Robert Devereux, 3rd Earl of Essex
Robert Devereux, 3rd Earl of Essex, KB, PC was an English Parliamentarian and soldier during the first half of the 17th century. With the start of the English Civil War in 1642 he became the first Captain-General and Chief Commander of the Parliamentarian army known as the Roundheads. However, he was unable and unwilling to score a decisive blow against the Royalist army of King Charles I, he was overshadowed by the ascendancy of Oliver Cromwell and Thomas Fairfax and resigned his commission in 1646. Robert Devereux was the son and heir of Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex, the courtier and soldier from the reign of Queen Elizabeth I, his mother was Frances Walsingham, the only daughter of Sir Francis Walsingham, Elizabeth's spymaster. He was born at the home of his grandmother, Lady Walsingham, in London, he was educated at Eton College and Merton College, being created MA by the university in 1605. The 2nd Earl led an unsuccessful rebellion against Elizabeth in 1601, he was subsequently executed for treason and the family lost its title.
However, King James I chose to restore it. In 1604, Robert Devereux became the 3rd Earl of Essex; the young earl became a close friend of Henry Stuart, Prince of Wales, three years Essex's junior. Essex was married at age 13 to the 14-year-old Frances Howard. Meanwhile, his wife began an affair with Robert Carr, Viscount Rochester, a favourite of King James I. After Essex's return, Frances sought an annulment on the grounds of impotence. Essex claimed that he was only impotent with her and had been capable with other women, adding that she "reviled him, miscalled him, terming him a cow and coward, beast." The divorce was a public spectacle and it made Essex a laughing-stock at court. It was small comfort that the finding that Frances was still a virgin was greeted with equal derision: as a popular ballad put it The Dame was inspected, but fraud interjected a Maid of greater perfection; the annulment was granted on 25 September 1613, Frances Howard married her lover, made 1st Earl of Somerset, on 26 December 1613.
Three years the Somersets were tried by a panel of Lords for their part in the murder of Sir Thomas Overbury. Both were condemned to death. On 11 March 1630 Essex married Elizabeth Pawlett, daughter of Sir William Pawlett, of Edington, past High Sheriff of Wiltshire and cousin of William Paulet, 4th Marquess of Winchester. Elizabeth was introduced at Court during the Great Parliament of 1628/29 just after her father died, as the eldest unmarried daughter needing to marry to improve her family prospects. Back from travels in military service on the Continent Robert was pressured to marry again to show the Court the humiliation from his first marriage could be overcome; this marriage was a disaster and failed, though not as publicly. They separated in 1631, the Countess remaining at Essex House in the Strand, Robert "playing soldiers" at his estates. There was a son from the union, styled Viscount Hereford, born on 5 November 1636 and died of plague a month later. Essex, who had given the birth date as a deadline beyond which he would have disowned the child, grudgingly acknowledged him as his own.
Elizabeth, through her funeral oration by her second husband Sir Thomas Higgons vigorously denied this. In 1620 Essex embarked on what was to be an undistinguished military career prior to the start of the First English Civil War. Between 1620 and 1624 he served in Protestant armies in the Low Countries. In 1620 he joined Sir Horace Vere's expedition to defend the Palatine. In 1621 he served in 1622 with Count Ernst von Mansfeld. In 1624 he commanded a regiment in the unsuccessful campaign to relieve the siege of Breda. In 1625, under Sir Edward Cecil, he commanded a squadron as vice-admiral and as colonel a foot regiment in the failed English expedition to Cadiz. Despite the lack of distinction, this period of his life gave him a good working knowledge of continental war methods and strategies if most of his own experience was limited to defensive operations; every drive he made to recruit volunteers for these expeditions was successful, such was the loyalty he could command. Following a period of little distinguished activity in the 1630s, made Knight of the Bath in 1638, served in the army of King Charles I during the first Scottish Bishops' War in 1639 as Lieutenant-General of the army in the North of England.
However he was denied a command in the second, which took place in 1640. This pushed him further into the arms of the growing number of the King's opponents in Parliament. Robert Devereux's opposition to the Stuart monarchy as a leader of the Country party in the House of Lords was established in the 1620s along with the Earls of Oxford, Warwick, Lords Say and Spencer. During one exchange the animosity of King James was evident when he said, "I fear thee not, Essex, if thou wert as well beloved as thy father, hadst 40,000 men at thy heels."When King James' son, Charles convened the Short Parliament in 1640 he had ruled without Parl
Edward Herbert, 3rd Earl of Powis
Edward James Herbert, 3rd Earl of Powis, styled Viscount Clive between 1839 and 1848, was a British peer and politician. Powis was born at The Angel Hotel, Worcestershire, the eldest son of Edward Herbert, 2nd Earl of Powis, Lady Lucy, daughter of James Graham, 3rd Duke of Montrose; the Hon. Sir Percy Egerton Herbert was his younger brother and a Member of Parliament, he was educated at Eton College and St John's College, where he was president of the University Pitt Club, he graduated as MA in 1840 and LLD in 1848. He was awarded an honorary degree as DCL by Oxford University. Whilst at Cambridge he played in two first-class cricket matches for the Cambridge Town Club against Cambridge University Cricket Club, he was appointed High Steward of Cambridge University in 1863. He was President of the Powysland Club, founded in 1867, dedicated to the study of Montgomeryshire's history and other aspects of the county. Powis was returned to Parliament as one of two MPs for Shropshire North in 1843, a seat he held until 1848, when he succeeded his father in the earldom and entered the House of Lords.
Paternally great-grandson of Clive of India and grandson of a former Governor of Madras, the Earl was offered the Viceroyalty of India by Prime Minister Disraeli in 1875, when aged 67, but declined, fearing his health "would not be suited to the rigours of the tropical climate". On the preserved envelope of the letter he scrawled, "Not worth considering - Powis."From the formation of County Councils in 1889, he was County Alderman for Shropshire and County Councillor for Montgomeryshire. He served as Lord Lieutenant of Montgomeryshire from 1877 to 1891, was J. P. for the counties of Shropshire and Herefordshire. Powis was commissioned a cornet in the South Salopian Yeomanry Cavalry in 1840, was captain by his father's death in 1848, when he succeeded him as colonel commanding the regiment, he remained in command until resigning in 1871, aged 63. Powis was chairman of the Shropshire Union Railways and Canal Company and of Welshpool Gas Company, who provided gas-lighting in Welshpool town. Lord Powis died at his London home at 45 Berkeley Square, Mayfair, in May 1891, aged 72, was buried at St Mary's Church, Welshpool.
He was succeeded in the earldom by his nephew, George. Leigh Rayment's Peerage Pages Leigh Rayment's Historical List of MPs Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by the Earl of Powis
Francis Seymour-Conway, 1st Marquess of Hertford
Francis Seymour-Conway, 1st Marquess of Hertford, KG, PC, PC was a British courtier and politician. Hertford was born in Chelsea, the son of Francis Seymour-Conway, 1st Baron Conway, Charlotte Shorter, daughter of John Shorter of Bybrook, he was a descendant of 1st Duke of Somerset. He succeeded to the barony on the death of his father in 1732; the first few years after his father's death were spent in Paris. On his return to England he took his seat, as 2nd Baron Conway, among the Peers in November 1739. Henry Seymour Conway and soldier, was his younger brother. In August 1750 he was created Viscount Beauchamp and Earl of Hertford, both of which titles had earlier been created for and forfeited by his ancestor Edward Seymour, 1st Duke of Somerset, Lord Protector of England, following his attainder and execution in 1552; the Seymour family had inherited a moiety of the feudal barony of Hatch Beauchamp, in Somerset, by marriage to the heiress Cicely Beauchamp. In 1755, according to Horace Walpole, 4th Earl of Orford, "The Earl of Hertford, a man of unblemished morals, but rather too gentle and cautious to combat so presumptuous a court, was named Ambassador to Paris."
He appointed David Hume as his Secretary, who wrote of him, "I do not believe there is in the World a man of more probity & Humanity, endowd with a good Understanding, adornd with elegant Manners & Behaviour". However, due to the demands of the French, the journey to Paris was suspended. From 1751 to 1766 he was Lord of the Bedchamber to George II and George III. In 1756 he was made a Knight of the Garter and, in 1757, Lord-Lieutenant and Guardian of the Rolls of the County of Warwick and City of Coventry. In 1763 he became Privy Councillor and, from October 1763 to June 1765, was a successful ambassador in Paris, he witnessed the sad last months of Madame de Pompadour, whom he admired, wrote a kindly epitaph for her. In the autumn of 1765 he became Viceroy of Ireland where, as an honest and religious man, he was well liked. An anonymous satirist in 1777 described him as "the worst man in His Majesty's dominions", emphasised Hertford's greed and selfishness, adding "I cannot find any term for him but avaricious."
However, this anonymous attack does not seem to be justified. In 1782, when she was only fifty-six, his wife died after having nursed their grandson at Forde's Farm, Thames Ditton, where she caught a violent cold. According to Walpole, "Lord Hertford's loss is beyond measure, she was not only the most affectionate wife, but the most useful one, the only person I saw that never neglected or put off or forgot anything, to be done. She was always proper, either in the highest life or in the most domestic." Within two years of the tragedy, Lord Hertford had sold Forde's Farm to Mrs Charlotte Boyle Walsingham, a further two years she had re-developed the estate, building a new mansion which she called Boyle Farm, a name still in use today. In July 1793 he was created Marquess of Hertford, with the subsidiary title of Earl of Yarmouth, he enjoyed this elevation for a year until his death at the age of seventy-six, on 14 June 1794, at the house of his daughter, the Countess of Lincoln. He died as the result of an infection following a minor injury.
He was buried in Warwickshire. Lord Hertford married Lady Isabella Fitzroy, daughter of Charles FitzRoy, 2nd Duke of Grafton, on 29 May 1741, her grandfather was Henry FitzRoy, 1st Duke of Grafton, an illegitimate son of King Charles II. By his wife he had thirteen children: Francis Seymour-Conway, 2nd Marquess of Hertford Lady Anne Seymour-Conway, married Charles Moore, 1st Marquess of Drogheda. Lord Henry Seymour-Conway Lady Sarah Frances Seymour-Conway, married Robert Stewart, 1st Marquess of Londonderry. Lord Robert Seymour-Conway Lady Gertrude Seymour-Conway, married George Mason-Villiers, 2nd Earl Grandison. Lady Frances Seymour-Conway, married Henry Fiennes Pelham-Clinton, Earl of Lincoln, a son of Henry Fiennes Pelham-Clinton, 2nd Duke of Newcastle. Rev. Hon. Edward Seymour-Conway, canon of Christ Church, unmarried Lady Elizabeth Seymour-Conway died unmarried Lady Isabella Rachel Seymour-Conway, married George Hatton, a member of parliament. Admiral Lord Hugh Seymour, married Lady Anne Horatia Waldegrave, a daughter of James Waldegrave, 2nd Earl Waldegrave Lord William Seymour-Conway Lord George Seymour-Conway.
He married Isabella Hamilton, granddaughter of James Hamilton, 7th Earl of Abercorn, was the father of Sir George Hamilton Seymour, a British diplomatist. He is not known to have suffered himself from any mental abnormality, but a noted strain of eccentricity madness, appeared among his descendants: the debauched behaviour of his grandson, the 3rd Marquess, the suicide of another grandson, Viscount Castlereagh, were both attributed to a strain of madness supposed to be hereditary in the Seymour Conway family. Lord Hertford died in Surrey, England
William Stanley, 9th Earl of Derby
William Richard George Stanley, 9th Earl of Derby, styled Lord Strange from 1655 to 1672, was an English peer and politician. Derby was the eldest son of Charles Stanley, 8th Earl of Derby, Dorotha Helena Kirkhoven, he succeeded his father in the earldom in 1672 and served as Lord Lieutenant of Lancashire from 1676 to 1687 and again from 1688 to 1701 and of Cheshire from 1676 to 1687. Lord Derby married Lady Elizabeth Butler, daughter of Thomas Butler, Earl of Ossory, in 1673, his only son James Stanley, Lord Strange, predeceased him. On his death in November 1702 his junior title of Baron Strange fell into abeyance between his two daughters, he was succeeded in the earldom by 10th Earl of Derby. Lady Derby died in 1717. Kidd, Williamson, David. Debrett's Baronetage. New York: St Martin's Press, 1990, Leigh Rayment's Peerage Pages Lundy, Darryl. "FAQ". The Peerage
Edward Herbert, 2nd Earl of Powis
Edward Herbert, 2nd Earl of Powis KG, styled Viscount Clive between 1804 and 1839, was a British peer and Tory politician. He was the son of Edward Clive, 1st Earl of Powis, his wife Henrietta née Herbert, he was educated at Eton and St John's College, graduating as M. A. in 1806 and being awarded LL. D. by the same university in 1835. He became an honorary D. C. L. from Oxford University in 1844, the year he became a Knight of the GarterAfter 1804, when his father was created Earl of Powis, he was known by the courtesy title of Viscount Clive, his father's second title. In 1806, he became a Member of Parliament for Ludlow, retaining the seat until he inherited the earldom and entered the House of Lords, he was heir to his uncle George Herbert, 2nd Earl of Powis, who had died unmarried in 1801, inherited the Powis Castle estates on condition that he assume the name and arms of Herbert only in lieu of those of Clive, which he did by Royal licence on 9 March 1807. A defender of Church of England interests in Wales, in the Lords he led a successful opposition over 1843 to 1847 to a proposal to unite the sees of Bangor and St Asaph.
He was appointed to a Royal Commission on English and Welsh bishoprics. A sum of £5,000 raised in testimonial to him was devoted to found the Powis Exhibitions to assist Welsh students at Oxford and Cambridge Universities intending to take holy orders. Powis had long service in the yeomanry within Shropshire. In 1807 he was appointed major in command of a troop raised from Ludlow and Bishop's Castle towns, which merged into a larger South Shropshire Yeomanry Cavalry regiment in 1814, he continued under command within the new regiment, to which he succeeded as lieutenant-colonel in 1827. Succeeding his father as Lord-Lieutenant of Montgomeryshire in 1830, Powis played a leading role in the suppression of the Chartist riots of 1839, himself deploying four troops of his own regiment to disperse rioters from Newtown and apprehend some ringleaders while the Montgomeryshire Yeomanry were deployed in other parts of the same county. In addition to his yeomanry regiment, he was colonel commanding the Royal Montgomeryshire Militia from 1846 to his death.
The Earl was a bibliophile who built up by 1816 a book collection in Powis Castle sourced from travels in France, purchased from booksellers and from an auction of Empress Joséphine's library at Malmaison. He was elected to the Roxburghe Club in 1828 and became President in 1835, the year he sponsored their publication of The Lyvys of Seyntys. In 1847, he stood for election as Chancellor of the University of Cambridge, but was defeated by only 117 votes by Albert, Prince Consort. An encourager of canal building in Shropshire and into Montgomeryshire, he was at the time of his death Chairman of the Shropshire Union Railways and Canal Company. On 9 February 1818, Powis married Lady Lucy Graham, the daughter of James Graham, 3rd Duke of Montrose, they had seven children; the Earl of Powis died on 17 January 1848 at Powis Castle after being accidentally shot during a pheasant hunt by one of his sons, the Hon. Robert Charles Herbert, he was buried at Welshpool. Welsh Biography Online Craig, F. W. S..
British parliamentary election results 1832–1885. Chichester: Parliamentary Research Services. P. 193. ISBN 0-900178-26-4. Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by the Earl of Powis
Charles Hanbury-Tracy, 1st Baron Sudeley
Charles Hanbury-Tracy, 1st Baron Sudeley, known as Charles Hanbury until 1798 and as Charles Hanbury Tracy from 1798 to 1838, was a British Whig politician. Hanbury-Tracy was born on 28 December 1778, he was the third son of John Hanbury of Pontypool Park in Monmouthshire. The family derived its wealth from its ownership of the Pontypool Ironworks, he was educated at Rugby School and matriculated at Christ Church, Oxford on 1 February 1796. Hanbury-Tracy was appointed High Sheriff of Gloucestershire for 1800–01 and High Sheriff of Montgomeryshire for 1804–05, he was elected to the House of Commons for Tewkesbury in 1807 in the Whig interest, a seat he held until 1812 and again from 1832 to 1837. Hanbury-Tracy served as the Chairman of the Commission to judge the designs for the new Houses of Parliament in 1835. In 1838 Hanbury-Tracy was raised to the peerage as Baron Sudeley, of Toddington in the County of Gloucester, he served as Lord Lieutenant of Montgomeryshire between 1848 and 1858. Hanbury-Tracy married his cousin the Hon.
Henrietta Susanna Tracy, only child and heiress of Henry Leigh Tracy, 8th and last Viscount Tracy by Susannah Weaver, on 29 December 1798. Five days before the marriage he assumed by Royal licence the additional surname of Tracy. Through this marriage the ancient estate of Toddington Manor in Gloucestershire came into the Hanbury family. Lord Sudeley at first had the original house renovated, but constructed a new house in Gothic style nearby. Still in the 1840s he was responsible for the rebuilding of Gregynog Hall in Montgomeryshire. Lady Sudeley died on 5 June 1839. Lord Sudeley survived her by 19 years and died in February 1858, aged 79, he was succeeded in the barony by his son Thomas, who succeeded him as Lord Lieutenant of Montgomeryshire. Sudeley's younger son, they had issue: Hon Henrietta Hanbury-Tracy Thomas Hanbury-Tracy, 2nd Baron Sudeley Hon Henry Hanbury-Tracy, MP for BridgnorthHanbury-Tracy died on 10 February 1858. "HANBURY TRACY, Charles, of Toddington, Glos. and Gregynog, Mont".
History of Parliament Online. Retrieved 2 July 2013. Kidd, Williamson, David. Debrett's Baronetage. New York: St Martin's Press, 1990, Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by Lord Sudeley