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1981 in chess

The major chess events of 1981 were the final match of the Candidates Tournament and the second Karpov–Korchnoi World Chess Championship match. The final of the Candidates Tournament 1980–81 was held from December 1980 to January 1981 in the Palace Hotel in Merano, Italy. All earlier rounds of the tournament had been held in 1980; the winner of the tournament would be endorsed by FIDE to challenge the reigning champion, Anatoly Karpov to a match for the title of World Chess Champion. The finalists were Viktor Korchnoi and Robert Hübner, who had qualified for the final through an 8-player match knockout tournament; the other players of the tournament were András Adorján, Tigran Petrosian, Lev Polugaevsky, Lajos Portisch, Boris Spassky and Mikhail Tal. Tal and Spassky were former World Champions; the format of the final was a 16-game match. Hübner abandoned the match after completing games 1 to 8 and playing and abandoning unfinished games 9 and 10; this made Korchnoi the winner of the Candidates Tournament.

Korchnoi had won 3 games, lost 2 games and drawn 3 games. The World Chess Championship 1981 was a match contested from 1 October to 19 November between the defending World Champion and the challenger, Korchnoi; the first player to gain 6 wins would be awarded the title of World Chess Champion. Like the Candidates final, the match was held in Merano. Anatoly Karpov had been FIDE's recognized World Champion since 1975, when he gained the title by forfeit from Bobby Fischer. Karpov and Korchnoi had both played only one World Chess Championship match prior to 1981, a close match against one another in 1978, won by Karpov. Karpov, over 18 games, gained. Karpov lost 2 games and drew 10 games. Due to the decisiveness of the match, it was dubbed "the Massacre in Merano"; the Hoogovens tournament was held as a 13-player single round robin tournament in its customary location of Wijk aan Zee, the Netherlands. Jan Timman was the highest Elo-rated participant; the tournament was won jointly by Gennadi Sosonko and Jan Timman, both with 8/12.

Sosonko was the only player to go unbeaten in every game. Evgeny Sveshnikov and Mark Taimanov came joint third, both with 7/12; the Dortmund Sparkassen Chess Meeting was held in its customary location of Germany. It was won by Gennady Kuzmin; the 21st and final IBM international chess tournament was held in its customary location of Amsterdam, the Netherlands. It was won by Jan Timman for the second time; the 3rd Linares International Chess Tournament was held in its customary location of Spain. It was won jointly by GM Larry Christiansen; the 48th and 49th USSR Chess Championship tournaments were partially and held in 1981. The 48th USSR Chess Championship was held from 25 December 1980 to 21 January 1981 in Vilnius and was won jointly by Alexander Beliavsky and Lev Psakhis, each with 10½/17; the 49th USSR Chess Championship was held from 27 November to 22 December 1981 in Frunze and was won jointly by Psakhis and Garry Kasparov, each with 12½/17. The Women's World Championship was a match held in Georgia.

Defending champion Maia Chiburdanidze was seeded into the final match and defended the title, which she had held since 1978, against Nana Alexandria. The World Junior Chess Championship, an Under-20 tournament, was held in Mexico City, it was won by Ognjen Cvitan. The World Youth Chess Championship Under-16 tournament was held in Córdoba, Argentina, it was won by Stuart Conquest, 14 years old. There were two Elo rating lists published by FIDE covering the 1981 player ratings. Anatoly Karpov was the highest-rated player in both lists, though his rating in the July list was only five points higher than Korchnoi's. 1: GM Anatoly Karpov 2=: GM Lajos Portisch 2=: GM Viktor Korchnoi 4=: GM Robert Huebner 4=: GM Boris Spassky 1: GM Anatoly Karpov 2: GM Viktor Korchnoi 3: GM Robert Huebner 4=: GM Jan Timman 4=: GM Boris Spassky 4=: GM Garry Kasparov January 1981 Elo Rating List at Olimpbase July 1981 Elo Rating List at OlimpBase

August 31 (Eastern Orthodox liturgics)

August 30 - Eastern Orthodox liturgical calendar - September 1 All fixed commemorations below celebrated on September 13 by Eastern Orthodox Churches on the Old Calendar. For August 31st, Orthodox Churches on the Old Calendar commemorate the Saints listed on August 18. Holy 7 Virgin-martyrs, at Gaza, by the sword. Holy 4 Martyrs, by fire. Holy 366 Martyrs, at Nicomedia, by the sword. Martyr Phileortus, by the sword. Martyrs Menas, Faustus and Heraclius. Saint Diadochos. Saint Gennadius, Patriarch of Constantinople Hieromartyr Cyprian, Bishop of Carthage Martyrs Caesidius and Companions, on the shores of Lake Fucino in Italy Martyrs Robustian and Mark, venerated in Milan in Italy from early times. Saint Paulinus, Bishop of Trier Saint Optatus, Bishop of Auxerre in France Saint Barbolenus, fourth Abbot of Bobbio Abbey in Italy Saint Eanswythe, Abbess of Folkestone Saint Aidan, Bishop of Lindisfarne, Enlightener of Northumbria Saints Cuthburgh and Cwenburgh, Abbesses of Wimborne Saint John Prodrom, Metropolitan of Kiev Saint Gennadius Scholarius, Patriarch of Constantinople New Hieromartyr Alexander Lyubimov and Vladimir Dvinsky, Deacon New Hieromartyrs Michael Kosukhin and Myron Rzhepik, Priests New Hieromartyr Demetrius Smirnov New Martyrs of Jasenovac, Serbia Placing of the Honourable Cincture of the Most Holy Theotokos Restoration of the Church of the Theotokos at the Neorion in Constantinople Repose of Schema-nun Gabriela of the Holy Trinity Monastery in Kiev September 13/August 31.

Orthodox Calendar. September 13 / August 31. HOLY TRINITY RUSSIAN ORTHODOX CHURCH. August 31. OCA - The Lives of the Saints; the Autonomous Orthodox Metropolia of Western Europe and the Americas. St. Hilarion Calendar of Saints for the year of our Lord 2004. St. Hilarion Press. P. 64. August 31. Latin Saints of the Orthodox Patriarchate of Rome; the Roman Martyrology. Transl. by the Archbishop of Baltimore. Last Edition, According to the Copy Printed at Rome in 1914. Revised Edition, with the Imprimatur of His Eminence Cardinal Gibbons. Baltimore: John Murphy Company, 1916. Pp. 264–265. Rev. Richard Stanton. A Menology of England and Wales, or, Brief Memorials of the Ancient British and English Saints Arranged According to the Calendar, Together with the Martyrs of the 16th and 17th Centuries. London: Burns & Oates, 1892. Pp. 429–432. Greek Sources Great Synaxaristes: 31 ΑΥΓΟΥΣΤΟΥ. ΜΕΓΑΣ ΣΥΝΑΞΑΡΙΣΤΗΣ. Συναξαριστής. 31 Αυγούστου. ECCLESIA. GR.. Russian Sources 13 сентября. Православная Энциклопедия под редакцией Патриарха Московского и всея Руси Кирилла..

31 августа 13 сентября 2013. Русская Православная Церковь Отдел внешних церковных связей

HMS Ganges (shore establishment)

HMS Ganges was a training ship and stone frigate of the Royal Navy. She was established as a boys' training establishment in 1865, was based aboard a number of hulks before moving ashore, she was based alternately in Falmouth and Shotley. She remained in service at RNTE Shotley until October 1976. HMS Ganges was known as Shotley Training Establishment; the increasing professionalism of the Royal Navy and the reform of practices during the mid-nineteenth century led to the need to establish new training centres at which recruits could be inducted into navy life. The Admiralty decided to set aside five old laid up hulks in different ports around the country, use them as bases at which volunteers aged between 15 and 17 could spend a year being educated for future service in the navy; the plan called for an annual intake of 3,500 boys. They were to be trained in gunnery, as well as traditional aspects of sea life. One of the hulks chosen to be converted into a school was the old 84-gun second-rate ship of the line HMS Ganges.

Despite initial objections that her layout made her unsuitable for the task, the decision went ahead. She underwent a refit, she took her first intake of 180 boys on 1 January 1866. They had been transferred from the training ship HMS Wellesley at Chatham. Wellesley's commander, Frederick H. Stevens came with the boys and became Ganges's commanding officer. Having been refitted to provide accommodation for 500 boys, Ganges was towed to Mylor by the paddle tug Gladiator, she was anchored in the Carrick Roads. During Ganges's time in Cornwall allegations of harsh and brutal treatment were reported to the Admiralty. One wardroom steward shot himself over the matter, the reports aroused indignation in the local community. Captain Tremlett, the senior officer of training ships, was ordered to investigate the situation and reported that Commander Stevens'had given punishments which were not laid down in the Training Regulations and had prevented his ship's company from taking due leave.' Stevens and his first lieutenant were subsequently removed, were replaced by Commander F. W. Wilson on 24 July 1866.

By the end of 1866 there were 478 boys at the establishment. Ganges was sailed to Devonport to undergo refits; the establishment had become an important part of local life, as in 1870 a rumour began to circulate that Ganges would not return after one such refit. The mayor was pressured to contact the local Member of Parliament, to ask questions of a Government minister; the rumour was disproved. By 1899 the declining number of boys joining Ganges led the Admiralty to decide to move her to a more populated area. Petitions were unable to sway the Admiralty. Ganges sailed from Mylor on 27 August 1899, she was refitted in Devonport. The boys were quartered at HMS Impregnable whilst this work was carried out, she sailed to Sheerness in company with HMS Arrogant. She spent two months here before being towed to Harwich by the tug Alligator, she arrived on 11 November 1899. HMS Caroline had served as a temporary hospital ship. Ganges commenced her usual role at Harwich, with Caroline providing medical facilities whilst shore facilities were constructed in the town.

Hospital facilities had been completed by 1902 and Caroline was refitted at Chatham to serve as an overflow training ship for Ganges, providing accommodation for another 60 boys. Despite these developments, it was decided to move Ganges again, this time to Shotley, in Suffolk. Work had begun there on new Royal Naval Sick Quarters. Ganges left Harwich in 1903 for Shotley. £20,000 had been set aside to build shore based accommodation, a further £80,000 had been earmarked to cover the future expansion of the facility. New building works began in February 1904, the old HMS Minotaur arrived, she had spent time as a depot ship for various establishments. She had been named HMS Boscawen in March 1904 whilst at Portland and now arrived to provide further facilities for Ganges; the completion of shore works in 1905 led to the establishment of RNTE Shotley on 4 October. The facility included the buildings onshore and the ships offshore, which were HMS Ganges, HMS Caroline and HMS Boscawen II; the focus of the establishment now moved to shore based activities, the capstan and figureheads were moved from the ships onto the shore.

In November the establishment received the ex HMS Agincourt, renamed HMS Boscawen III. 1906 was a period of considerable changes for the establishment. On 21 June HMS Ganges was renamed HMS Tenedos III in preparation for her reassignment to become part of the Boy Artificers Establishment at Chatham, she left the establishment on 5 July. On 21 June HMS Boscawen was renamed HMS Ganges as her replacement; the establishment was further swelled by the merging of the pupils of the establishments of HMS Boscawen, HMS St Vincent and HMS Caledonia. HMS Boscawen II was renamed HMS Ganges II. In 1907 the 143-foot - high mast of the old steam corvette, it would become a major landmark. The old HMS Minotaur had been HMS Ganges since 1906, but was renamed HMS Ganges II on 25 April 1908. HMS Caroline was renamed HMS Ganges that month as her replacement. In 1909 the Signal School was established and three signal masts were erected. In 1910 the old HMS Agincourt had been removed to become a coal hulk, leaving only the old HMS Minotaur as Ganges II.

By 1912 Ganges II was being used as an overflow ship as the number of boys in the establishment increased, she was duly moved cl

The Great Pretenders

The Great Pretenders is the second album by Los Angeles band Mini Mansions. It was released on March 23, 2015; the album cover alludes to the cover of the Voyager Golden Record. The Great Pretenders received great acclaim from contemporary music critics. At Metacritic, which assigns a normalized rating out of 100 to reviews from mainstream critics, the album received an average score of 84, based on 7 reviews, which indicates "universal acclaim". All tracks are written except where noted. Personnel adapted from The Greater Pretenders liner notes. Mini Mansions Zach Dawes Tyler Parkford Michael ShumanAdditional musicians Brian Wilson - vocals Alex Turner - vocals Production Mini Mansions - production T Bone Burnett - executive producer Woody Jackson - co-production Michael Harris - production, engineering Sean O'Brien - engineering Wesley Seidman - engineering Gavin Lurssen - mastering John Congleton - mixing Cian Riordan - mixing Artwork Clay Russell Lerner - design Kendrick Brinson - back cover photography Neil Krug - insert photography NASA - cover photography

You're a Big Boy Now (novel)

You're a Big Boy Now is a 1963 satirical novel by the British author David Benedictus. It was adapted into a 1966 film directed by Francis Ford Coppola, with the setting changed from London to New York City. Benedictus dedicated the book to "the only girl I've loved—wherever they may be"; the central character of the novel is Bernard Chanticleer, a shoe salesman at a London department store at which his father is a manager. The Chanticleers live in a suburb, "are type-cast as ridiculous bourgeois". At the store he meets a girl, rejected by his mother as "that terrible blatant girl with such common legs too". Bernard, described by one reviewer as "comically neurotic" becomes infatuated with a stage actress, Barbara Darling, he sends her an impassioned note and they agree to meet. Barbara wants to victimize Bernard in revenge for her being ill-treated by men in the past. Barbara tires of Bernard and marries a window dresser, they have a child. Robert Donald Spector of the San Francisco Examiner praised the book as "an outrageously funny satire that launches an all-out nuclear attack on every last inch of British life", with the targets including the "Welfare State" and "upper-middle-class snobbishness", with the "blast area" consisting of sex.

The hero, was compared by Spencer to Holden Caulfield, of J. D. Salinger's 1951 novel The Catcher in the Rye. Oakland Tribune reviewer Dennis Powers wrote that thanks to the author's "malice and winning way with words", the book is "good fun in spite of its flaws", which he said included its cruel comedy and heavy-handed irony. According to Powers, one ought to "read it as a burlesque of'An American Tragedy,' as a spoof of Angry British fiction, as a frightening condemnation of love. There is no end to the possibilities." The novel was brought to the attention of Francis Ford Coppola by actor Tony Bill, who wanted to play Bernard in any movie adaptation. But Coppola cast instead a young Canadian actor. Coppola optioned the film for $1,000, drafted a script in his spare time while working on the film Is Paris Burning?. Coppola moved the story to New York City, changed the shoe store to the 42nd Street main branch of the New York Public Library. Elizabeth Hartman was cast as Barbara, Karen Black as Amy, Rip Torn and Geraldine Page played the parents.

The film ended on a more upbeat note than the novel. In the film, Bernard is reunited with Amy, whereas in the novel he winds up alone