Sir Hew Francis Anthony Strachan, is a British military historian, well known for his work on the administration of the British Army and the history of the First World War. He is Professor of International Relations at the University of St Andrews, a council member of the Royal Company of Archers, the Queen's Bodyguard for Scotland. Since May 2014, he has been Lord Lieutenant of Tweeddale. Before moving to St Andrews, Strachan was the Chichele Professor of the History of War at All Souls College, Oxford. Strachan was born in Scotland, he was educated at Rugby School in 1968 was a merchant seaman for three months, working his passage around the world on ships of Ben Line Steamers Ltd. He spent three years at Corpus Christi College, graduating BA in 1971 and proceeding to M. A. in 1975. In 1973, he joined a survey of antiquities in the Sudan. In 1975, Strachan was elected a research fellow of Corpus Christi College, in 1977–1978 was a senior lecturer in war studies at the Royal Military Academy Sandhurst.
In 1978, he returned to his Cambridge college as a tutor. His early research and published work focussed on the history of the British Army, he was awarded the Templer Medal for From Waterloo to Balaclava and the Westminster Medal for The Politics of the British Army. Commissioned by the Oxford University Press to write a history of the First World War to replace C. R. M. F. Cruttwell's one-volume A History of the Great War, 1914-1918, Strachan completed the first of three volumes, The First World War: Volume 1: To Arms in 2001 to wide acclaim and is acknowledged as one of the world's authorities on the subject. Accompanying the print publication of his one volume survey The First World War was a multi-part documentary series for television entitled The First World War, with some episodes being titled after the chapters in the written work; this set was released on DVD by Image Entertainment. He became admissions tutor and senior tutor of Corpus Christi College, in 1992 was elected a life fellow.
He was Professor of Modern History at the University of Glasgow from 1992 to 2000 migrated to Oxford as Chichele Professor of the History of War at All Souls. He was director of the Oxford Programme on the Changing Character of War from 2004 to 2015, has published a series of important articles on strategy, as well as editing books which have arisen from the project, he is a Fellow of the Royal Society of the Royal Historical Society. He was appointed a deputy lieutenant of Tweeddale in 2006, he is a member of the Academic Advisory Panel of the Royal Air Force Centre for Air Power Studies. In addition, he is on the Chief of the Defence Staff's strategic advisory panel, the UK Defence Academy Advisory Board, is an advisory fellow of the Barsanti Military History Center at the University of North Texas, he was on the council of the National Army Museum and is a trustee of the Imperial War Museum. In 2016, he became Patron of Western Front Association, he is a visiting professor of the Royal Norwegian Air Force Academy in Trondheim and in 2009 was the Sir Howard Kippenberger Professor at Victoria University Wellington.
On 20 May 2014, Strachan was appointed as Lord Lieutenant of Tweeddale, in succession to Captain David Bingham Younger. In 2015, he left Oxford to serve as Professor of International Relations at the University of St Andrews. In January 2014, Strachan told The Daily Beast that President Barack Obama's failures in Afghanistan and Syria have shown that he is "chronically incapable" of military strategy, he said, "Bush may have had fanciful political objectives in terms of trying to fight a global War on Terror, inherently astrategic, but at least he had a clear sense of what he wanted to do in the world. Obama has no sense of what he wants to do in the world." In 2005 Strachan was bestowed with an honorary Doctor of the University from the University of Paisley. He was knighted in the 2013 New Year Honours for services to the Ministry of Defence. In 2016, he won the Pritzker Literature Award for Lifetime Achievement in Military Writing. In July 2017, Strachan was elected a Fellow of the British Academy, the United Kingdom's national academy for the humanities and social sciences.
In 2018, Strachan received the Morison Prize from The Society for Military History. British Military Uniforms, 1768–1796 History of the Cambridge University Officers Training Corps ISBN 0-85936-059-8 OCLC 2647367 European Armies and the Conduct of War ISBN 0-415-07863-6 Wellington's Legacy: The Reform of the British Army 1830–54 ISBN 0-7190-0994-4 From Waterloo to Balaclava: Tactics and the British Army ISBN 0-521-30439-3 The Politics of the British Army ISBN 0-19-820670-4 The Oxford Illustrated History of the First World War ISBN 0-19-820614-3 The First World War: Volume 1: To Arms ISBN 0-19-926191-1 Military Lives Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002. ISBN 0-19-860532-3 The First World War: A New Illustrated History The First World War ISBN 0-670-03295-6 The First World War in Africa ISBN 0199257280 German Strategy in the First World War in Wolfgang Elz and Sönke Neitzel: Internationale Beziehungen im 19. Und 20. Jahrhundert, pp. 127–144 ISBN 3-506-70140-1 Clausewitz's On War: a Biography ISBN 0-87113-956-1.
With Holger Afflerbach: How Fighting Ends. A History of Surrender. Oxford University Press, Oxford/New York 2012, ISBN 978-0-19-969362-7; the Direction of War: Contemporary Strategy in Historical Perspective 2013. ISBN 1-107-0478
Isle of Ely
The Isle of Ely is a historic region around the city of Ely in Cambridgeshire, England. Between 1889 and 1965, it formed an administrative county, its name is said to mean "island of eels", a reference to the creatures that were caught in the local rivers for food. This etymology was first recorded by the Venerable Bede; until the 17th century, the area was an island surrounded by a large area of fenland, a type of swamp. It was coveted as an area difficult to penetrate, was controlled in the early medieval period by the Gyrwas, an Anglo-Saxon tribe. Upon their marriage in 652, Tondbert, a prince of the Gyrwas, presented Æthelthryth, the daughter of King Anna of the East Angles, with the Isle of Ely, she afterwards founded a monastery at Ely, destroyed by Viking raiders in 870, but was rebuilt and became a famous Abbey and Shrine. The Fens were drained; this began in 1626 using a network of canals designed by Dutch experts. Many Fenlanders were opposed to the draining as it deprived some of them of their traditional livelihood.
The area's natural defences led to it playing a role in the military history of England. Following the Norman Conquest, the Isle became a refuge for Anglo-Saxon forces under Earl Morcar, Bishop Aethelwine of Durham and Hereward the Wake in 1071; the area was taken by William the Conqueror only after a prolonged struggle. In 1139 civil war broke out between the forces of the Empress Matilda. Bishop Nigel of Ely, a supporter of Matilda, unsuccessfully tried to hold the Isle. In 1143 Geoffrey de Mandeville rebelled against Stephen, made his base in the Isle. Geoffrey was mortally wounded at Burwell in 1144. In 1216, during the First Barons' War, the Isle was unsuccessfully defended against the army of King John. Ely took part in the Peasants' Revolt of 1381. During the English Civil War the Isle of Ely was held for the parliamentarians. Troops from the garrison at Wisbech Castle were used in the siege of Crowland and parts of the Fens were flooded to prevent Royalist forces entering Norfolk from Lincolnshire.
The Horseshoe sluice on the river at Wisbech and the nearby castle and town defences were upgraded and cannon brought from Ely. From 1109 until 1837, the Isle was under the jurisdiction of the Bishop of Ely who appointed a Chief Justice of Ely and exercised temporal powers within the Liberty of Ely; this temporal jurisdiction originated in a charter granted by King Edgar in 970, confirmed by Edward the Confessor and Henry I to the abbot of Ely. The latter monarch established Ely as the seat of a bishop in 1109, creating the Isle of Ely a county palatine under the bishop. An act of parliament in 1535/6 ended the palatine status of the Isle, with all justices of the peace to be appointed by letters patent issued under the great seal and warrants to be issued in the king's name. However, the bishop retained exclusive jurisdiction in civil and criminal matters, was custos rotulorum. A chief bailiff was appointed for life by the bishop, performed the functions of high sheriff within the liberty, who headed the government of the city of Ely.
In July 1643 Oliver Cromwell was made governor of the isle. The Liberty of Ely Act 1837 ended the bishop's secular powers in the Isle; the area was declared a division of Cambridgeshire, with the right to appoint justices revested in the crown. Following the 1837 Act the Isle maintained separate Quarter Sessions, formed its own constabulary. Under the Local Government Bill of 1888, which proposed the introduction of elected county councils, the Isle was to form part of Cambridgeshire. Following the intervention of the local member of parliament, Charles Selwyn, the Isle of Ely was constituted a separate administrative county in 1889; the county was small in terms of both area and population, its abolition was proposed by the Local Government Boundary Commission in 1947. The report of the LGBC was not acted upon, the administrative county survived until 1965. Following the recommendations of the Local Government Commission for England, on 1 April 1965 the bulk of the area was merged to form Cambridgeshire and Isle of Ely, with the Thorney Rural District going to Huntingdon and Peterborough.
In 1894 the county was divided into county districts, with the rural districts being Ely Rural District, Thorney Rural District, Whittlesey Rural District, Wisbech Rural District, North Witchford Rural District, the urban districts were Ely, March and Wisbech. Whittlesey Rural district consisted of only one parish, added to Whittlesey urban district, in 1926; the Isle of Ely parliamentary constituency was created as a two-member seat in the First and Second Protectorate Parliaments from 1654 to 1659. The constituency was re-created with a single seat in 1918. In the boundary changes of 1983 it was replaced by the new constituency of North East Cambridgeshire. Original historical documents relating to the Isle of Ely are held by Cambridgeshire Archives and Local Studies at the County Record Office in Cambridge; the Isle of Ely County Council was granted a coat of arms on 1 May 1931. Previous to the grant the council had been using the arms of Diocese of Ely: Gules, three ducal coronets and one or.
In the 1931 grant and blue waves were added to the episcopal arms, to suggest that the county was an "isle". The crest above the shield was a human hand grasping a trident around which an eel was entwined, referring to the popular derivation of "Ely". On the wrist of the hand was a "Wake knot", representing Hereward the Wake. Fairweather, Janet. "introduction". Liber Eliensis. Translated by Fairweather, Janet. Woodbridge, UK: Boyd
Lord Lieutenant of Greater Manchester
The Lord Lieutenant of Greater Manchester is the representative of the monarch, Queen Elizabeth II in the metropolitan county of Greater Manchester in North West England. As Greater Manchester remains part of the Lancashire County Palatine, the Lord Lieutenant is appointed by the monarch in their capacity as Duke of Lancaster; the office was created on 1 April 1974. Before 1974 the area had been covered by the Lord Lieutenant of Lancashire, the Lord Lieutenant of Cheshire, a small part by the Lord Lieutenant of the West Riding of Yorkshire; the role of the Lord Lieutenant is to "first and foremost... to uphold the dignity of the Crown". The Lord Lieutenant acts as Keeper of the Rolls, it promoted the work of voluntary service and benevolent organisations. The Lord Lieutenant is aided in his office by over 70 Deputy Lieutenants. High Sheriff of Greater Manchester Lord Lieutenant of Greater Manchester
Lord-Lieutenant of Lincolnshire
The Lord-Lieutenant of Lincolnshire is the British monarch's personal representative in the county of Lincolnshire. The lord-lieutenant was responsible for organising the county's militia. In 1871, the lord-lieutenant's responsibility over the local militia was removed. However, it was not until 1921 that they formally lost the right to call upon able-bodied men to fight when needed. Since 1660, all lord-lieutenants have been Custos Rotulorum of Lincolnshire; the lord-lieutenancy is now an honorary titular position awarded to a retired notable person in the county. Until 1975, this had been awarded to a peer connected to the county; this is a list of people. The lord-lieutenant selects from their deputy lieutenants one to act as the vice lord-lieutenant during their tenure; this office is not automatically renewed on the appoint of a new lord-lieutenant. The current Vice Lord-Lieutenant of Lincolnshire is Mr C G Rowles Nicholson. Deputy Lieutenants are nominated by the lord-lieutenant to assist with any duties as may be required.
In Lincolnshire, they are appointed by the Lord Chancellor on command of the sovereign. The current Deputy Lieutenants for Lincolnshire are: Mrs J M Ashton A E Baxter Esq JP DL Lady Benton Jones N D S Brown Esq J B Burke Esq DL Mrs C E Carlbom Flinn DL D C Chambers Esq DL A S Clark Esq DL Mrs A C Coltman OBE DL R J Douglas Esq DL H C Drake Esq DL F J F M Dymoke Esq DL Colonel D K Harris Mrs J G A M Hughes DL Mrs P G Keeling MBE DL Ms U F R Lidbetter J W Lockwood Esq MBE DL B Marsh Esq N E McCorquodale Esq DL Mrs R M Parker DL Air Chief Marshal Sir Stuart Peach Mrs V M Pettifer C A Pinchbeck Esq DL Mrs S A L Price DL Mrs H M L Reeve DL Professor M A Robinson OBE DL Mrs S E Robinson DL C G Rowles Nicholson Esq DL Sir Reginald Sheffield Sir Reginald Tyrwhitt By DL Mrs A L Ward DL W S Webb Esq DL C W H Welby Esq DLPrecious deputy lieutenants include: Thomas Sherwin Pearson-Gregory 2 January 1901 J. C. Sainty. "Lieutenancies of Counties, 1585–1642". Bulletin of the Institute of Historical Research.
J. C. Sainty. List of Lieutenants of Counties of England and Wales 1660-1974. London: Swift Printers Ltd
Royal Victorian Order
The Royal Victorian Order is a dynastic order of knighthood established in 1896 by Queen Victoria. It recognises distinguished personal service to the monarch of the Commonwealth realms, members of the monarch's family, or to any viceroy or senior representative of the monarch; the present monarch, Queen Elizabeth II, is the sovereign of the order, the order's motto is Victoria, its official day is 20 June. The order's chapel is the Savoy Chapel in London. There is no limit on the number of individuals honoured at any grade, admission remains at the sole discretion of the monarch, with each of the order's five grades and one medal with three levels representing different levels of service. While all those honoured may use the prescribed styles of the order—the top two grades grant titles of knighthood, all grades accord distinct post-nominal letters—the Royal Victorian Order's precedence amongst other honours differs from realm to realm and admission to some grades may be barred to citizens of those realms by government policy.
Prior to the close of the 19th century, most general honours within the British Empire were bestowed by the sovereign on the advice of her British ministers, who sometimes forwarded advice from ministers of the Crown in the Dominions and colonies. Queen Victoria thus established on 21 April 1896 the Royal Victorian Order as a junior and personal order of knighthood that allowed her to bestow directly to an empire-wide community honours for personal services; the organisation was founded a year preceding Victoria's Diamond Jubilee, so as to give the Queen time to complete a list of first inductees. The order's official day was made 20 June of each year, marking the anniversary of Queen Victoria's accession to the throne. In 1902, King Edward VII created the Royal Victorian Chain "as a personal decoration for royal personages and a few eminent British subjects" and it was the highest class of the Royal Victorian Order, it is today distinct from the order, though it is issued by the chancery of the Royal Victorian Order.
After 1931, when the Statute of Westminster came into being and the Dominions of the British Empire became independent states, equal in status to Britain, the Royal Victorian Order remained an honour open to all the King's realms. The order was open to foreigners from its inception, the Prefect of Alpes-Maritimes and the Mayor of Nice being the first to receive the honour in 1896; the reigning monarch is at the apex of the Royal Victorian Order as its Sovereign, followed by the Grand Master. Queen Elizabeth II appointed her daughter, Princess Royal, to the position in 2007. Below the Grand Master are five officials of the organisation: the Chancellor, held by the Lord Chamberlain. Thereafter follow those honoured with different grades of the order, divided into five levels: the highest two conferring accolades of knighthood and all having post-nominal letters and, the holders of the Royal Victorian Medal in either gold, silver or bronze. Foreigners may be admitted as honorary members, there are no limits to the number of any grade, promotion is possible.
The styles of knighthood are not used by princes, princesses, or peers in the uppermost ranks of the society, save for when their names are written in their fullest forms for the most official occasions. Retiring Deans of the Royal Peculiars of St George's Chapel at Windsor Castle and Westminster Abbey are customarily inducted as Knights Commander. Prior to 1984, the grades of Lieutenant and Member were classified as Members and Members but both with the post-nominals MVO. On 31 December of that year, Queen Elizabeth II declared that those in the grade of Member would henceforth be Lieutenants with the post-nominals LVO; the current officers of the Royal Victorian Order are as follows: Sovereign: Queen Elizabeth II, since 1952 Grand Master: Anne, Princess Royal, since 2007 Chancellor: William Peel, 3rd Earl Peel, as Lord Chamberlain, since 2006 Secretary: Sir Alan Reid, as Keeper of the Privy Purse, since 2002 Registrar: Lieutenant Colonel Michael Vernon, as Secretary of the Central Chancery of the Orders of Knighthood Chaplain: Peter Galloway, as Chaplain of the Queen's Chapel of the Savoy, since 2008 Upon admission into the Royal Victorian Order, members are given various insignia of the organisation, each grade being represented by different emblems and robes.
Common for all members is the badge, a Maltese cross with a central medallion depicting on a red background the Royal Cypher of Queen Victoria surrounded by a blue ring bearing the motto of the order—VICTORIA—and surmounted by a Tudor crown. However, there are variations on the badge for each grade of the order: Knights and Dames Grand Cross wear the badge on a sash passing from the right shoulder to the left hip.