Hotel Vancouver (1916)
The Hotel Vancouver, the second of three by that name, was a 15 story Italian Renaissance style hotel built in 1916 by the Canadian Pacific Railway. The architect was Francis S. Swales; the hotel closed in 1939, when an arrangement was made with rival Canadian National Railway to jointly operate CNR's new hotel, located two blocks away. That hotel, which took over the name Hotel Vancouver, is still operating today; the 1916 CPR building survived until 1949 when it was demolished by the Eaton's department store chain. Many famous people stayed at this hotel, including Winston Churchill, Sarah Bernhardt, Babe Ruth, Ethel Barrymore, Anna Pavlova, it was much loved by the people of Vancouver, who made its rooftop dining room and dance floor, the Panorama Roof, a favourite place for a night out. The structure was one of the triumvirate of large, ornate buildings which anchored the centre of town at Georgia and Granville streets: the Hudson Bay Store, Birks Building, Hotel Vancouver. Only the Hudson Bay store remains of those three jewels of the city's golden age of Edwardian architecture.
Attached to the hotel and built by the CPR was the Vancouver Opera House an Orpheum theatre, the city's first. It had become the Lyric Theatre by the time it was demolished to make way for the construction of Pacific Centre; the site is one of the highest points in the downtown peninsula, good for an imposing building, a fact not lost on the Canadian Pacific. The upstart Canadian Northern wanted to impress the town to further its rivalry with the Canadian Pacific. To this end, the east side of False Creek was filled in to expand rail yards and situate a Beaux Arts railway station. Once flanked by a much more elaborate Great Northern station, since demolished, the Pacific Central Station still stands today. In an agreement with the city, the Canadian Northern promised to build a new hotel. However, the First World War and the insolvency of the Canadian Northern Railway delayed the start of the project; the Great Depression delayed the opening of the third Hotel Vancouver until 1939. Money to complete the hotel was provided by the Canadian government in 1937 as an unemployment relief projet in the dark days of the Depression.
Fearing the market was not large enough for competing hotels, the railways agreed to a joint CP-CN hotel as a condition of the completion. During the Second World War, the second Hotel Vancouver was used as a barracks; the building was boarded up and placed under guard at the end of the war, a time when returning veterans were having difficulty finding housing. In January 1946 thirty-five veterans, unimpeded by Army sentries, took over the vacant hotel and announced the building was now veterans housing, they organized themselves and soon were housing 1,000 veterans and some spouses. The building was torn down a year later; the block became a parking lot until 1969. The Pacific Centre, including the TD Tower and the main Vancouver Eaton's Store, was constructed between 1969 and 1973 and stands on the site today; the hotel was recreated in virtual form in the 2014 interactive work Circa 1948. Emporis Listing BC Archives Photo: Second Hotel Vancouver, Georgia & Granville, c.1920 at the Library of Congress Web Archives BC Archives Photo: Billiard Room, Second Hotel Vancouver, 1920s BC Archives Photo: Dining Room, Second Hotel Vancouver, 1920s BC Archives Photo: Interior, Second Hotel Vancouver, 1916
Toronto Stock Exchange
The Toronto Stock Exchange is a stock exchange in Toronto, Canada. It is the 9th largest exchange in the world by market capitalization. Based in the Exchange Tower in Toronto's Financial District, the TSX is a wholly owned subsidiary of the TMX Group for the trading of senior equities. A broad range of businesses from Canada and abroad are represented on the exchange. In addition to conventional securities, the exchange lists various exchange-traded funds, split share corporations, income trusts and investment funds. More mining and oil and gas companies are listed on Toronto Stock Exchange than any other stock exchange; the Toronto Stock Exchange descended from the Association of Brokers, a group formed by Toronto businessmen on July 26, 1852. No records of the group's transactions have survived, it is however known that on October 25 1861, twenty-four brokers gathered at the Masonic Hall to create and participate in the Toronto Stock Exchange. Between 1852 and 1870, two others distinct, commodity-orientated, exchanges were founded: the Toronto Exchange in 1854 and the Toronto Stock and Mining Exchange in 1868.
The TSE had 13 listings but it grew to 18 in 1868. Many banks of Upper Canada failed during 1869, which halted any sort of trading in the city as the market was just too small. A bull market in 1870 boosted investor's confidence and eight of the original 24 brokers joined again to re-establish the TSE; the exchange was incorporated by an act of the Legislative Assembly of Ontario in 1878.. The TSE grew continuously in size and in shares traded, save for a three-month period in 1914 when the exchange was shut down for fear of financial panic due to World War I; the day of the Wall Street Crash of 1929, Toronto's exchange was better connected to New-York's and received the bad news before Montreal's. By the afternoon, its three most popular stocks were down by at least 8%: International Nickel, Hiram Walker & Sons and Brazilian Light & Power); the following day, a record number of 331,000 shares changed hands on the TSE, with an overall loss of value of 20% Meanwhile, a British Columbia gold rush in the 1890s stimulated the demand for start-up capital but Montreal and Toronto's exchanges deemed the ventures too risky.
The boom was handled with the Toronto Stock and Mining Exchange, founded in 1896 and which merged with its rival Standard Stock and Mining Exchange in 1899. The SSME, after years of ups and downs, was amalgamated into the Toronto Stock Exchange in 1934. While a durable surge in mining trading was recorded in Toronto, in Montreal the volume of the equity-centric market was going down. Toronto found itself a reputation as a financial centre for mining and from 1934, the total trading volume on the TSE surpassed that of Montreal's; the TSE moved on Bay Street in 1913 and in 1937 opened a new trading floor and headquarters in an Art Deco building, still on Bay. By 1936, the Toronto Stock Exchange grew to become the third largest in North America. In 1977, it launched the TSE 300 index and introduced the CATS, an automated trading system, began to use it for the quotation of less liquid equities. In 1983, the TSE moved into the Exchange Tower; the old TSE building became the Design Exchange, a museum and education centre.
On April 23, 1997, the TSE's trading floor closed, making it the second-largest stock exchange in North America to choose a floorless, electronic environment. In 1999, through a major realignment plan, Toronto Stock Exchange became Canada's sole exchange for the trading of senior equities; the Bourse de Montréal/Montreal Exchange assumed responsibility for the trading of derivatives and the Vancouver Stock Exchange and Alberta Stock Exchange merged to form the Canadian Venture Exchange handling trading in junior equities. The Canadian Dealing Network, Winnipeg Stock Exchange, equities portion of the Montreal Exchange merged with CDNX. In 2000, the Toronto Stock Exchange became a for-profit company. In 2002 its acronym was rebranded to TSX and it became a public company. · In 2001, the Toronto Stock Exchange acquired the Canadian Venture Exchange, renamed the TSX Venture Exchange in 2002. This ended 123 years of the usage of TSE as a Canadian stock exchange. On May 11, 2007, the S&P/TSX Composite, the main index of the Toronto Stock Exchange, traded above the 14,000 point level for the first time ever.
On December 17, 2008, for the first time in TSX history, the exchange was closed for an entire trading day due to a technical glitch. On February 9, 2011, the London Stock Exchange announced that it had agreed to merge with the TMX Group, Toronto Stock Exchange's parent, hoping to create a combined entity with a market capitalization of $5.9 trillion. Xavier Rolet, CEO of the LSE Group, would head the new enlarged company, while TMX Chief Executive Thomas Kloet would become the new firm president. Based on data from December 30, 2010 the new stock exchange would have been the second largest in the world with a market cap 48% greater than the Nasdaq. 8 of the 15 board members of the combined entity will be appointed by LSE, 7/15 by TMX. The provisional name for the combined group would be LTMX Group plc. About two weeks after Maple Group launched a competing bid the LSEG-TMX deal was terminated after failing to receive the minimum 67% voter approval from shareholders of TMX Group; the rejection came amidst new concerns raised b
Windsor Hotel (Montreal)
The Windsor Hotel in Montreal, Canada, is considered to be the first grand hotel in Canada, for decades billed itself as "the best in all the Dominion". The hotel was constructed between 1875 and 1878 by the Windsor Hotel Company consortium of six Montreal businessmen, including William Notman, it was capitalized at C$500,000. At the time Montreal was Canada's largest city, the centre of commerce in the young country; the consortium was formed to construct an opulent new hotel to symbolize the city's growing prominence and wealth, to serve visitors arriving at the nearby train station. The hotel opened without fanfare on January 28, 1878. Soon after, an opening gala was held, the largest social gathering Montreal had seen, it was attended by Lady Dufferin, the Right Honourable Sir John A. Macdonald, Princess Louise and the Marquess of Lorne; the hotel was not an immediate success. It was leased by the consortium to James Worthington and losses led to the operation being returned to the consortium to run.
Instead of retrenching, the hotel expanded to include the'Stanley Street Wing'. The hotel was buoyed by the successes of the Montreal Winter Carnivals of the 1880s, which were held in the square outside the hotel; the Windsor Hotel was soon at the centre of Montreal's social and business worlds, attracting not only railway visitors, but business leaders, socialites and royalty. The hotel was home to both the annual St. Andrew's Society Ball and the Winter Carnival Ball, the former being a mainstay of the hotel and of Montreal's social calendar for nearly a century. Sarah Bernhardt, Mark Twain, Dolores Costello, Rudyard Kipling, Fanny Davenport, Lillie Langtry and Oscar Wilde were among the Windsor's famous guests in its early years. In 1906, a fire destroyed 100 guest rooms; the fire did not adversely impact the hotel's success or reputation, but prompted significant renovations and the addition of a new wing, known as the Windsor Annex, to the north of the original building. The number of rooms more than doubled, going from 368 to 750, the hotel now occupied an entire city block.
The north annex contained the famous "Peacock Alley", two additional ballrooms. Unlike the rest of the hotel, the north annex was designed in the Second Empire style; the new annex cost C$1 million to construct and opened in 1908. The success of the hotel helped draw large commercial enterprises to this part of Montreal, including Morgan's and Ogilvy's, contributed to the slow decline of Montreal's other grand railway hotel, the Hotel Place Viger. In 1917, the owners of the Montreal Canadiens, the Quebec Bulldogs, the Ottawa Senators and Montreal Wanderers met in one of the Windsor Hotel's restaurants to form the National Hockey League. In 1919, the Dominion of Canada Football Association held its fifth General Meeting at the Windsor, the first after a four-year hiatus because of the Great War. Executives of both the Canadian Pacific Railway and Grand Trunk Railway kept permanent residences in the hotel, making the Windsor home to men who controlled most of Canada's transportation infrastructure and much of its economy.
In his years, Stephen Leacock spent his winters living in the Windsor Hotel. Some of Leacock's writing, much of his correspondence, was written on hotel stationery. During the first royal tour of Canada by a reigning monarch, King George VI and Queen Elizabeth stayed at the Windsor Hotel, their arrival on May 18, 1939 attracted throngs of well-wishers to the hotel; the crowds were so large that one man died of a heart attack, many others collapsed due to heat and exhaustion, the police found 64 children, separated from their parents. At a state banquet in the hotel prepared by chef Gabriel Meunier, Montreal's francophone mayor, Camillien Houde, famously remarked in his address to the monarchs: "I thank you from the bottom of my heart for coming, and my wife thanks you from her bottom, too." In 1957, another fire destroyed a third of the hotel. This time the damage was extensive, the original hotel structure had to be demolished; the cupola, weighing some 15 tons, came down on August 12, 1959. Within the next five years, the Tour CIBC office tower was constructed on the site of the original hotel.
The North Annex was all that remained of the Windsor Hotel, but it did contain 200 guest rooms, two ballrooms and Peacock Alley. The Windsor Hotel continued to operate out of the North Annex for another 25 years, but competition from newer hotels lead to the Windsor's slow decline. In 1975, Dolores Costello returned to the hotel for her seventieth birthday party, in honour of the hotel, her second home decades earlier; this party was the last true glimpse of the hotel's former grandeur before the Windsor's closure in 1981. In 1987, the Windsor Hotel reopened as an office building called "Le Windsor". In 2006, the building was once again renovated with a total project cost of $15 million; the office building houses the headquarters for Valeurs Mobilieres Desjardins, the securities and investment banking division of Desjardins Group, Claridge, the trust management offices for the Bronfman family. Peacock Alley and a number of marble staircases have been preserved, the two ballrooms are still used for banquets, wedding receptions and conferences.
Le Windsor's ground floor space along the front façade has been occupied by Le Piment Rouge, a Chinese restaurant and bar-lounge, for nearly three decades. During their 1988 and 1999 renovations, the restaurant restored and preserved
The Highland Inn was a year-round resort hotel built and operated by the Grand Trunk Railway, in Ontario’s Algonquin Provincial Park. It was located near the park offices on the northern edge of Cache Lake, was a focal point for the park for many years. Wishing to return the park lands to a more natural state, the Inn was purchased by the Ontario Government in 1957 and removed. Today all that remains are traces of the concrete stairs and platform that met the CNR line, lifted after departure of the last train in 1959; the park was established in 1893 as recreational playground. The railway through the southern and western portions of the park had been built in the 1890s by the Ottawa and Parry Sound Railway, opened for traffic in 1897, was purchased by the GTR in 1905. Changes to the administration policies of the park since 1893 permitted short-term leases for the construction and operation of hotels and summer camps to make the park more attractive to tourists. By 1908, the GTR had become well established in Muskoka, southwest of Algonquin Park, as a resort area which the railway promoted as "The Highlands of Ontario."
In that year, the Grand Trunk Railway opened the Highland Inn. It was an immediate success. Located at the Algonquin Park station near the park headquarters, the Inn was a simple two-story structure with a covered verandah across the front of its main floor, which overlooked Cache Lake. A staircase led from the station platform to the main entrance at the center of the building. In its first years of operation, the hotel proved so popular that land on the west side of Highland Inn was cleared and raised wooden platforms erected, on which tents, were put up to meet the requirements of the growing tourist trade. In 1913 the Highland Inn was enlarged and a west wing was built, along with a three-story central tower and an addition to the east side, extending from the rear of the original structure. Only that first section of the hotel, was winterized; the number of rooms included 11 with 61 without. Running water was supplied from a large wooden water tower at the rear of the hotel. Water was supplied to fire hydrants, while a standpipe at the station serviced steam locomotives.
A canoe livery for rental of canoes and rowboats was built on the shore in front of the hotel. Above the boathouse was a covered dance floor. Other activities for guests included lawn bowling. There were large sitting rooms inside and a billiard room for men. In the same year, Nominigan Camp, consisting of a main lodge with six cabins of log construction, was established on Smoke Lake. Camp Minnesing on Burnt Island Lake was created as a wilderness lodge with similar accommodations. Only open in July and August, both were built by the GTR as affiliates of the Highland Inn. With trains running to its front door, easy connections could be made from Toronto or Ottawa; the Highland Inn became popular with tourists from major cities of the Atlantic Seaboard. Nominigan Camp and Camp Minnesing were accessible by wagon road. A nominal charge was made for stage service from Highland Inn. Both outpost lodges were accessible by portage from Joe Lake station. Nominigan Camp on Smoke Lake could be reached from the Canoe Lake station.
With the 1923 takeover of the GTR by the Canadian National Railways, management of the three lodges came under Canadian National Hotels' administration. Like its forerunner, the CNR continued to promote its own hotels, including those acquired from other lines, as well as owned hotels and camps across the railway system. An accidental fire destroyed some of the guest cabins at Nominigan Lodge in 1926. With the onset of the Great Depression, Camp Minnesing was sold in 1930 to Henry Burton Sharman. Dr. Sharman was a repeat client at the lodge on Burnt Island Lake, having held his annual religious seminars there since 1923. Nominigan Camp became a private cottage; the Highland Inn closed in 1932. Ed and Norman Paget of Huntsville reopened the Inn in 1937. By a number of changes had taken place to its surroundings. Through train service between Parry Sound and Ottawa was curtailed in 1933 when a flash flood weakened the footings of a steel trestle on the railway, about 3 km east of the Inn. At the same time, timber trestles on the east end of Cache Lake were condemned.
The railway was unable to afford repair costs and the government refused to subsidize it. Instead, a turntable was installed west of Highland Inn, enabling scheduled trains from the west to terminate there and return to Parry Sound. In the 1940s, the CNR continued to include the Highland Inn in its listings in tourist pamphlets. Construction of a highway through Algonquin Park was started as a relief project for unemployed single men during the Depression. Part of this road covered west of Cache Lake. By 1948, Highway 60 was paved through the park. Advertisements for the Highland Inn began to appear in the Canadian Automobile Association’s Ontario Motor League Road Book. In 1954, a new policy for Algonquin Park was announced, designed to return the park to its original condition; as part of that policy, the Highland Inn was purchased from Ruth Paget by the Ontario Government in 1956. In the following year, it was burned. In its place, a grove of planted red pine trees was placed, now mature enough to explore under the pine boughs the former site of one of Canada's grand railway hotels.
Little else remains except for some foundation remnants and an old staircase with an occasional water pipe protruding from the grou
Duke of York Inn, Toronto
The Duke LIVE is a restaurant/pub, a 19th-century inn in Toronto, Ontario located at 1225 Queen Street East. Known as "The Duke of York," the building served as an inn with a restaurant/pub on the main floor; the inn no longer operates. For many years a mural of John Wayne was painted on the wall of the first floor of the building's exterior; the original name of this first location is for the Duke of York at the time, Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany. Other surviving taverns and inns in Toronto: Lambton House Miller Tavern Montgomery's Inn Spadina Hotel Picture of the Duke of York Inn
89 Chestnut Residence is a university residence operated by the University of Toronto, opposite the Metropolitan Hotel at 89 Chestnut Street. It was converted from the Colony Hotel in 2004 and turned into a student residence to accommodate the incoming double cohort in 2003 and 2004, it is located in downtown Toronto. The building was constructed as a Motel 11 by the firm Armstrong and Molesworth, a discontinued brand of motels; when it opened in at the Holiday Inn Downtown 1972 it was the fourth largest hotel in the city, with 749 rooms. It cost some $18 million to build and was built on the site of many small buildings of what was the centre of Toronto's First Chinatown; the hotel was purchased by Hong Kong investor Sally Aw for $73 million in 1989 and renamed the Colony Hotel. The hotel was partly owned by Aw's listed company Sing Tao Holdings, via Singdeer Joint Ventures. Aw sold Singtao Holdings in 1999; the university purchased the hotel for C$67.6 million in 2003 from Global China Group Holdings and other owner of the joint venture, at the height of a downturn in Toronto's hotel industry.
Prior to buying the hotel the University of Toronto had rented space to house 400 students at the Primrose Hotel at Jarvis and Carlton. It has nearly 1000 residents from the University of Toronto and the Ontario College of Art and Design University; until September 2008, it accepted new applicants attending George Brown College and Ryerson University. It has a revolving room on the 27th floor, it is the most expensive residence of all University of Toronto residences and has a reputation of providing luxurious accommodation and food. The university retained the hotel chef after purchasing it. Chestnut is home to a larger number of international students than any other residence; the Chestnut Residence Council is the student governing body for social and community affairs of the Residence. It organizes activities such as: the annual Chestnut semi-formal, coffee houses and open mic nights and snowboarding trips, intramural sports tournaments. "U of T considering purchase of Colony Hotel." Tony Wong.
Toronto Star. Feb 1, 2003. Pg. F.01 "U of T to buy Colony Hotel." Toronto Star. Feb 15, 2003. Pg. A.27 "Students the stars at this grand hotel. Louise Brown. Toronto Star. Aug 8, 2003. Pg. E.01 "Ontario: U of T buys hotel to convert to student housing." National Post. Feb 15, 2003. Pg. A.11 "It's home suite home for students." Caroline Alphonso. The Globe and Mail. Aug 12, 2003. Pg. A.6 89 Chestnut Residence website University of Toronto Housing website The Chatter: Newsletter of Chestnut Residence
The Laurentian Hotel was a 1000-room hotel on Dorchester Street, now René Lévesque Boulevard, in Montreal, Canada. The hotel was built in 1948 and demolished in 1978; the building was designed by Charles Davis Goodman, the architect of a number of prominent Streamline Moderne structures in the city, including the Jewish General Hospital and Bens De Luxe Delicatessen & Restaurant. At the time, it was the largest hotel demolished in Canada; the La Laurentienne Building now stands on the site of the former hotel