The London Gazette
The London Gazette is one of the official journals of record of the British government, the most important among such official journals in the United Kingdom, in which certain statutory notices are required to be published. The London Gazette claims to be the oldest surviving English newspaper and the oldest continuously published newspaper in the UK, having been first published on 7 November 1665 as The Oxford Gazette; this claim is made by the Stamford Mercury and Berrow's Worcester Journal, because The Gazette is not a conventional newspaper offering general news coverage. It does not have a large circulation. Other official newspapers of the UK government are The Edinburgh Gazette and The Belfast Gazette, apart from reproducing certain materials of nationwide interest published in The London Gazette contain publications specific to Scotland and Northern Ireland, respectively. In turn, The London Gazette carries not only notices of UK-wide interest, but those relating to entities or people in England and Wales.
However, certain notices that are only of specific interest to Scotland or Northern Ireland are required to be published in The London Gazette. The London and Belfast Gazettes are published by TSO on behalf of Her Majesty's Stationery Office, they are subject to Crown copyright. The London Gazette is published each weekday, except for bank holidays. Notices for the following, among others, are published: Granting of royal assent to bills of the Parliament of the United Kingdom or of the Scottish Parliament The issuance of writs of election when a vacancy occurs in the House of Commons Appointments to certain public offices Commissions in the Armed Forces and subsequent promotion of officers Corporate and personal insolvency Granting of awards of honours and military medals Changes of names or of coats of arms Royal Proclamations and other DeclarationsHer Majesty's Stationery Office has digitised all issues of the Gazette, these are available online; the official Gazettes are published by The Stationery Office.
The content, apart from insolvency notices, is available in a number of machine-readable formats, including XML and XML/RDFa via Atom feed. The London Gazette was first published as The Oxford Gazette on 7 November 1665. Charles II and the Royal Court had moved to Oxford to escape the Great Plague of London, courtiers were unwilling to touch London newspapers for fear of contagion; the Gazette was "Published by Authority" by Henry Muddiman, its first publication is noted by Samuel Pepys in his diary. The King returned to London as the plague dissipated, the Gazette moved too, with the first issue of The London Gazette being published on 5 February 1666; the Gazette was not a newspaper in the modern sense: it was sent by post to subscribers, not printed for sale to the general public. Her Majesty's Stationery Office took over the publication of the Gazette in 1889. Publication of the Gazette was transferred to the private sector, under government supervision, in the 1990s, when HMSO was sold and renamed The Stationery Office.
In time of war, despatches from the various conflicts are published in The London Gazette. People referred to are said to have been mentioned in despatches; when members of the armed forces are promoted, these promotions are published here, the person is said to have been "gazetted". Being "gazetted" sometimes meant having official notice of one's bankruptcy published, as in the classic ten-line poem comparing the stolid tenant farmer of 1722 to the lavishly spending faux-genteel farmers of 1822: Notices of engagement and marriage were formerly published in the Gazette. Gazettes, modelled on The London Gazette, were issued for most British colonial possessions. History of British newspapers Iris Oifigiúil The Dublin Gazette – in Ireland London Gazette index Official Journal of the European Union List of government gazettes London and Belfast Gazettes official site Great Fire of London 1666 – Facsimile and transcript of London Gazette report
Lord-Lieutenant of Lincolnshire
The Lord-Lieutenant of Lincolnshire is the British monarch's personal representative in the county of Lincolnshire. The lord-lieutenant was responsible for organising the county's militia. In 1871, the lord-lieutenant's responsibility over the local militia was removed. However, it was not until 1921 that they formally lost the right to call upon able-bodied men to fight when needed. Since 1660, all lord-lieutenants have been Custos Rotulorum of Lincolnshire; the lord-lieutenancy is now an honorary titular position awarded to a retired notable person in the county. Until 1975, this had been awarded to a peer connected to the county; this is a list of people. The lord-lieutenant selects from their deputy lieutenants one to act as the vice lord-lieutenant during their tenure; this office is not automatically renewed on the appoint of a new lord-lieutenant. The current Vice Lord-Lieutenant of Lincolnshire is Mr C G Rowles Nicholson. Deputy Lieutenants are nominated by the lord-lieutenant to assist with any duties as may be required.
In Lincolnshire, they are appointed by the Lord Chancellor on command of the sovereign. The current Deputy Lieutenants for Lincolnshire are: Mrs J M Ashton A E Baxter Esq JP DL Lady Benton Jones N D S Brown Esq J B Burke Esq DL Mrs C E Carlbom Flinn DL D C Chambers Esq DL A S Clark Esq DL Mrs A C Coltman OBE DL R J Douglas Esq DL H C Drake Esq DL F J F M Dymoke Esq DL Colonel D K Harris Mrs J G A M Hughes DL Mrs P G Keeling MBE DL Ms U F R Lidbetter J W Lockwood Esq MBE DL B Marsh Esq N E McCorquodale Esq DL Mrs R M Parker DL Air Chief Marshal Sir Stuart Peach Mrs V M Pettifer C A Pinchbeck Esq DL Mrs S A L Price DL Mrs H M L Reeve DL Professor M A Robinson OBE DL Mrs S E Robinson DL C G Rowles Nicholson Esq DL Sir Reginald Sheffield Sir Reginald Tyrwhitt By DL Mrs A L Ward DL W S Webb Esq DL C W H Welby Esq DLPrecious deputy lieutenants include: Thomas Sherwin Pearson-Gregory 2 January 1901 J. C. Sainty. "Lieutenancies of Counties, 1585–1642". Bulletin of the Institute of Historical Research.
J. C. Sainty. List of Lieutenants of Counties of England and Wales 1660-1974. London: Swift Printers Ltd
Harold Alexander, 1st Earl Alexander of Tunis
Field Marshal Harold Rupert Leofric George Alexander, 1st Earl Alexander of Tunis, was a senior British Army officer who served with distinction in both the First World War and the Second World War and, afterwards, as Governor General of Canada, the 17th since Canadian Confederation. Alexander was born in London, England, to aristocratic parents and was educated at Harrow before moving on to the Royal Military College, for training as an army officer of the Irish Guards, he rose to prominence through his service in the First World War, receiving numerous honours and decorations, continued his military career through various British campaigns across Europe and Asia. In World War II, Alexander oversaw the final stages of the Allied evacuation from Dunkirk and subsequently held high-ranking field commands in Burma, North Africa and Italy, including serving as Commander-in-Chief Middle East and commanding the 18th Army Group in Tunisia, he commanded the 15th Army Group for the capture of Sicily and again in Italy before receiving his field marshal's baton and being made Supreme Allied Commander Mediterranean.
In 1946 he was appointed as governor general by King George VI, on the recommendation of Prime Minister of Canada William Lyon Mackenzie King, to replace the Earl of Athlone as viceroy, he occupied the post until succeeded by Vincent Massey in 1952. Alexander proved to be enthusiastic about the Canadian wilderness and was a popular governor general with Canadians, he was the last non-Canadian-born governor general before the appointment of Adrienne Clarkson in 1999, as well as the last governor general to be a peer. After the end of his viceregal tenure, Alexander was sworn into the Queen's Privy Council for Canada and thereafter, in order to serve as the British Minister of Defence in the Cabinet of Winston Churchill, into the Imperial Privy Council. Alexander retired in 1954 and died in 1969. Alexander was born in London into an aristocratic family from County Tyrone of Ulster-Scots descent, he was the third son of James Alexander, 4th Earl of Caledon, the Countess of Caledon, a daughter of the 3rd Earl of Norbury.
Alexander was educated at Hawtreys and Harrow School, there participating as the 11th batsman in the sensational Fowler's Match against Eton College in 1910. Though Alexander toyed with the notion of becoming an artist, he went instead on to the Royal Military College, Sandhurst. In September 1911, Alexander entered the Royal Military College and was commissioned as a second lieutenant in the British Army's Irish Guards, he was promoted to lieutenant in December 1912. Alexander spent most of the First World War on the Western Front; as a 22-year-old platoon commander in the 1st Battalion, Irish Guards, he served with the British Expeditionary Force in 1914. He was wounded at First Ypres and invalided home, he was promoted to temporary captain on 15 November 1914 and permanent captain in the newly raised 2nd Battalion on 7 February the following year. Alexander returned to the Western Front in August 1915, fought at the Battle of Loos and was, for ten days in October 1915, an acting major and acting Commanding Officer of the 1st Battalion, Irish Guards as a "Battle Casualty Replacement".
He returned to the 2nd Battalion as a company officer and, in January 1916, received the Military Cross for his bravery at Loos. For service in the Battle of the Somme on 15 September 1916, he was, in October, appointed to the Distinguished Service Order, the citation for which read: "For conspicuous gallantry in action, he was the life and soul of the attack, throughout the day led forward not only his own men but men of all regiments. He held the trenches gained in spite of heavy machine gun fire." In the same month, Alexander was further honoured with induction into the French Légion d'honneur. On 10 December 1916, his twenty-fifth birthday, Alexander became second-in-command of the 1st Battalion, Irish Guards as an acting major. By May, he was acting CO of the 1st Battalion, as an acting lieutenant colonel, while still only a substantive captain, he became a permanent major on 1 August 1917 and was again promoted acting lieutenant colonel, this time confirmed as CO of the 2nd Battalion, Irish Guards, on 15 October.
Alexander commanded his battalion at Third Ypres, where he was wounded at Bourlon Wood, where his battalion suffered 320 casualties out of 400 men. Alexander, between 23 and 30 March 1918, had to assume command of the 4th Guards Brigade, during the British retreat from the German Army's Spring Offensive, he once again commanded the 2nd Battalion, Irish Guards at Hazebrouck in April 1918, where it took such severe casualties that it saw no further action. Still an acting lieutenant colonel, he commanded a corps infantry school in October 1918, a month before the war ended on 11 November 1918. Rudyard Kipling, who wrote a history of the Irish Guards, in which his own son, Jack Kipling and was killed in action, noted that, "it is undeniable that Colonel Alexander had the gift of handling the men on the lines to which they most responded... His subordinates loved him when he fell upon them blisteringly for their shortcomings. Alexander in 1919 served with the Allied Control Commission in Poland.
As a temporary lieutenant-colonel, he led the Baltic German Landeswehr in the Latvian War of Independence, commanding units loyal to Latvia in the successful drive to eject the Bolsheviks from Latgalia. During service there, he was accidentally wounded by one of his own sentries on 9 October 1919. Alexander returned to Britain in May 1920 as a major, second in command of the 1st Battalion, Irish Guards.
Alexander Duff, 1st Duke of Fife
Alexander William George Duff, 1st Duke of Fife, styled Viscount Macduff between 1857 and 1879 and known as The Earl Fife between 1879 and 1889, was a British peer who married Princess Louise, the third child and eldest daughter of King Edward VII and Queen Alexandra. Fife was born the son of James Duff and his wife, Lady Agnes Hay, his father was a grandson of the 3rd Earl heir presumptive to the 4th Earl Fife. His mother was the second daughter of the 18th Earl of Erroll and his wife, Elizabeth FitzClarence, an illegitimate daughter of King William IV; when his father succeeded as 5th Earl Fife in 1857, Duff acquired the courtesy title of Viscount Macduff. He attended Eton from 1863 to 1866. Fife served as Member of Parliament for the Elginshire and Nairnshire constituency, in Scotland, from 1874 to 1879. On 7 August 1879, he succeeded his father as 6th Earl Fife in the Peerage of Ireland, he served under William Ewart Gladstone as Captain of the Honourable Corps of Gentlemen-at-Arms from 1880 to 1881, served on a special diplomatic mission to the King of Saxony in 1882.
He was Lord-Lieutenant Elginshire from 1872 to 1902, Lord Lieutenant of the County of London from February 1900 until his death in 1912. He was appointed Honorary Colonel of the 1st Banffshire Artillery Volunteers on 15 March 1884. In 1885, Queen Victoria created him Earl of Fife in the Peerage of the United Kingdom, he took part in the founding of the Chartered Company of South Africa and served as one of its vice presidents until the Jameson Raid of 1896. On Saturday 27 July 1889, Lord Fife married Princess Louise, the eldest daughter of the then-Prince and Princess of Wales, at the Private Chapel at Buckingham Palace; the couple were third cousins in descent from George III. The wedding marked the second time. On the day of the wedding, the Queen elevated Lord Fife to the further dignity of Duke of Fife and Marquess of Macduff, in the County of Banff, in the Peerage of the United Kingdom; the marriage of the Duke of Fife and Princess Louise produced three children: Alastair Duff. Lady Alexandra Duff married her first cousin once removed Prince Arthur of Connaught, had issue.
Lady Maud Duff married the 11th Earl of Southesk, had issue. In December 1911, while sailing to Egypt on the SS Delhi, the Duke and his family were shipwrecked off the coast of Morocco, they spent some time in the water before being rescued and had to walk four miles to find accommodation. Although they all survived, the Duke fell ill with pleurisy contracted as a result of the shipwreck, he died at Aswan in Egypt on 29 January 1912, his elder daughter, Princess Alexandra, succeeded to the dukedom of 1900, becoming Duchess of Fife and Countess of Macduff in her own right. His other titles, including the Dukedom created in 1889, all became extinct; the Duke's body was brought home to Great Britain in a lead coffin. It rested in the Royal Vault below St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle, from 28 February 1912 until 6 August 1912, when it was transferred to Scotland for burial in St Ninian's Chapel at Mar Lodge, Aberdeenshire; the Glasgow Herald reported: FUNERAL AT BRAEMAR. IMPRESSIVE SCENES IN DEESIDE FROM OUR CORRESPONDENT ABERDEEN.
Thursday. The casket containing the remains of the Duke of Fife was yesterday deposited in the vault specially constructed for its reception within the private chapel at New Mar Lodge, his Grace's Highland residence; the date of the removal of the remains from Windsor to their last resting place was kept private until two or three days ago, it being the express wish of the Princess Royal that the interment should be carried out without any public display whatever. The casket arrived at Aberdeen from Euston at 7.15 yesterday morning, being conveyed in a special saloon which at Aberdeen was attached to the 8.5 a.m. train for Ballater. Heavy rain showers had fallen on Deeside in the early morning, when the train reached Ballater shortly after ten o'clock the atmosphere was depressingly gloomy, while the distant hills to the West were thickly enveloped in mist, adding a further melancholy note to the circumstances attending the sad home-bringing of the departed Chief of the Duffs. Travelling in the special saloon from London to Ballater were Sir Maurice Abbot Anderson and Lady Anderson and Dr Essery, while awaiting the arrival of the train at Ballater were Mr Wm Mackintosh and commissioner on the Mar estates.
Many hundreds of residents and visitors to the district had assembled in the Station Square and reverently observed the Highlanders transfer the massive polished oak coffin from the saloon to the hearse. Over the casket was laid a Union Jack, the only touch of colour associated with the sombre vehicle. THE ROUTE TO BRAEMAR; the cortege covered the route to Braemar at the slow speed of about 12 miles an hour, along the way there were obvious manifestations of respect shown, for the passing of one, a notable personality on Upper Deeside for so many years. Groups of re
Alan Brooke, 1st Viscount Alanbrooke
Field Marshal Alan Francis Brooke, 1st Viscount Alanbrooke, & Bar, was a senior officer of the British Army. He was Chief of the Imperial General Staff, the professional head of the British Army, during the Second World War, was promoted to field marshal in 1944; as chairman of the Chiefs of Staff Committee, Brooke was the foremost military advisor to Winston Churchill, the British Prime Minister, had the role of co-ordinator of the British military efforts in the Allies' victory in 1945. After retiring from the army, he served as Lord High Constable of England during the Coronation of Queen Elizabeth II in 1953, his war diaries attracted attention for their criticism of Churchill and for Brooke's forthright views on other leading figures of the war. Alan Brooke was born in 1883 at Bagnères-de-Bigorre, Hautes-Pyrénées, to a prominent Anglo-Irish family from West Ulster with a long military tradition, he was the seventh and youngest child of Sir Victor Brooke, 3rd Baronet, of Colebrooke Park, County Fermanagh, Ulster and the former Alice Bellingham, second daughter of Sir Alan Bellingham, 3rd Baronet, of Castle Bellingham in County Louth.
Brooke was educated in Pau, where he lived until the age of 16: he was bi-lingual in French and English. He was fluent in German, had learnt Urdu and Persian. After graduation from the Royal Military Academy at Woolwich Brooke was, on 24 December 1902, commissioned into the Royal Regiment of Artillery as a second lieutenant. During the First World War, he served with the Royal Artillery in France where he gained a reputation as an outstanding planner of operations. At the Battle of the Somme in 1916, he introduced the French "creeping barrage" system, thereby helping the protection of the advancing infantry from enemy machine gun fire. Brooke was with the Canadian Corps from early 1917 and planned the barrages for the Battle of Vimy Ridge. In 1918 he was appointed GSO1 as the senior artillery staff officer in the First Army. Brooke ended the conflict as a lieutenant colonel with Bar. Between the wars, he was a lecturer at the Staff College and the Imperial Defence College, where Brooke knew most of those who became leading British commanders of the Second World War.
From the mid-1930s Brooke held a number of important appointments: Inspector of Artillery, Director of Military Training and GOC of the Mobile Division. In 1938, on promotion to lieutenant-general he took command of the Anti-Aircraft Corps and built a strong relationship with Air Marshal Hugh Dowding, the AOC-in-C of Fighter Command, which laid a vital basis of co-operation between the two commands during the Battle of Britain. In July 1939 Brooke moved to command Southern Command. By the outbreak of the Second World War, Brooke was seen as one of the army's foremost generals. Following the outbreak of the Second World War, in September 1939, Brooke commanded II Corps in the British Expeditionary Force —which included in its subordinate formations the 3rd Infantry Division, commanded by the Major General Bernard Montgomery, as well as Major General Dudley Johnson's 4th Infantry Division; as corps commander, Brooke had a pessimistic view of the Allies' chances of countering a German offensive.
He was sceptical of the quality and determination of the French Army, of the Belgian Army. This scepticism appeared to be justified, he had little trust in Lord Gort, Commander-in-Chief of the BEF, whom Brooke thought took too much interest in details while being incapable of taking a broad strategic view. Gort, on the other hand, regarded Brooke as a pessimist who failed to spread confidence, was thinking of replacing him; when the German offensive began Brooke, aided by Neil Ritchie, his Brigadier General Staff, distinguished himself in the handling of the British forces in the retreat to Dunkirk. In late May 1940 II Corps held the major German attack on the Ypres-Comine Canal but found its left flank exposed by the capitulation of the Belgian army. Brooke swiftly ordered Montgomery's 3rd Division to switch from the Corps' right flank to cover the gap; this was accomplished in a complicated night-time manoeuvre. Pushing more troops north to counter the threat to the embarking troops at Dunkirk from German units advancing along the coast, II Corps retreated to their appointed places on the east or south-east of the shrinking perimeter of Dunkirk.
On 29 May Brooke was ordered by Gort to return to England, leaving the Corps in Montgomery's hands. According to Montgomery, Brooke was so overcome with emotion at having to leave his men in such a crisis that "he broke down and wept" as he handed over to Monty on the beaches of La Panne, he was told by Gort to proceed home.... for task of reforming new armies and so returned on a destroyer. On June 2nd set out for the War Office to find out what I was wanted for with a light heart and with no responsibility, was told by Dill that he was to Return to France to form a new BEF, he had realised that there was no hope of success for the Brittany plan to keep an allied redoubt in France. He told the Secretary for War that the mission had no military value and no hope of success although he could not comment on its political value. In his first conversation with Prime Minister Winston Churchill he insisted that all British forces should be withdrawn from France. Churchill obj