William Lowther, 1st Earl of Lonsdale
William Lowther, 1st Earl of Lonsdale KG was a British Tory politician and nobleman. Lowther was the son of Sir William Lowther, 1st Baronet, of Little Preston and Swillington, his wife Anne Zouch, he was educated at Cambridge. Lowther was Member of Parliament for Appleby in 1780, for Carlisle from 1780 to 1784 and for Cumberland from 1784 to 1790. In 1796, he was returned as Member of Parliament for Rutland, holding the seat until 1802. In that year, he inherited by special remainder the titles of Viscount Lowther and Baron Lowther from his third cousin once removed, the Earl of Lonsdale of the first creation, as well as his immense estates, he was appointed to the northern Lord Lieutenancies of Cumberland and Westmorland. In 1807, Lowther appointed a Knight of the Garter. A coal magnate, he built a new Lowther Castle. A Tory in politics, he seems to have been tolerant and well-liked, disdaining sabbatarianism and serving as patron for a number of painters and authors, including William Wordsworth.
Lonsdale died at York House, Twickenham in 1844. Lowther enjoyed fox hunting, serving as Master of the Cottesmore Hunt from 1788 to 1802 and 1806 to 1842. Lord Lonsdale married Lady Augusta Fane, daughter of John Fane, 9th Earl of Westmorland, on 12 July 1781, they had six children: William Lowther, 2nd Earl of Lonsdale Henry Cecil Lowther Lady Elizabeth Lowther, unmarried Lady Mary Lowther, married on 16 September 1820 Maj. Gen. Lord Frederick Cavendish-Bentinck, son of the 3rd Duke of Portland. Lady Mary was an amateur artist, tutored by Peter de Wint. Lady Anne Lowther (d. 8 November 1863, married on 20 January 1817 Sir John Beckett, 2nd Baronet Lady Grace Caroline Lowther, married on 3 July 1815 William Vane, 3rd Duke of Cleveland Leigh Rayment's Peerage Pages Leigh Rayment's Historical List of MPs Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by the Earl of Lonsdale Portraits of William Lowther, 1st Earl of Lonsdale at the National Portrait Gallery, London
Lord Henry Cavendish-Bentinck
Lord Henry Cavendish-Bentinck, known as Henry Cavendish-Bentinck until 1880, was a British Conservative politician. Cavendish-Bentinck was the eldest son of Lieutenant-General Arthur Cavendish-Bentinck from his second marriage to Augusta Mary Elizabeth, 1st Baroness Bolsover, his paternal grandfather Lord William Charles Augustus Cavendish-Bentinck was the third son of William Cavendish-Bentinck, 3rd Duke of Portland, while William Cavendish-Bentinck, 6th Duke of Portland, was his elder half-brother. In 1880 he was granted the rank of a younger son of a duke on his half-brother's succession to the dukedom, he entered Parliament for Norfolk North-West in 1886, defeating Joseph Arch, a seat he lost in 1892, when Arch reclaimed the seat. He returned to the House of Commons in 1895 when he was elected for Nottingham South, a seat he held until 1906 and again from 1910 to 1929. Cavendish-Bentinck held a commission in the Derbyshire Imperial Yeomanry, where he gained the rank of lieutenant-colonel.
He served in the Second Boer War in South Africa 1899-1900, where he was appointed to the Staff on 20 February 1900. Cavendish-Bentinck married, in 1882, Lady Olivia Caroline Amelia, daughter of Thomas Taylour, Earl of Bective, granddaughter of the 3rd Marquess of Headfort, she was known as Lady Henry Bentick, was mentioned in despatches by Lord Roberts, Commander-in-Chief, for civilian services during the Second Boer War. Lord Henry died in October 1931, aged 68. Lady Henry died in November 1939, aged 70. Kidd, Williamson, David. Debrett's Baronetage. New York: St Martin's Press, 1990, Leigh Rayment's Peerage Pages Lundy, Darryl. "FAQ". The Peerage. Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by Lord Henry Cavendish-Bentinck Portraits of Lord Henry Cavendish-Bentinck at the National Portrait Gallery, London
Charles Howard, 1st Earl of Carlisle
Charles Howard, 1st Earl of Carlisle was an English military leader and politician who sat in the House of Commons at various times between 1653 and 1660 and was created Earl of Carlisle in 1661. Howard was the son and heir of Sir William Howard of Naworth in Cumberland, by Mary, daughter of William, Lord Eure, great-grandson of Lord William Howard, "Belted Will", the third son of Thomas Howard, 4th Duke of Norfolk. In 1645 he conformed to the Church of England and supported the government of the Commonwealth, being appointed High Sheriff of Cumberland in 1650, he became governor of the town. He distinguished himself at the Battle of Worcester on Cromwell's side and made a member of the council of state in 1653, chosen captain of the protector's body-guard and selected to carry out various public duties. In 1653 he was nominated as Member of Parliament for the Four Northern Counties in the Barebones Parliament, he was elected MP for Cumberland in 1654. In 1655 Howard was given a regiment, was appointed a commissioner to try the northern rebels, a deputy major-general of Cumberland and Northumberland.
He was re-elected MP for Cumberland in 1656. In 1657 he was included in Cromwell's House of Lords and voted for the protector's assumption of the royal title the same year. In 1659 he urged Richard Cromwell to defend his government by force against the army leaders, but his advice being refused he used his influence in favour of a restoration of the monarchy, after Richard's fall he was imprisoned. In April 1660 he sat again in parliament for Cumberland, at the Restoration was made custos rotulorum and Lord Lieutenant of Cumberland and Lord Lieutenant of Westmorland. On 20 April 1661 Howard was created Baron Dacre of Gillesland, Viscount Howard of Morpeth, Earl of Carlisle. In 1663 he was appointed ambassador to Russia and Denmark, in 1668 he carried the Garter to Charles XI of Sweden. In 1667 Howard was made lieutenant-general of the forces and joint commander-in-chief of the four northernmost counties. In 1672 he became one of the commissioners for the office of Lord Lieutenant of Durham, in 1673 deputy earl marshal.
He commanded a regiment in the fresh-raised Blackheath Army of 1673, intended to see action against the Dutch. Following the Treaty of Westminster the regiment was disbanded. In 1678 he was appointed governor of Jamaica, but his instructions to introduce Poynings' Law to the island were opposed by planters elected to the Jamaican Assembly. Calling the elected members "fools, asses and cowards", the governor arrested their leaders, William Beeston and Samuel Long, father of Jamaican planter-historian Edward Long. However, when they were deported back to England and Long argued their case, the governor's instructions were cancelled, he was reappointed governor of Carlisle. He died in 1685, was buried in York Minster, he married Anne, daughter of Edward Howard, 1st Baron Howard of Escrick and great-granddaughter of Thomas Howard, 4th Duke of Norfolk, by whom he had six children: Edward Howard, 2nd Earl of Carlisle Lady Katherine Howard Hon. Frederick Christian Howard, killed at the Siege of Luxembourg Hon. Charles Howard Lady Mary Howard, married Sir John Fenwick, 3rd Baronet Lady Anne Howard, married Richard Graham, 1st Viscount PrestonColonel Thomas Howard, notorious for the 1662 duel where he left Henry Jermyn, 1st Baron Dover for dead, was his younger brother.
He was soon afterwards married as her third husband Mary Stewart, Duchess of Richmond. "Howard, Charles". Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1885–1900
Thomas Howard, 21st Earl of Arundel
Thomas Howard, 21st Earl of Arundel KG, was a prominent English courtier during the reigns of King James I and King Charles I, but he made his name as a Grand Tourist and art collector rather than as a politician. When he died he possessed 700 paintings, along with large collections of sculpture, prints and antique jewellery. Most of his collection of marble carvings, known as the Arundel marbles, was left to the University of Oxford, he is sometimes referred to as the 2nd Earl of Arundel: the numbering depends on whether one views the earldom obtained by his father as a new creation or not. He was 2nd or 4th Earl of Surrey, he is known as "the Collector Earl". Arundel was born in relative penury, at Finchingfield in Essex on 7 July 1585, his aristocratic family had fallen into disgrace during the reign of Queen Elizabeth I owing to their religious conservatism and involvement in plots against the Queen. He was the son of Philip Howard, 20th Earl of Arundel, Anne Dacre, daughter and co-heiress of Thomas Dacre, 4th Baron Dacre of Gilsland.
He never knew his father, imprisoned before Arundel was born, owing to his father's attainder he was styled Lord Maltravers. Arundel's great-uncles returned the family to favour after James I ascended the throne, Arundel was restored to his titles and some of his estates in 1604. Other parts of the family lands ended up with his great-uncles; the next year he married Lady Alatheia Talbot, a daughter of Gilbert Talbot, 7th Earl of Shrewsbury, a granddaughter of Bess of Hardwick. She would inherit a vast estate in Nottinghamshire and Derbyshire, including Sheffield, the principal part of the family fortune since. With this large income, Arundel's collecting and building activities would lead him into debt. Arundel was an effective diplomat during the reign of James I. After coming to court, he travelled abroad, he was created Knight of the Garter in 1611. In 1613 he escorted Elizabeth, the electress consort Palatine, to Heidelberg as part of her marriage celebrations, again visited Italy. On Christmas day 1615 he joined the Church of England, took office, being appointed a Privy Councillor in 1616.
He supported Sir Walter Raleigh's expedition to Guiana in 1617, became a member of the New England Plantations Committee in 1620 and planned the colonization of Madagascar. Arundel presided over the House of Lords Committee in April 1621 for investigating the corruption charges against Francis Bacon, whom he defended from degradation from the peerage, at whose fall he was appointed a commissioner of the Great Seal. On 16 May 1621 he was sent to the Tower of London by the Lords on account of insulting Baron Spencer by referring to their respective ancestry, he incurred Prince Charles's and the Duke of Buckingham's anger by his opposition to the war with Spain in 1624, by his share in the duke's impeachment. On the marriage of his son Henry's to Lady Elizabeth Stewart without the king's approval, he was imprisoned in the Tower by Charles I, shortly after his accession, but was released at the instance of the Lords in June 1626, being again confined to his house till March 1628, when he was once more liberated by the Lords.
In the debates on the Petition of Right, while approving its essential demands, he supported the retention of some discretionary power by the king in committing to prison. The same year he again made a privy councillor. On 29 August 1621 Arundel had been appointed Earl Marshal, in 1623 Constable of England, in 1630 reviving the earl marshal's court, he was sent to The Hague in 1632 on a mission of condolence to Elizabeth Stuart Queen of Bohemia, on her husband's death. In 1634 he was made justice in eyre of the forests north of the Trent. In 1635 he was made Lord Lieutenant of Surrey. In 1636 Arundel undertook an unsuccessful mission to the emperor Ferdinand II to procure the restitution of the Palatinate to the young elector.. In 1638 he was entrusted with the charge of the forts on the border with Scotland, supporting alone amongst the peers the war against the Scots, was made general of the king's forces in the first Bishops' War, though "he had nothing martial about him but his presence and looks."
He was not employed in the second Bishops' War, but in August 1640 was nominated captain general south of the Trent. Arundel was appointed Lord Steward of the royal household in April 1640, in 1641 as lord high steward presided at the trial of the earl of Strafford; this closed his public career. He became again estranged from the court, in 1641 he escorted Marie de' Medici home. In 1642 he accompanied Princess Mary for her marriage to William II of Orange. With the troubles that would lead to the Civil War brewing, he decided not to return to England, instead settled first in Antwerp and at a villa near Padua, in Italy, he contributed a sum of £34,000 to the king’s cause, suffered severe losses in the war. He died in Padua in 1646, having returned to the Roman Catholicism he nominally abandoned on joining the Privy Council, was buried in Arundel, he was succeeded as Earl by his eldest son Henry Howard, 22nd Earl of Arundel, the ancestor of the Dukes of Norfolk and Baron Mowbray. His youngest son William Howard, 1st Viscount Stafford was the ancestor of what was first the Earl of Stafford and Baron Stafford.
Arundel had petitioned the king for restoration of the ancestral Dukedom of Norfolk. While the restoration was not to occur until the time of his grandson, he was created Earl of Norfolk i
Henry Howard, 22nd Earl of Arundel
Henry Frederick Howard, 22nd Earl of Arundel PC, styled Lord Maltravers until 1640, Baron Mowbray from 1640 until 1652, was an English nobleman, chiefly remembered for his role in the development of the rule against perpetuities. Arundel was the second son of Thomas Howard, 21st Earl of Arundel and Lady Alethea Talbot 13th Baroness Furnivall. After his father's death in 1646 he became Earl of Arundel and the titular head of the Howard family. Arundel's grandmother Anne, the dowager Countess, arranged for Henry to be baptised and christened as "Frederick Henry" at Woodstock Palace with Anne of Denmark as godmother. Prince Henry and Princess Elizabeth were present, he studied at St John's College, matriculating in 1624. Before ascending to the peerage, Lord Arundel had served as Member of Parliament for Arundel in the Parliament of England from 1628 until 1629, he was again elected to represent Arundel in March 1640, but was called to the House of Lords by writ of acceleration as Baron Mowbray, one of his father's subsidiary titles, before he could take his seat.
He represented Callan in the Parliament of Ireland in 1634. He had been due to inherit his mother's peerage, but he pre-deceased her and upon her death in 1654 it was inherited by his eldest son Thomas. Henry sought to control the succession to some of his real property after his death. Toward that end, he placed in his will a shifting executory limitation so that title to some property would pass to his eldest son and to his second son, title to other property would pass to his second son, to his fourth son; the estate plan included provisions for shifting the titles many generations if certain conditions should occur. When his second son, succeeded to the elder brother's property, he did not want to pass the other property to his younger brother, Charles. Charles sued to enforce his interest, the court held that such a shifting condition could not exist indefinitely; the judges believed that tying up property too long beyond the lives of people living at the time was wrong, although the exact period was not determined for another 150 years.
Lord Arundel married Lady Elizabeth Stuart, daughter of Esme Stuart, 3rd Duke of Lennox, on 7 March 1626. They had nine sons and three daughters: Thomas Howard, 5th Duke of Norfolk, died without issue Henry Howard, 6th Duke of Norfolk, had issue. Edward's great-grandson Thomas Howard, a Quaker, renounced succession c. 1812. Bernard Howard of Glossop. Hon. Francis Howard, died in Geele, Belgium as stated in his brother Cardinal Philip Howard's Biography. Hon. Bernard Howard of Glossop, married Catherine Tattershall and had issue, including Bernard Howard II of Glossop, who married Anne Roper, had issue, including Henry Howard of Glossop and Sheffield, who married Juliana Molyneux, had issue, including Bernard Howard, 12th Duke of Norfolk and Lord Henry Howard-Molyneux-Howard. Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1885–1900
Charles Howard, 3rd Earl of Carlisle
Charles Howard, 3rd Earl of Carlisle, PC was a British nobleman and statesman. Charles Howard was the eldest son of Edward Howard, 2nd Earl of Carlisle, inherited his title on the death of his father in 1692, he married in daughter of Arthur Capell, 1st Earl of Essex. He was elected as MP for Morpeth in 1689, he was appointed Governor of Carlisle from 1693 to 1728 and Lord-Lieutenant of Cumberland and of Westmorland from 1694-1714. William III made him a Gentleman of the Bedchamber between 1700 and 1702, First Lord of the Treasury from 1701 to 1702 and Privy Counsellor in 1701, he acted as Earl Marshal between 1701 and 1706 because the Duke of Norfolk, was a minor. On Queen Anne's death on 1 August 1714 he was appointed Lord Justice of the Realm until the arrival of King George I on 18 September 1714; the new king reappointed him as First Lord of the Treasury from 23 May 1715 to 10 October 1715 and made him Constable of the Tower of London between 1715 and 1722. From 1699 to 1709 Carlisle was involved with the fraudulent schemes of pirate John Breholt.
First Carlisle backed a plan to dive on and salvage a supposed wreck off Havana - Breholt named his ship Carlisle - which came to naught, after which Breholt let slip that he intended to sail for Cape Verde and to Madagascar to engage in outright piracy. A few years Carlisle backed Breholt's plan to pardon the pirates of Madagascar and have them return to England with their collected wealth; this scheme fell apart. In 1699 he commissioned a new Baroque mansion, Castle Howard, in Yorkshire, England to the design of Sir John Vanbrugh, still occupied by his descendants, he is buried in the mausoleum at Castle Howard. He had six children: Henry Howard, 4th Earl of Carlisle General Hon. Sir Charles Howard Lady Harriet Howard, died young Lady Elizabeth Anne Howard, married Nicholas Lechmere, 1st Baron Lechmere Sir Thomas Robinson, 1st Baronet Lady Anne Howard, married Rich Ingram, 5th Viscount of Irvine Brig-Gen. William Douglas of Kirkness Lady Mary Howard, unmarried Leigh Rayment's Peerage Pages Leigh Rayment's Historical List of MPs "Howard, Charles".
Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1885–1900
Henry Tufton, 1st Baron Hothfield
Henry James Tufton, 1st Baron Hothfield, known as Sir Henry James Tufton, 2nd Baronet, from 1871 to 1881, was a British peer, Liberal politician and owner and breeder of racehorses. Hothfield was the son of Sir Richard Tufton, 1st Baronet, his wife Adelaide Amelie Lacour, his father was the reputed natural son of Henry Tufton, 11th and last Earl of Thanet, had succeeded to the Tufton estates on the death of the Earl in 1849. Hothfield succeeded his father as second Baronet in 1871 and in 1881 he was raised to the peerage as Baron Hothfield, of Hothfield in the County of Kent; the same year he was appointed Lord Lieutenant of Westmorland, a post he held until 1926. In 1886, he served as a Lord-in-waiting in the Liberal administration of William Ewart Gladstone, he was a prominent breeder and owner of racehorses. Lord Hothfield married Alice Harriet, daughter of Reverend William James Stracy-Clitherow, in 1872, he died in October 1926, aged 82, was succeeded in his titles by his eldest son John.
Lady Hothfield died in 1914. Earl of Thanet Kidd, Williamson, David. Debrett's Baronetage. New York: St Martin's Press, 1990, Leigh Rayment's Peerage Pages