coast nearly as far as the town of Briton Ferry. Opposite from Ogmore Castle is Merthyr Mawr. Near the castle are a popular set of stepping stones across the river which are a Scheduled Ancient Monument. A short distance to the southeast are several shallows filled with water that are said to have sunk spontaneously. One of them is circular, measuring 7 feet in diameter.
The ghost Y Ladi Wen purportedly guarded the castle's treasure and Lady Wen's revenge was said to fall on the person who died prior to disclosing hidden treasure. List of castles in Wales Castles in Great Britain and Ireland Castles of Wales website Anglo-Norman Castles Wales.red website www.geograph.co.uk: photos of Ogmore Castle BBC Wales panoramic of the castle Map sources for Ogmore Castle