J. R. R. Tolkien's influences
While creative, the fiction of J. R. R. Tolkien was influenced by a number of sources. Tolkien was inspired by his academic fields of philology and early Germanic literature poetry and mythology, as well as a wide range of other beliefs and experiences; the Lord of the Rings is a sequel to The Hobbit and so shares influences with it. At the same time, it is a novel, much greater in scale and scope and so encompasses many other influences as well. Tolkien once described The Lord of the Rings to his friend, the English Jesuit Father Robert Murray, as "a fundamentally religious and Catholic work, unconsciously so at first, but consciously in the revision." Many theological themes underlie the narrative, including the battle of good versus evil, the triumph of humility over pride, the activity of grace, as seen with Frodo's pity toward Gollum. In addition the epic includes the themes of death and immortality and pity, salvation, self-sacrifice, free will, fellowship and healing. Tolkien mentions the Lord's Prayer the line "And lead us not into temptation but deliver us from evil" in connection with Frodo's struggles against the power of the One Ring.
Tolkien has said "Of course God is in The Lord of the Rings. The period was pre-Christian, but it was a monotheistic world" and when questioned, the One God of Middle-earth, Tolkien replied "The one, of course! The book is about the world that God created – the actual world of this planet." Tolkien was influenced by Norse mythology. During his education at King Edward's School in Birmingham, the young Tolkien read and translated from the Old Norse on his own time. One of his first Norse purchases was the Völsunga saga, it is known that while a student, Tolkien read the only available English translation of the Völsunga saga, that by William Morris of the Victorian Arts and Crafts Movement and Icelandic scholar Eiríkur Magnússon. The Old Norse Völsunga saga and the Old High German Nibelungenlied were coeval texts made with the use of the same ancient sources. Both of them provided some of the basis for Richard Wagner's opera series, Der Ring des Nibelungen, featuring in particular a magical golden ring and a broken sword reforged.
In the Völsunga saga, these items are Andvarinaut and Gram, they correspond broadly to the One Ring and the sword Narsil. The Volsunga Saga gives various names found in Tolkien. Tolkien wrote a book entitled The Legend of Sigurd and Gudrún, in which he discusses the saga in relation to the myth of Sigurd and Gudrún; the figure of Gandalf is influenced by the Norse deity Odin in his incarnation as "The Wanderer", an old man with one eye, a long white beard, a wide brimmed hat, a staff. Tolkien, in a 1946 letter, nearly a decade after the character was invented, wrote that he thought of Gandalf as an "Odinic wanderer". Much like Odin, Gandalf promotes justice, knowledge and insight; the Balrog and the collapse of the Bridge of Khazad-dûm in Moria, is a direct parallel of the fire jötunn Surtr and the foretold destruction of Asgard's bridge in Norse myth. Tolkien's Elves and Dwarves are by and large based on the elves and dwarfs of Germanic mythology Two sources that contain accounts of elves and dwarfs that were of interest to Tolkien were the Prose Edda and the Elder or Poetic Edda.
The descriptions of elves and dwarves in these works are ambiguous and contradictory, however. Within the contents of the Völuspá in stanza 9, the creation of Dwarves predates Man, the formula Tolkien uses for Middle-earth; the names of Gandalf and the dwarves in The Hobbit were taken from the "Dvergatal" section of Völuspá in the Poetic Edda and the "Gylfaginning" section of the Prose Edda. Tolkien was a Professor of Old English/Anglo-Saxon and Middle English language and literature, this literature Beowulf, influenced his own writings; as Tolley tells us in his Old English Influences on The Lord of the Rings, the ideas of heroism and masculinity that inform the character of Beowulf, can be seen in Aragorn. Both Aragorn and Beowulf have questionable family lines, both take on kingship only for the good of the people. Other themes, such as the conversation in The Hobbit between Bilbo Baggins and Smaug the dragon, as well as the antagonism created by the mere mention of gold and the concept of riddles, are reflected in Beowulf.
Tolkien based the people of Rohan, the Rohirrim, on the historical Anglo-Saxons, giving them Anglo-Saxon names and poetry. The Anglo-Saxon poem, "The Wanderer," is paraphrased by Aragorn as an example of Rohirric verse. Another major influence on Tolkien is riddle poetry from Anglo-Saxon England; some of the oldest surviving Old English manuscripts contain riddle poems, such as the Leiden Riddle in the Leiden MS. The contest between Bilbo and Gollum is a good example of this. Finnish mythology and more the Finnish national epic Kalevala were acknowledged by Tolkien as an influence on Middle-earth. In a manner similar to The Lord of the Rings, the Kalevala centres around a magical item of great power, the Sampo, which bestows great fortune on its owner, but never makes clear its exact nature. Like the One Ring, the Sampo is fought over by forces of good and evil, is lost to the world as it is destroyed towards the end of the story. In another parallel, the work's wizard character, Väinämöinen, is similar to Gandalf in his immortal origins and wise nature, both works end with the wizard character departing on a ship to lands beyond the mortal world.
Tolkien based elements of his Elvish language Quenya on Finnish. The extent of Celtic influence is debatable. Tolkien wrote that he gave the Elvish langua
Bilbo Baggins is the title character and protagonist of J. R. R. Tolkien's 1937 novel The Hobbit, as well as a supporting character in The Lord of the Rings. In Tolkien's narrative conceit, in which all the writings of Middle-earth are translations from the fictitious volume of The Red Book of Westmarch, Bilbo is the author of The Hobbit and translator of various "works from the elvish". In The Hobbit, Bilbo Baggins, a hobbit in comfortable middle age, was hired as a "burglar" –despite his initial objections– by the wizard Gandalf and 13 Dwarves led by their king, Thorin Oakenshield; the Dwarves were on a quest to reclaim its treasures from the dragon Smaug. The adventure took Bilbo and his companions through the wilderness, to the elf haven of Rivendell, across the Misty Mountains, through the black forest of Mirkwood, to Lake-town in the middle of Long Lake, to the Mountain itself. There, after the Mountain was reclaimed, the Battle of Five Armies took place. In that battle, a host of Elves and Dwarves--with the help of Eagles and Beorn the shapeshifter--defeated a host of Goblins and Warg.
At the end of the story, Bilbo returned to his home in the Shire to find that several of his relatives--believing him to be dead--were trying to claim his home and possessions. During his journey, Bilbo encountered other fantastic creatures, including Trolls, giant spiders, Goblins, Warg, a murderous creature named Gollum. Underground, near Gollum's lair under the Misty Mountains, Bilbo accidentally found a magic ring of invisibility that he used to escape from Gollum. By the end of the journey, Bilbo had become wiser and more confident, having saved the day in many precarious situations. Bilbo's journey has been compared to a pilgrimage of grace; the Hobbit can be characterized as a "Christian bildungsroman which equates progress to wisdom gained in the form of a rite of passage". He rescued the Dwarves from giant spiders with the magic ring and a short Elven-sword that he had acquired, he used the magic ring to sneak around in dangerous places, he used his wits to smuggle the 13 Dwarves out of the Wood-elves' prison.
When tensions arose over ownership of the treasures beneath the Lonely Mountain, Bilbo used the Arkenstone, a stolen heirloom jewel, as leverage in an unsuccessful attempt to negotiate a compromise between the Dwarves, the Wood-elves, the Men of Lake-town. In so doing, Bilbo strained his relationship with Thorin. In addition to becoming wealthy from his share of the Dwarves' treasure, Bilbo found that he had traded respectability for experience and wisdom. At the end of the book, Gandalf proclaimed; the Fellowship of the Ring, the first volume of The Lord of the Rings, begins with Bilbo's "eleventy-first" birthday, 60 years after the beginning of The Hobbit. The main character of the novel is Frodo Baggins, Bilbo's cousin, who celebrates his 33rd birthday and comes of age on the same day. In T. A. 2989, Bilbo, a lifelong bachelor, adopted Frodo, the orphaned son of his first cousin Primula Brandybuck and his second cousin Drogo Baggins, made him his heir. Though Frodo was "his first and second cousin once removed either way", the two regarded each other as uncle and nephew.
All this time Bilbo had kept his magic ring, with no idea of its significance, using it to hide from his obnoxious cousins, the Sackville-Bagginses, when they came to visit. Gandalf's investigations revealed it to be the One Ring forged by the Dark Lord Sauron; the Ring had prolonged Bilbo's life beyond the normal hobbit span, at 111 he still looked 50. While the Ring did not corrupt him as it had its previous owners, it was beginning to affect him. On the night of his and Frodo's birthday, Bilbo invited all of the Shire, he signed his home, Bag End, estate over to Frodo. He gave a farewell address to his neighbours, at the end of which he put on the Ring and vanished from sight; as Bilbo prepared to leave the house, he reacted with panic and suspicion when Gandalf tried to persuade him to leave the Ring with Frodo. Bilbo refused to give up the Ring. Gandalf talked some sense into him. Bilbo admitted he would have liked to be rid of the Ring, he left it behind, becoming the first person to do so voluntarily.
He left the Shire that night, was never seen in Hobbiton again. His earlier adventure, his eccentric habits as a hobbit, his sudden disappearance led to the enduring figure of "Mad Baggins" in hobbit folklore, who disappeared with a flash and a bang and returned with gold and jewels. Freed of the Ring's power over his senses, Bilbo travelled first to Rivendell, on to visit the dwarves of the Lonely Mountain. After he returned to Rivendell he spent much of the next 17 years living a pleasant life of retirement: eating, writing poetry, working on his memoirs and Back Again, known as The Hobbit, he became a scholar of Elven lore, leaving behind the Translations from the Elvish, which forms the basis of what is known to us as The Silmarillion. When Frodo and his friends Samwise Gamgee, Meriadoc Brandybuck and Peregrin Took stopped in Rivendell on their quest to destroy the Ring, Bilbo was still alive but now visibly aged, the years having caught up with him after h
Denethor II, son of Ecthelion II, is a fictional character in J. R. R. Tolkien's The Return of the King, the third and final part of his novel The Lord of the Rings, he is the 26th Ruling Steward of Gondor. Denethor was born in T. A. 2930, the first son and third child of Ecthelion II. Ecthelion became the 25th Ruling Steward of Gondor in T. A. 2953, at the same time Denethor became the heir apparent, inheriting the Horn of Gondor. He succeeded his father as Denethor II in T. A. 2984. As stated in the early chapters and the Appendices of The Return of the King, Denethor was considered a man of great will and strength. However, he failed to reach out to his people, who flocked instead to Thorongil, an outsider who served Denethor's father with great renown. Thorongil vanished from Gondor four years before Denethor would succeed his father as Ruling Steward. Thorongil had advised Ecthelion to put faith in the wizard Gandalf. In T. A. 2976 Denethor had married daughter of Prince Adrahil of Dol Amroth.
She gave birth to two sons and Faramir, before dying when they were ten and five years old, respectively. Denethor never remarried, became more grim and silent than before. In a conversation with Pippin just before the first meeting with Denethor, Gandalf described Denethor as "…proud and subtle, a man of far greater lineage and power, though he is not called a king." Following that meeting, after Pippin has sworn fealty to Denethor, Gandalf further commented: He is not as other men of this time…by some chance the blood of Westernesse runs nearly true in him, as it does in his other son and yet did not in Boromir. He has long sight, he can perceive, if he bends his will thither, much of what is passing in the minds of men of those that dwell far off. It is difficult to deceive him, dangerous to try. Unlike Saruman, Denethor was too strong to be corrupted by Sauron. In the novel, he began secretly using a palantír to probe Sauron's strength, though he incorrectly insisted he was able to control it.
The effort aged him and the knowledge of Sauron's overwhelming force depressed him mostly due to deliberately biased visions from the palantír on the part of Sauron. Boromir's death depressed Denethor further, he became more grim. Nonetheless he continued to fight Sauron with every resource at his disposal until the forces of Mordor arrived at the gates of the White City, at which point he lost all hope. In the published essay on the Palantiri, Tolkien wrote: He must have guessed that the Ithil-stone was in evil hands, risked contact with it, trusting his strength, his trust was not unjustified. Sauron could only influence him by deceits. Saruman fell under the domination of Sauron... Denethor remained steadfast in his rejection of Sauron, but was made to believe that his defeat was inevitable, so fell into despair; the reasons for this difference were no doubt that in the first place Denethor was a man of great strength of will and maintained the integrity of his personality until the final blow of the mortal wound of his only surviving son.
Near the novel's climactic battle, Denethor ordered the warning beacons of Gondor to be lit, forces were called in from all of Gondor's provinces. The civilian population of Minas Tirith was sent away to safety; as invasion seemed imminent, Denethor sent the Red Arrow to the Rohirrim as a call for aid. The Council decided that Gondor could make no stroke of its own, but Denethor ordered Gondor's forces to the city's outer defences at Osgiliath and the great wall of the Rammas Echor, he wanted to make a stand, since the defences had been built at great expense and not yet been overrun, he assumed that no help was forthcoming from Rohan since his messenger had not returned with the Red Arrow. The outer defences were placed under the command of Faramir. Faramir knew his men could not stand against Sauron's army, but he nonetheless obeyed out of respect for his father and late brother. In the ensuing battle Faramir was badly wounded mortally. Denethor's spirit was broken by the apparent loss of his son, he ordered his servants to burn him alive on a pyre prepared for himself and Faramir in Rath Dínen.
He broke it over his knee, casting the pieces into the flames. He so died, clasping the palantír in his hands, he attempted to take Faramir with him, but was thwarted by the timely intervention of Peregrin Took, who saved Faramir from the flames with help from Gandalf and the guard Beregond. They were too late to save Denethor, however; the Stewardship technically passed to Faramir, but he was in no condition to exercise any authority, still being close to death. But contrary to Denethor's forebodings, Faramir recovered, the Stewardship was not emasculated. Indeed, when Aragorn became King, he not only confirmed the Stewardship to Faramir and his successors, but raised their rank to Princes of Ithilien. Denethor's madness and despair has been compared to the madness and despair of Shakespeare's King Lear. Both men are first outraged when their children refuse to aid them, but grieve upon their children's death –, only perceived in case of Faramir. According to Drout
The Children of Húrin
The Children of Húrin is an epic fantasy novel which forms the completion of a tale by J. R. R. Tolkien, he wrote the original version of the story in the late 1910s, revised it several times but did not complete it before his death in 1973. His son, Christopher Tolkien, edited the manuscripts to form a consistent narrative, published it in 2007 as an independent work; the book contains 33 illustrations in colour. The history and descent of the main characters are given as the leading paragraphs of the book, the back story is elaborated upon in The Silmarillion, it begins five hundred years before the action of the book, when Morgoth, a Vala and the prime evil power, escapes from the Blessed Realm of Valinor to the north-west of Middle-earth. From his fortress of Angband he endeavours to gain control of the whole of Middle-earth, unleashing a war with the Elves that dwell in the land of Beleriand to the south. However, the Elves manage to stay his assault, most of their realms remain unconquered.
In addition, after some time the Noldorin Elves forsake Valinor and pursue Morgoth to Middle-earth in order to take vengeance upon him. Together with the Sindar of Beleriand, they proceed to lay siege to Angband, establish new strongholds and realms in Middle-earth, including Hithlum ruled by Fingon, Nargothrond by Finrod Felagund and Gondolin by Turgon. Three centuries pass, during; these are the Edain, descendants of those Men who have rebelled against the rule of Morgoth's servants and journeyed westward. Most of the Elves welcome them, they are given fiefs throughout Beleriand; the House of Bëor rules over the land of Ladros, the Folk of Haleth retreat to the forest of Brethil, the lordship of Dor-lómin is granted to the House of Hador. Other Men enter Beleriand, the Easterlings, many of whom are in secret league with Morgoth. Morgoth manages to break the Siege of Angband in the Battle of Sudden Flame; the House of Bëor is destroyed and the Elves and Edain suffer heavy losses. Túrin, son of Húrin of the race of Men, lived in Dor-lómin with his father, his mother Morwen, his sister Urwen.
Urwen died as a child from a plague. Túrin's father was taken prisoner by Morgoth after the Battle of Unnumbered Tears. During Húrin's imprisonment Túrin was sent by his mother to live in the Elf-realm Doriath for protection. In his absence Morwen gave birth to her third child, a girl. Morgoth had placed a curse upon Húrin and all his family whereby evil would befall them for their whole lives. King Thingol of Doriath takes Túrin as a foster-son. During his time in Doriath Túrin befriends an Elf named Beleg, the two become close companions. Túrin accidentally causes the death of the Elf Saeros, who attempts to jump a ravine while fleeing but falls and is killed. Túrin refuses becoming an outlaw. Thingol tries Túrin in absentia and pardons him, he gives Beleg leave to bring him back to Doriath. Túrin meanwhile joins a band of outlaws in the wild, he renames himself Neithan, "the wronged" and becomes their captain. Beleg locates the band while Túrin is absent, the outlaws leave him tied to a tree until he agrees to give them information.
Túrin returns in time to cut Beleg free and, horrified by the outlaws' actions, resolves to forsake the cruel habits he has fallen into. Beleg delivers the message of the king's pardon but Túrin refuses to return to Doriath. Beleg returns to aid Doriath's defence. Túrin and his men capture a Petty-dwarf, who leads them to the caves at Amon Rûdh. Beleg decides to return to Túrin; the outlaws resent disliking Elves, grows to hate him. Mîm betrays the outlaws to orcs, leading the orcs to the caves where Túrin's company is taken unawares; the entire band is killed, save for Túrin. They take Túrin off towards Angband. Mîm is about to kill Beleg after the orcs depart when one of the outlaws, mortally wounded, rouses himself before dying to drive Mîm away and release Beleg. Beleg follows the orcs. Beleg happens across a mutilated elf, Gwindor of Nargothrond, sleeping in the forest of Taur-nu-Fuin, they enter the orc camp at night and carry Túrin, from the camp. Beleg begins to cut Túrin's bonds with his sword Anglachel, but the sword slips in his hand and cuts Túrin.
Túrin, mistaking Beleg for an orc, kills Beleg with his own sword. When a flash of lightning reveals Beleg's face, Túrin falls into a frenzy, he refuses to leave Beleg's body until morning. Túrin remains witless with grief. Túrin and Gwindor proceed to Nargothrond. There Túrin gains the favour of King Orodreth, after leading the Elves to considerable victories, he becomes Orodreth's chief counsellor and commander of his forces. Against all counsel Túrin refuses to hide Nargothrond from Morgoth or to retract his plans for full-scale battle. Morgoth sends an orc-army under the command of the dragon and Nargothrond is defeated; the orcs, crossing over the bridge that Túrin had built, sack Nargothrond and capture its citizens. Túrin returns as the prisoners are to be led away by the orcs, encounters Glaurung; the dragon enchants and tricks him into returning to Dor-lómin to seek out Morwen and Niënor instead of rescuing the prisoners—among whom is Finduilas, Orodreth’s daughter, who loved him. In Dor-lómin Túrin learns that Morwen and Niënor
The ZX Spectrum is an 8-bit personal home computer released in the United Kingdom in 1982 by Sinclair Research. Referred to during development as the ZX81 Colour and ZX82, it was launched as the ZX Spectrum by Sinclair to highlight the machine's colour display, compared with the black and white of its predecessor, the ZX81; the Spectrum was released as eight different models, ranging from the entry level with 16 KB RAM released in 1982 to the ZX Spectrum +3 with 128 KB RAM and built in floppy disk drive in 1987. The Spectrum was among the first mainstream-audience home computers in the UK, similar in significance to the Commodore 64 in the US; the introduction of the ZX Spectrum led to a boom in companies producing software and hardware for the machine, the effects of which are still seen. Some credit it as the machine. Licensing deals and clones followed, earned Clive Sinclair a knighthood for "services to British industry"; the Commodore 64, Dragon 32, Oric-1, Oric Atmos, BBC Micro and the Amstrad CPC range were rivals to the Spectrum in the UK market during the early 1980s.
While the machine was discontinued in 1992, new software titles continue to be released – over 40 so far in 2018. The Spectrum is based on a Zilog Z80 A CPU running at 3.5 MHz. The original model has 16 KB of ROM and either 16 KB or 48 KB of RAM. Hardware design was by Richard Altwasser of Sinclair Research, the outward appearance was designed by Sinclair's industrial designer Rick Dickinson. Video output is through an RF modulator and was designed for use with contemporary television sets, for a simple colour graphic display. Text can be displayed using 32 columns × 24 rows of characters from the ZX Spectrum character set or from a set provided within an application, from a palette of 15 shades: seven colours at two levels of brightness each, plus black; the image resolution is 256×192 with the same colour limitations. To conserve memory, colour is stored separate from the pixel bitmap in a low resolution, 32×24 grid overlay, corresponding to the character cells. In practice, this means that all pixels of an 8x8 character block share one foreground colour and one background colour.
Altwasser received a patent for this design. An "attribute" consists of a foreground and a background colour, a brightness level and a flashing "flag" which, when set, causes the two colours to swap at regular intervals; this scheme leads to what was dubbed colour clash or attribute clash, where a desired colour of a specific pixel could not be selected. This became a distinctive feature of the Spectrum, meaning programs games, had to be designed around this limitation. Other machines available around the same time, for example the Amstrad CPC or the Commodore 64, did not suffer from this limitation; the Commodore 64 used colour attributes in a similar way, but a special multicolour mode, hardware sprites and hardware scrolling were used to avoid attribute clash. Sound output is through a beeper on the machine itself, capable of producing one channel with 10 octaves. Software was available that could play two channel sound; the machine includes an expansion bus edge connector and 3.5 mm audio in/out ports for the connection of a cassette recorder for loading and saving programs and data.
The "ear" port has a higher output than the "mic" and is recommended for headphones, with "mic" for attaching to other audio devices as line in. It was manufactured in Scotland, in the now closed Timex factory; the machine's Sinclair BASIC interpreter is stored in ROM and was written by Steve Vickers on contract from Nine Tiles Ltd. The Spectrum's chiclet keyboard is marked with BASIC keywords. For example, pressing "G" when in programming mode would insert the BASIC command GO TO; the BASIC interpreter was developed from that used on the ZX81 and a ZX81 BASIC program can be typed into a Spectrum unmodified, but Spectrum BASIC included many extra features making it easier to use. The ZX Spectrum character set was expanded from that of the ZX81, which did not feature lower-case letters. Spectrum BASIC included extra keywords for the more advanced display and sound, supported multi-statement lines; the cassette interface was much more advanced and loading around five times faster than the ZX81, unlike the ZX81, the Spectrum could maintain the TV display during tape storage and retrieval operations.
As well as being able to save programs, the Spectrum could save the contents of arrays, the contents of the screen memory, the contents of any defined range of memory addresses. Rick Dickinson came up with a number of designs for the "ZX82" project before the final ZX Spectrum design. A number of the keyboard legends changed during the design phase including ARC becoming CIRCLE, FORE becoming INK and BACK becoming PAPER; the Spectrum reused a number of design elements of the ZX81: The ROM code for things such as floating point calculations and expression parsing were similar. The simple keyboard decoding and cassette interfaces were nearly identical; the central ULA integrated circuit was somewhat similar although it implemented the major enhancement over the ZX81: A hardware based television raster generator that indirectly gave the new machine four times as much processing power as the ZX81 due to the Z80 now being released from this video generation task. A bug in the ULA as designed
The Adventures of Tom Bombadil
The Adventures of Tom Bombadil is a collection of poetry written by J. R. R. Tolkien and published in 1962; the book contains 16 poems, two of which feature Tom Bombadil, a character encountered by Frodo Baggins in The Fellowship of the Ring. The rest of the poems are an assortment of bestiary fairy tale rhyme. Three of the poems appear in The Lord of the Rings as well; the book is part of Tolkien's Middle-earth legendarium. The volume includes The Sea-Bell, subtitled Frodos Dreme, which W. H. Auden considered Tolkien's best poem, it is a piece of metrical and rhythmical complexity that recounts a journey to a strange land beyond the sea. Drawing on medieval'dream vision' poetry and Irish'immram' poems the piece is markedly melancholic and the final note is one of alienation and disillusion; the book was illustrated by Pauline Baynes and by Roger Garland. The book, like the first edition of The Fellowship of the Ring, is presented as if it is an actual translation from the Red Book of Westmarch, contains some background information on the world of Middle-earth, not found elsewhere: e.g. the name of the tower at Dol Amroth and the names of the Seven Rivers of Gondor.
There is some fictional background information of those poems, linking them to Hobbit folklore and literature and to their actual writers. The book uses the letter "K" instead of "C" for the /k/ sound in Sindarin, a spelling variant Tolkien used many times in his writings; the Adventures of Tom Bombadil Bombadil Goes Boating Errantry Princess Mee The Man in the Moon Stayed Up Too Late* The Man in the Moon Came Down Too Soon The Stone Troll* Perry-the-Winkle The Mewlips Oliphaunt* Fastitocalon Cat Shadow-bride The Hoard The Sea-Bell The Last Ship*Poems featured in The Lord of the Rings The Adventures of Tom Bombadil was first published as a stand-alone book in 1962. Some editions, such as the Unwin Paperbacks edition and Poems and Stories, erroneously state that it was first published in'1961'. Tolkien's letters confirm. Beginning with The Tolkien Reader in 1966, it was included in a number of anthologies of Tolkien's shorter works; this trend continued after his death with Tales from the Perilous Realm.
In 2014 Christina Scull and Wayne G. Hammond edited a new stand-alone edition, which includes for each poem detailed commentary, original versions and their sources. Barrow-wight Farmer Maggot Goldberry Old Forest Old Man Willow The Adventures of Tom Bombadil
1985 in video gaming
1985 saw many sequels and prequels in video games and several new titles such as Gradius, Super Mario Bros. and Duck Hunt. For the third Golden Joystick Awards, The Way of the Exploding Fist takes Game of the Year for 1985; the sixth Arcade Awards are held, for games released during 1983-1984, with Star Wars winning best arcade game, Space Shuttle best console game, Ultima III: Exodus best computer game, Zaxxon best standalone game. August, the final issue of Electronic Games magazine is published. New companies: Bethesda, Cinemaware. Codemasters, Square Co. Titus, Westwood Studios Defunct: Adventure International, Bug-Byte, Edu-Ware, RDI Video Systems David Mullich and several other laid-off employees from Edu-Ware form Electric Transit, the first company to join Electronic Arts' new affiliated publisher program. ArcadeJanuary, Konami releases Yie Ar Kung-Fu. March, Tehkan releases Gridiron Fight, an American football sports game featuring the use of dual trackball controls. April, Atari Games releases Paperboy with a controller modeled after bicycle handlebars, Namco releases Metro-Cross.
May, Konami releases Gradius. May, Capcom releases Commando, a vertically-scrolling on-foot shooter which inspires many games with similar themes and gameplay. July, Namco releases Baraduke. July: Sega releases Hang-On by Yu Suzuki and AM2, it is the first of Sega's Super Scaler games. Its motorbike cabinet is controlled using the body, starting a "Taikan" trend of motion controlled hydraulic cabinets in arcades some two decades before motion controls become popular on video game consoles. September 19, Capcom releases Ghosts'n Goblins titled Makaimura in Japan, it was one of the most popular arcade games of the year, went on to spawn a series of games. September 20, Namco releases Motos. October: Sega releases Space Harrier by Yu Suzuki and AM2, it further develops the pseudo-3D "Super Scaler" sprite-scaling graphics of Hang-On, features an analog flight stick for movement, with the ability to register movement in any direction as well as measure the degree of push, which could move the player character at different speeds depending on how far the stick is pushed in a certain direction.
October, Atari Games releases Gauntlet. Based on the lesser known Atari 8-bit game Dandy, Gauntlet is profitable, letting players insert additional quarters for more health. December, Namco releases Sky Kid, a side-scrolling shooter allowing two players to play simultaneously. Tehkan releases Tehkan World Cup, which lays the foundations for association football/soccer games with an above view of the field. ConsoleSeptember 9, Namco releases Battle City for the Famicom. September 13, Nintendo releases Super Mario Bros. which sells 40 million copies, making it the best-selling video game of all time until 2008. It introduces Princess Peach and Bowser to the Mario series, as well as common enemies and powerups including Goombas, Super Mushrooms, Fire Flowers and Starmen, it popularizes the side-scrolling platformer format. October 18, Nintendo releases Duck Hunt for the Famicom. ComputerApril, Game Arts releases Thexder. September 16, Origin Systems releases Ultima IV: Quest of the Avatar, which popularizes the use of dynamic morality systems in computer role-playing games.
October 27, Nihon Falcom releases Dragon Slayer II: Xanadu, a foundation for the action role-playing game genre, combining real-time action combat with character statistics, gameplay elements such as a Karma morality meter, proto-Metroidvania style exploration. T&E Soft releases Hydlide II: Shine of Darkness, an early action role-playing game that features an alignment morality meter. Brøderbund releases Where in the World is Carmen Sandiego?, the first game in the Carmen Sandiego series. Electronic Arts releases Racing Destruction Set. Elite Systems UK releases a platformer, it was the first video game to simulate fairground rides. Bubble Bus Software releases the arcade adventure game Starquake for several 8-bit computers. Tau Ceti is published in the UK; the Learning Company releases The Oregon Trail on the Apple II. Novagen releases 3D wireframe game Mercenary for the Atari 8-bit family. ArcadeJuly, Sega releases the Sega Space Harrier arcade hardware, the first of Sega's "Super Scaler" arcade system boards that allow pseudo-3D sprite-scaling at high frame rates.
It displays 6144 colors on screen, out of a 32,768 color palette. Namco begins development on the Namco System 21 around this time, as the first arcade board dedicated to 3D polygon graphics. ComputerJanuary, Commodore releases their final 8-bit computer, the Commodore 128. June, Atari releases the 520ST, the first personal computer with a bit-mapped, color GUI. July 23, Commodore releases the Amiga personal computer. Atari replaces previous models in the Atari 8-bit family with the 65XE and 130XE, the latter of which has 128K bank-switched RAM. Discontinued: Coleco Adam, Commodore VIC-20ConsoleJuly 26, Nintendo releases the Family Computer Robot, a peripheral for their Family Computer home video game console, in Japan. October 18, the Nintendo Entertainment System home video game console, the export version of the Famicom, is launched for a limited test market in the United States, along with the R. O. B. Peripheral. October 20, the Sega Mark III home video game console is launched in Japan. ColecoVision is discontinued.
INTV Corporation releases the INTV III console. Telegames releases the Dina, a ColecoVision clone