Sigurd the Crusader
Sigurd I Magnusson known as Sigurd the Crusader, was King of Norway from 1103 to 1130. His rule, together with his half-brother Øystein, has been regarded by historians as a golden age for the medieval Kingdom of Norway, he is otherwise famous for leading the Norwegian Crusade, earning the eponym "the Crusader", was the first European king to participate in a crusade. Sigurd was one of the three sons of the other two being Øystein and Olaf, they were all illegitimate sons of the king with different mothers. To avoid feuds or war, the three half-brothers co-ruled the kingdom from 1103. Sigurd would rule alone after Olaf died in 1115 and Øystein in 1123. Before being proclaimed King of Norway, Sigurd was styled as King of the Earl of Orkney. Sigurd would pass the Earl of Orkney title on to a son of Paul Thorfinnsson. Many historians have viewed Sigurd and Øystein's rule as a golden age for the medieval Kingdom of Norway; the country flourished economically and culturally, allowing Sigurd's participation in the Crusades and gaining international recognition and prestige.
In 1098, Sigurd accompanied his father, King Magnus III, on his expedition to the Orkney Islands and the Irish Sea. He was made Earl of Orkney the same year, following the swift removal of the incumbent Earls of Orkney and Erlend Thorfinnsson, he was apparently, made King of the Isles in that same year, following the overthrow of their king by his father, Magnus. Although Magnus was not directly responsible for the death of the previous King of the Isles, he became the next ruler of the kingdom, most due to his conquest of the islands; this was the first time. It is not certain. However, it is known that he was in Orkney when Magnus returned west in 1102 for his next expedition. While there, a marriage alliance was negotiated between Muircheartach Ua Briain, he was High King of Ireland, one of the most powerful rulers in Ireland, as well as the ruler of Dublin. Sigurd was to marry Muirchertach's daughter Bjaðmunjo, a young Irish princess and for a short period, Queen consort; when King Magnus was ambushed and killed in Ulaid by an Irish army in 1103, the 14-year-old Sigurd returned to Norway along with the rest of the Norwegian army, leaving his child-bride behind.
Upon arriving in Norway, he and his two brothers, Øystein and Olav, were proclaimed kings of Norway and jointly ruled the kingdom together for some time. The expeditions conducted by Magnus were somewhat profitable to the Kingdom of Norway, as the many islands under Norwegian control generated wealth and manpower; however the Hebrides and Man re-asserted their independence after Magnus' death. In 1107, Sigurd led the Norwegian Crusade to support the newly established Kingdom of Jerusalem, founded after the First Crusade, he was the first European king to lead a crusade, his feats earned him the nickname Jorsalafari. Sigurd possessed a total force of about 5000 men in about 60 ships; the two kings, Øystein and Sigurd disputed about who should lead the contingent and who should remain home to rule the kingdom. Sigurd was chosen to lead the crusade because he was a more experienced traveler, having been on several expeditions with his father, Magnus III, to Ireland and islands in the seas around Scotland.
Sigurd fought in various Mediterranean islands and Palestine. He would fight the enemies himself, amongst his loyal soldiers and kinsmen. However, the loot never reached Norway, as Sigurd left everything he had gained in Constantinople. On his way to Jerusalem he visited the Norman King Roger II of Sicily in his castle at Palermo. Upon arriving in the Holy Land he was greeted by King of Jerusalem, he received a warm welcome, spent much time with the king. The two kings rode to the Jordan River. King Baldwin asked Sigurd to join him and Ordelafo Faliero, Doge of Venice in the capture of the coastal city of Sidon, re-fortified by the Fatimids in 1098; the Siege of Sidon was a great success for the crusaders, the city was conquered on 5 December 1110. Eustace Grenier was granted the Lordship of Sidon. By order of Baldwin and the Patriarch of Jerusalem, Ghibbelin of Arles, a splinter was taken from the True Cross and given to Sigurd after the siege, as a token of friendship and as a relic for his heroic participation in the crusades.
Thereafter, King Sigurd prepared to leave the Holy Land. They sailed north to the island of Cyprus. Sigurd sailed to Constantinople and entered the city through the gate called the Gold Tower, riding in front of his men, he stayed there for a while and spending much time with the Emperor. Before leaving Constantinople, Sigurd gave all of his ships and many treasures away to the Byzantine Emperor. In return the emperor gave him many strong horses, for his fellow kinsmen. Sigurd planned to return to Norway over land, but many of his men stayed behind in Constantinople, to take up service for the emperor as part of his Varangian Guard; the trip took three years and he visited many countries en route. Sigurd traveled from Serbia and Bulgaria, through Hungary, Pannonia and Bavaria where he met wit
High Middle Ages
The High Middle Ages, or High Medieval Period, was the period of European history that commenced around 1000 and lasted until around 1250. The High Middle Ages were preceded by the Early Middle Ages and were followed by the Late Middle Ages, which ended around 1500. Key historical trends of the High Middle Ages include the increasing population of Europe, which brought about great social and political change from the preceding era, the Renaissance of the 12th century, including the first developments of rural exodus and of urbanization. By 1250, the robust population increase had benefited the European economy, which reached levels that would not be seen again in some areas until the 19th century; that trend faltered during the Late Middle Ages because of a series of calamities, most notably the Black Death, but numerous wars as well as economic stagnation. From around 780, Europe saw the last of the barbarian invasions and became more and politically organized; the Carolingian Renaissance led to philosophical activity in Northern Europe.
The first universities started operating in Bologna, Paris and Modena. The Vikings settled in the British Isles and elsewhere, Norse Christian kingdoms started developing in their Scandinavian homelands; the Magyars ceased their expansion in the 10th century, by the year 1000, a Christian Kingdom of Hungary had become a recognized state in Central Europe, forming alliances with regional powers. With the brief exception of the Mongol invasions in the 13th century, major nomadic incursions ceased; the powerful Byzantine Empire of the Macedonian and the Komnenos dynasties gave way to the resurrected Serbia and Bulgaria and to a successor crusader state, which countered the continuous threat of the Seljuk Turks in Asia Minor. In the 11th century, populations north of the Alps began a more intensive settlement, targeting "new" lands, some of which areas had reverted to wilderness after the end of the Roman Empire. In what is known as the "great clearances", Europeans cleared and cultivated some of the vast forests and marshes that lay across of the continent.
At the same time, some settlers moved beyond the traditional boundaries of the Frankish Empire to new frontiers beyond the Elbe River, which tripled the size of Germany in the process. The Catholic Church, which reached the peak of its political power around called armies from across Europe to a series of Crusades against the Seljuk Turks; the crusaders founded the Crusader States in the Levant. Other wars led to the Northern Crusades; the Christian kingdoms took much of the Iberian Peninsula from Muslim control, the Normans conquered southern Italy, all part of the major population increases and the resettlement patterns of the era. The High Middle Ages produced many different forms of intellectual and artistic works; the age saw the rise of ethnocentrism, which evolved into modern civic nationalisms in most of Europe, the ascent of the great Italian city-states and the rise and fall of the Muslim civilization of Al-Andalus. The rediscovery of the works of Aristotle led Thomas Aquinas and other thinkers of the period to expand Scholasticism, a combination of Catholicism and ancient philosophy.
For much of this period, Constantinople remained Europe's most populous city, Byzantine art reached a peak in the 12th century. In architecture, many of the most notable Gothic cathedrals were built or completed around this period; the Crisis of the Late Middle Ages began at the start of the 14th century and marked the end of the period. In England, the Norman Conquest of 1066 resulted in a kingdom ruled by a Francophone nobility; the Normans invaded Ireland by force in 1169 and soon established themselves throughout most of the country, although their stronghold was the southeast. Scotland and Wales were subdued to vassalage at about the same time, though Scotland asserted its independence and Wales remained under the rule of independent native princes until the death of Llywelyn ap Gruffydd in 1282; the Exchequer was founded in the 12th century under King Henry I, the first parliaments were convened. In 1215, after the loss of Normandy, King John signed the Magna Carta into law, which limited the power of English monarchs.
Much of the Iberian peninsula had been occupied by the Moors after 711, although the northernmost portion was divided between several Christian states. In the 11th century, again in the thirteenth, the Christian kingdoms of the north drove the Muslims from central and most of southern Iberia. In Italy, independent city states grew affluent on eastern maritime trade; these were in particular the thalassocracies of Pisa, Amalfi and Venice. From the mid-tenth to the mid-11th centuries, the Scandinavian kingdoms were unified and Christianized, resulting in an end of Viking raids, greater involvement in European politics. King Cnut of Denmark ruled over both Norway. After Cnut's death in 1035, England and Norway were lost, with the defeat of Valdemar II in 1227, Danish predominance in the region came to an end. Meanwhile, Norway extended its Atlantic possessions, ranging from Greenland to the Isle of Man, while Sweden, under Birger Jarl, built up a power-base in the Baltic Sea. However, the Norwegian influence started to decline in the same period, marked by the Treaty of Perth of 1266.
Civil wars raged in Norway between 1130 and 1240. By the time of the High Middle Ages, the Carolingian Empire had been divided and replaced by separate successor kingdoms called France and Germany, although not with their modern boundaries. Germany was under the banner of the Holy Roman Empire, which reached its high-water mark of unit
Alan of Galloway
Alan of Galloway known as Alan fitz Roland, was a leading thirteenth-century Scottish magnate. As the hereditary Lord of Galloway and Constable of Scotland, he was one of the most influential men in the Kingdom of Scotland and Irish Sea zone. Alan first appears in courtly circles in about 1200, about the time he inherited his father's possessions and offices. After he secured his mother's inheritance two decades Alan became one of the most powerful magnates in the Scottish realm. Alan held lands in the Kingdom of England, was an advisor of John, King of England concerning Magna Carta. Alan played a considerable part in Alexander II of Scotland's northern English ambitions during the violent aftermath of John's repudiation of Magna Carta. Alan participated in the English colonisation of Ulster, receiving a massive grant in the region from the English king, aided the Scottish crown against rebel claimants in the western and northern peripheries of the Scottish realm. Alan entered into a vicious inter-dynastic struggle for control of the Kingdom of the Isles, supporting one of his kinsman against another.
Alan's involvement in the Isles, a region under nominal Norwegian authority, provoked a massive military response by Haakon IV of Norway, causing a severe crisis for the Scottish crown. As ruler of the semi-autonomous Lordship of Galloway, Alan was courted by the Scottish and English kings for his remarkable military might, was noted in Norse saga-accounts as one of the greatest warriors of his time. Like other members of his family, he was a generous religious patron. Alan died in February 1234. Although under the traditional Celtic custom of Galloway, Alan's illegitimate son could have succeeded to the Lordship of Galloway, under the feudal custom of the Scottish realm, Alan's nearest heirs were his surviving daughters. Using Alan's death as an opportunity to further integrate Galloway within his realm, Alexander forced the partition of the lordship amongst Alan's daughters. Alan was the last legitimate ruler of Galloway, descending from the native dynasty of Fergus, Lord of Galloway. Alan was born sometime before 1199.
He was the eldest son of Roland fitz Uhtred, Lord of Galloway, his wife, Helen de Morville. His parents were married before 1185 at some point in the 1170s, since Roland was compelled to hand over three sons as hostages to Henry II of England in 1186. Roland and Helen had three sons, two daughters; the name of one of Alan's brothers is unknown, suggesting. The other, became Earl of Atholl by right of his wife. One of Alan's sisters, married Walter Bisset, Lord of Aboyne; the other, married Nicholas de Stuteville, Lord of Liddel. Alan's mother was the sister and heir of William de Morville, Lord of Lauderdale and Cunningham, Constable of Scotland. Alan's father was Lord of Galloway, son of Fergus, Lord of Galloway; the familial origins of Fergus are unknown, he first appears on record in 1136. The mother of at least two of his children and Affraic, was an unknown daughter of Henry I of England, it was not long after Fergus' emergence into recorded history that he gave away Affraic in marriage to Amlaíb mac Gofraid, King of the Isles.
One after-effect of these early twelfth-century marital alliances was that Alan—Fergus' great-grandson—was a blood relative of the early thirteenth-century kings of England and the kings of the Isles—men who proved to be important players throughout Alan's career. Roland died in December 1200. Alan inherited the constableship of Scotland, a pre-eminent position which had passed to Roland from the Morvilles by right of Roland's wife, the only surviving heir of Richard de Morville; as constable, like the earls of the realm, was responsible for leading the king's royal forces. It is uncertain whether the constable of this period took precedence over the earls in command of the king's army, or if the constable had charge of the realm's numerous marischals, his attachment to the importance of his posisition as constable is evidenced by the fact that this title tends to have taken priority over his hereditary title as ruler of Galloway. Before Roland's death, Alan was active in courtly circles serving as his father's deputy.
Alan's first known important attestation occurs late in December 1199, when he witnessed a royal charter at Forfar. From this point in his career until 1209, Alan appears to have been most in the attendance of the Scottish king, witnessing several of the latter's royal charters. Alan's eminent standing in society is evidenced by the fact that, within these sources, his name tends to appear amongst the top four recorded names, is the first name of non-comital rank, his second marriage, in about 1209, to the king's niece, eldest daughter of David, Earl of Huntingdon reveals Alan's significant social standing. From about 1210 to 1215, his activity in Scottish affairs dwindles whilst his activity in English affairs increases steadily. At some point in the first quarter of the thirteenth century, Alan was granted a vast swathe of territory in Ulster from King John of England; the transaction itself certainly took place in the aftermath of the John's expedition to Ireland in 1210. The exact date of the transaction, cannot be ascertained due to a gap in English charter records between the months of April 1209 and May 1212.
The brunt of John's nine-week Irish campaign appears to have been directed at wayward Anglo-Norman magnates—the troublesome Lacy family in particular. With his subsequent destruction of Hugh de Lacy, Earl of Ulster, the confiscation of the latter's Irish earldom, J
The River Clyde is a river that flows into the Firth of Clyde in Scotland. It is the eighth-longest river in the United Kingdom, the second-longest in Scotland. Traveling through the major city of Glasgow, it was an important river for shipbuilding and trade in the British Empire. To the Romans, it was Clota, in the early medieval Cumbric language, it was known as Clud or Clut, was central to the Kingdom of Strathclyde; the Clyde is formed by the confluence of the Daer Water and the Potrail Water. The Southern Upland Way crosses both streams before they meet at Watermeetings to form the River Clyde proper. At this point, the Clyde is only 10 km from Tweed's Well, the source of the River Tweed, is near Annanhead Hill, the source of the River Annan. From there, it meanders northeastward before turning to the west, its flood plain used for many major roads in the area, until it reaches the town of Lanark. On the banks of the Clyde, the industrialists David Dale and Robert Owen built their mills and the model settlement of New Lanark.
The mills harness the power of the Falls of Clyde, the most spectacular of, Cora Linn. A hydroelectric power station still generates electricity here, although the mills are now a museum and World Heritage Site. Between the towns of Motherwell and Hamilton, the course of the river has been altered to create an artificial loch within Strathclyde Park. Part of the original course can still be seen, lies between the island and the east shore of the loch; the river flows through Blantyre and Bothwell, where the ruined Bothwell Castle stands on a defensible promontory. Past Uddingston and into the southeast of Glasgow, the river begins to widen, meandering a course through Cambuslang and Dalmarnock. Flowing past Glasgow Green, the river is artificially straightened and widened through the centre, although the new Clyde Arc now hinders access to the traditional Broomielaw dockland area, seagoing ships can still come upriver as far as Finnieston, where the PS Waverley docks. From there, it flows past the shipbuilding heartlands, through Govan, Whiteinch and Clydebank, all of which housed major shipyards, of which only two remain.
The river flows out west of Glasgow, past Renfrew, under the Erskine Bridge past Dumbarton on the north shore to the sandbank at Ardmore Point between Cardross and Helensburgh. Opposite, on the south shore, the river continues past the last Lower Clyde shipyard at Port Glasgow to Greenock, where it reaches the Tail of the Bank as the river merges into the Firth of Clyde. A significant issue of oxygen depletion in the water column has occurred at the mouth of the River Clyde; the valley of the Clyde was the focus for the G-BASE project from the British Geological Survey in the summer of 2010. The success of the Clyde at the beginning of the Industrial Revolution was driven by the location of Glasgow, being a port facing the Americas. Tobacco and cotton trade began the drive in the early 18th century. However, the shallow Clyde was not navigable for the largest ocean-going ships, so cargo had to be transferred at Greenock or Port Glasgow to smaller ships to sail upstream into Glasgow itself. In 1768, John Golborne advised the narrowing of the river and the increasing of the scour by the construction of rubble jetties and the dredging of sandbanks and shoals.
A particular problem was the division of the river into two shallow channels by the Dumbuck shoal near Dumbarton. After James Watt's report on this in 1769, a jetty was constructed at Longhaugh Point to block off the southern channel; this being insufficient, a training wall called the Lang Dyke was built in 1773 on the Dumbuck shoal to stop water flowing over into the southern channel. In the late 18th and early 19th centuries, hundreds of jetties were built out from the banks between Dumbuck and the Broomielaw quay in Glasgow itself. In some cases, this resulted in an immediate deepening as the constrained water flow washed away the river bottom. In the mid-19th century, engineers took on a much greater dredging of the Clyde, removing millions of cubic feet of silt to deepen and widen the channel; the major stumbling block in the project was a massive geological intrusion known as Elderslie Rock. As a result, the work was not completed until the 1880s. At this time, the Clyde became an important source of inspiration for artists, such as John Atkinson Grimshaw and James Kay, willing to depict the new industrial era and the modern world.
The completion of the dredging was well-timed. Shipbuilding replaced trade as the major activity on the river, shipbuilding companies were establishing themselves on the river. Soon, the Clyde gained a reputation for being the best location for shipbuilding in the British Empire, grew to become the world's pre-eminent shipbuilding centre. Clydebuilt became an industry benchmark of quality, the river's shipyards were given contracts for prestigious ocean-going liners, as well as warships, including the Queen Mary and the Queen Elizabeth 2 in years, all built in the town of Clydebank. From the founding of the Scott family's shipyard at Greenock in 1712 to the present day, over 25,000 ships have been built on the River Clyde and its Firth and on the tributary River Kelvin and River Cart together with boatyards at Maryhill and Kirkintilloch on the Forth & Clyde Canal and Blackhill on the Monkland Canal. In the same time, an estimated over 300 firms have engaged in shipbuilding on Clydeside
Galloway is a region in southwestern Scotland comprising the historic counties of Wigtownshire and Kirkcudbrightshire. A native or inhabitant of Galloway is called a Gallovidian; the place name Galloway is derived from the Gaelic i nGall Gaidhealaib. The Gall Gaidheil meaning "Stranger-Gaidheil" referred to a population of mixed Scandinavian and Gaelic ethnicity that inhabited Galloway in the Middle Ages. Galloway is bounded by sea to the west and south, the Galloway Hills to the north, the River Nith to the east; the definition has, fluctuated in size over history. A hardy breed of black, hornless cattle named Galloway cattle is native to the region, in addition to the more distinctive'Belted Galloway' or'Beltie'. Galloway comprises that part of Scotland southwards from the Southern Upland watershed and westward from the River Nith. Traditionally it has been described as stretching from "the braes of Glenapp to the Nith"; the valleys of three rivers, the Urr Water, the Water of Ken and River Dee, the Cree, all running north-south, provide much of the good arable land, although there is some arable land on the coast.
However the landscape is rugged and much of the soil is shallow. The south slope and southern coast make for mild and wet climate, there is a great deal of good pasture; the northern part of Galloway is exceedingly rugged and forms the largest remaining wilderness in Britain south of the Highlands. This area is known as the Galloway Hills. Galloway has been famous both for horses and for cattle rearing, milk and beef production are both still major industries. There is substantial timber production and some fisheries; the combination of hills and high rainfall make Galloway ideal for hydroelectric power production, the Galloway Hydro Power scheme was begun in 1929. Since electricity generation has been a significant industry. More wind turbines have been installed at a number of locations on the watershed, a large offshore wind-power plant is planned, increasing Galloway's'green energy' production; the 2nd century geographer Ptolemy produced a map of Britain in his Geography, in which he describes the landmarks and peoples of the island.
The landmarks were identified long ago, a number of them relate to Galloway:In the west, the city of Rerigonium, shown on Ptolemy's map of the world, is a strong contender for the site of Pen Rhionydd, referred to in the Welsh Triads as one of the'three thrones of Britain' associated with the legendary King Arthur, may have been the caput of the sub-Roman Brythonic kingdom of Rheged. Rerigonium's exact position is uncertain except that it was'on Loch Ryan', close to modern day Stranraer; the earliest inhabitants were Brythonic Celts, recorded by the Romans as the Novantae tribe. According to tradition, before the end of Roman rule in Britain, St. Ninian established a church or monastery at Whithorn, which remained an important place of pilgrimage until the Reformation; the county is rich in prehistoric monuments and relics, amongst the most notable of which are the Drumtroddan Standing Stones, the Torhousekie Stone Circle, both in Wigtownshire and Cairnholy. There is evidence of one of the earliest pit-fall traps in Europe, discovered near Glenluce, Wigtownshire.
A Brythonic speaking kingdom dominated Galloway until the late 7th century when it was taken over by the English kingdom of Bernicia. English dominance was supplanted by Norse-Gaelic peoples between the 11th century; this can be seen in the context of widespread Norse domination of the Irish Sea, including extensive settlement in the Isle of Man and in the now English region of Cumbria south of Galloway. If it had not been for Fergus of Galloway who established himself in Galloway, the region would have been absorbed by Scotland; this did not happen because Fergus, his sons and great-grandson Alan, Lord of Galloway, shifted their allegiance between Scottish and English kings. During a period of Scottish allegiance a Galloway contingent followed David, King of Scots in his invasion of England and led the attack in his defeat at the Battle of the Standard. Alan died in 1234, he had an illegitimate son Thomas. The'Community of Galloway' wanted Thomas as their'king'. Alexander III of Scotland invaded Galloway.
The Community of Galloway was defeated, Galloway divided up between Alan's daughters, thus bringing Galloway's independent existence to an end. Alan's eldest daughter, married John de Balliol, their son became one of the candidates for the Scottish Crown. Scotland's Wars of Independence were disproportionately fought in Galloway. There were a large number of new Gaelic placenames being coined post 1320, because Galloway retained a substantial Gaelic speaking population for several centuries more. Following the Wars of Independence, Galloway became the fief of Archibald the Grim, Earl of Douglas and his heirs. Whithorn remained an important cultural centre, all the medieval Kings of Scots made pilgrimages there. Galwegian Gaelic seems to have lasted longer than Gaelic in other parts of Lowland Scotland, Margaret McMurray of Carrick appears to have been the last recorded speaker. In the years after the Union
Bjaðmunjo Mýrjartaksdóttir was a daughter of a Muirchertach Ua Briain, High King of Ireland. In 1102 whilst still a child, she was married to son of Magnús Óláfsson, King of Norway. At this time, Magnús appears to have been in the process of setting up his son as king over the Earldom of Orkney, the Kingdom of the Isles, the Kingdom of Dublin; the marriage itself temporarily bound Muirchertach and Magnús together as allies before the latter's death the following year. Sigurðr thereupon repudiated Bjaðmunjo, left for Scandinavia, where he proceeded to share the Norwegian kingship with his brothers. Bjaðmunjo was a daughter of High King of Ireland. In the late eleventh century, following the death of his father, Muirchertach seized control of the Kingdom of Munster and moved to extend his authority throughout Ireland as High King of Ireland. In so doing, he gained control of the Norse-Gaelic Kingdom of Dublin, as a result began to extend his influence into the nearby Kingdom of the Isles. There is uncertainty concerning the political situation in the Isles in the last decade of the eleventh century.
What is known for sure is that, before the end of the century, Magnús Óláfsson, King of Norway led a marauding fleet from Scandinavia into the Irish Sea region, where he held power until his death in 1103. The catalyst for this Norwegian intervention may have been the extension of Muirchertach's influence into the Irish Sea region following the death of Gofraid Crobán, King of the Isles; the region itself appears to have degenerated into chaos following Gofraid's demise, Magnús seems to have taken it upon himself to reassert Norwegian authority. Magnús made two expeditions into the Irish Sea region. One arrived in 1098; the focus of the second overseas operation appears to have been Ireland itself. Following an apparent Norwegian conquest of Dublin, Magnús and Muirchertach negotiated a peace agreement, sealed through the marriage of Magnús' son, Sigurðr, Bjaðmunjo herself; the marriage agreement between Magnús and Muirchertach is noted in several sources. The Annals of Inisfallen and the Annals of the Four Masters reveal that the marriage to place in 1102.
Other sources reporting the marriage include the twelfth-century Ágrip af Nóregskonungasǫgum, the thirteenth-century Orkneyinga saga, Magnúss saga berfœtts within the thirteenth-century Heimskringla. Sigurðr was twelve-years-old at the time of the marriage, although Bjaðmunjo's age is uncertain; the remarkably young age of the newlyweds, the fact that the union is recorded at all in historical sources, suggests that a dynastic marriage was required for the conclusion of peace between their fathers. There seems to be some confusion in several historical sources regarding the marriage. For example, the twelfth-century monk Ordericus Vitalis claimed that Magnús himself married the daughter of an Irish king in about 1093. According to Morkinskinna, Magnús was at one point set to marry a certain Maktildr, described as an "emperor's daughter", it is possible that Maktildr represents Matilda, a woman, a sister of the reigning Étgar mac Maíl Choluim, King of Scotland, and, known to have married Henry I, King of England in 1110.
In fact, the episode concerning Magnús and Maktildr in Morkinskinna may have influenced the erroneous claim preserved by the same source and the thirteenth-century Fagrskinna, which purport that Sigurðr married a daughter of Máel Coluim mac Donnchada, King of Scotland. At about the same time as the marriage between Bjaðmunjo and Sigurðr, the former's father secured yet another marital alliance through another daughter and Arnulf de Montgomery, Earl of Pembroke, an English magnate in the midst of a revolt against the reigning King of England. Just prior to the settlement of peace between the Uí Briain and the Norwegians, Muirchertach was not only contending with the arrival of Magnús, but was locked in an extended struggle with Domnall Mac Lochlainn, King of Cenél nEógain; the agreement of a year's peace between Muirchertach and Magnús, turned Magnús from an enemy into an ally. Whilst Magnús appears to have intended for Sigurðr to rule over his recently-won overseas territories—a region stretching from Orkney to Dublin—Muirchertach appears to have intended to exert influence into the Isles through his new son-in-law.
In fact, during the following year and Magnús cooperated in military operations throughout Ireland. For Muirchertach, his long-term ambitions in Ireland and the Isles, Magnús was slain in Ulster in 1103. Thereupon Morkinskinna and Fagrskinna reveal that Sigurðr repudiated Bjaðmunjo—their marriage having been unconsummated—and returned to Norway. There Sigurðr proceeded to share the Norwegian kingship with Eysteinn and Óláfr, it was over one hundred and fifty years until another King of Norway ventured into the Isles. Bjaðǫk, a Gaelic wife/mistress/concubine of Haraldr gilli, King of Norway. Haraldr gilli. Media related to Bjaðmunjo Mýrjartaksdóttir at Wikimedia Commons
Isle of Man
The Isle of Man, sometimes referred to as Mann, is a self-governing British Crown dependency in the Irish Sea between Great Britain and Ireland. The head of state is Queen Elizabeth II, who holds the title of Lord of Mann and is represented by a lieutenant governor. Defence is the responsibility of the United Kingdom; the island has been inhabited since before 6500 BC. Gaelic cultural influence began in the 5th century AD, the Manx language, a branch of the Gaelic languages, emerged. In 627, Edwin of Northumbria conquered the Isle of Man along with most of Mercia. In the 9th century, Norsemen established the Kingdom of the Isles. Magnus III, King of Norway, was King of Mann and the Isles between 1099 and 1103. In 1266, the island became part of Scotland after being ruled by Norway. After a period of alternating rule by the kings of Scotland and England, the island came under the feudal lordship of the English Crown in 1399; the lordship revested into the British Crown in 1765, but the island never became part of the 18th-century Kingdom of Great Britain or its successors the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and the present-day United Kingdom.
It retained its internal self-government. In 1881, the Isle of Man parliament, became the first national legislative body in the world to give women the right to vote in a general election, although this excluded married women. In 2016, the Isle of Man was awarded biosphere reserve status by UNESCO. Insurance and online gambling generate 17% of GNP each, followed by information and communications technology and banking with 9% each. Internationally, the Isle of Man is best known for the Isle of Man TT competition; the Manx name of the Isle of Man is Ellan Vannin: ellan is a Manx word meaning "island". The short form used in English, Mann, is derived from the Manx Mannin, though sometimes the name is written as Man; the earliest recorded Manx form of the name is Mana. The Old Irish form of the name is Mano. Old Welsh records named it as Manaw reflected in Manaw Gododdin, the name for an ancient district in north Britain along the lower Firth of Forth; the oldest known reference to the island calls it Mona, in Latin.
Latin references have Mevania or Mænavia, Eubonia or Eumonia by Irish writers. It is found in the Sagas of Icelanders as Mön; the name is cognate with the Welsh name of the island of Anglesey, Ynys Môn derived from a Celtic word for'mountain', from a Proto-Celtic *moniyos. The name was at least secondarily associated with that of Manannán mac Lir in Irish mythology. In the earliest Irish mythological texts, Manannán is a king of the otherworld, but the 9th-century Sanas Cormaic identifies a euhemerised Manannán as "a famous merchant who resided in, gave name to, the Isle of Man". A Manannán is recorded as the first king of Mann in a Manx poem; the island was cut off from the surrounding islands around 8000 BC, but was colonised by sea some time before 6500 BC. The first residents were fishermen. Examples of their tools are kept at the Manx Museum; the Neolithic Period marked the beginning of farming, megalithic monuments began to appear, such as Cashtal yn Ard near Maughold, King Orry's Grave at Laxey, Meayll Circle near Cregneash, Ballaharra Stones at St John's.
There were the local Ronaldsway and Bann cultures. During the Bronze Age, burial mounds became smaller. Bodies were put in stone-lined graves with ornamental containers; the Bronze Age burial mounds created long-lasting markers around the countryside. The ancient Romans knew of the island and called it Insula Manavia although it is uncertain whether they conquered the island. Around the 5th century AD, large-scale migration from Ireland precipitated a process of Gaelicisation evidenced by Ogham inscriptions, giving rise to the Manx language, a Goidelic language related to Irish and Scottish Gaelic. Vikings arrived at the end of the 8th century, they introduced many land divisions that still exist. In 1266 King Magnus VI of Norway ceded the islands to Scotland in the Treaty of Perth. In 1290 King Edward I of England sent Walter de Huntercombe to take possession of Mann, it remained in English hands until 1313, when Robert Bruce took it after besieging Castle Rushen for five weeks. A confused period followed when Mann was sometimes under English rule and sometimes Scottish, until 1346, when the Battle of Neville's Cross decided the long struggle between England and Scotland in England's favour.
English rule was delegated to a series of magnates. The Tynwald passed laws concerning the government of the island in all respects and had control over its finances, but was subject to the approval of the Lord of Mann. In 1866, the Isle of Man obtained limited home rule, with democratic elections to the House of Keys, but an appointed Legislative Council. Since democratic government has been extended; the Isle of Man has designated more than 250 historic sites as registered buildings. The Isle of Man is located in the middle of t