Journalism refers to the production and distribution of reports on recent events. The word journalism applies to the occupation, as well as citizen journalists using methods of gathering information and using literary techniques. Journalistic media include print, radio, and, in the past, newsreels. Concepts of the appropriate role for journalism vary between countries. In some nations, the news media are controlled by government intervention and are not independent. In others, the news media are independent of the government but instead operate as private industry motivated by profit. In addition to the varying nature of how media organizations are run and funded, countries may have differing implementations of laws handling the freedom of speech and libel cases; the advent of the Internet and smartphones has brought significant changes to the media landscape in recent years. This has created a shift in the consumption of print media channels, as people consume news through e-readers and other personal electronic devices, as opposed to the more traditional formats of newspapers, magazines, or television news channels.
News organizations are challenged to monetize their digital wing, as well as improvise on the context in which they publish in print. Newspapers have seen print revenues sink at a faster pace than the rate of growth for digital revenues. Journalistic conventions vary by country. In the United States, journalism is produced by individuals. Bloggers are but not always, journalists; the Federal Trade Commission requires that bloggers who write about products received as promotional gifts to disclose that they received the products for free. This is intended to protect consumers. In the US, many credible news organizations are incorporated entities. Many credible news organizations, or their employees belong to and abide by the ethics of professional organizations such as the American Society of News Editors, the Society of Professional Journalists, Investigative Reporters & Editors, Inc. or the Online News Association. Many news organizations have their own codes of ethics that guide journalists' professional publications.
For instance, The New York Times code of standards and ethics is considered rigorous. When crafting news stories, regardless of the medium and bias are issues of concern to journalists; some stories are intended to represent the author's own opinion. In a print newspaper, information is organized into sections and the distinction between opinionated and neutral stories is clear. Online, many of these distinctions break down. Readers should pay careful attention to headings and other design elements to ensure that they understand the journalist's intent. Opinion pieces are written by regular columnists or appear in a section titled "Op-ed", while feature stories, breaking news, hard news stories make efforts to remove opinion from the copy. According to Robert McChesney, healthy journalism in a democratic country must provide an opinion of people in power and who wish to be in power, must include a range of opinions and must regard the informational needs of all people. Many debates center on whether journalists are "supposed" to be "objective" and "neutral".
Additionally, the ability to render a subject's complex and fluid narrative with sufficient accuracy is sometimes challenged by the time available to spend with subjects, the affordances or constraints of the medium used to tell the story, the evolving nature of people's identities. There are several forms of journalism with diverse audiences. Thus, journalism is said to serve the role of a "fourth estate", acting as a watchdog on the workings of the government. A single publication contains many forms of journalism, each of which may be presented in different formats; each section of a newspaper, magazine, or website may cater to a different audience. Some forms include: Access journalism – journalists who self-censor and voluntarily cease speaking about issues that might embarrass their hosts, guests, or powerful politicians or businesspersons. Advocacy journalism – writing to advocate particular viewpoints or influence the opinions of the audience. Broadcast journalism – written or spoken journalism for radio or television.
Citizen journalism – participatory journalism. Data journalism – the practice of finding stories in numbers, using numbers to tell stories. Data journalists may use data to support their reporting, they may report about uses and misuses of data. The US news organization ProPublica is known as a pioneer of data journalism. Drone journalism – use of drones to capture journalistic footage. Gonzo journalism – first championed by Hunter S. Thompson, gonzo journalism is a "highly personal style of reporting". Interactive journalism – a type of online journalism, presented on the web Investigative journalism – in-depth reporting that uncovers social problems. Leads to major social problems being resolved. Photojournalism – the practice of telling true stories through images Sensor journalism – the use of sensors to support journalistic inquiry. Tabloid journalism – writing, light-hearted and entertaining. Considered less legitimate than mainstream journalism. Yellow journalism – writing which emphasizes exaggerated claims or rumors.
The rise of social media ha
Federal Housing Administration
The Federal Housing Administration is a United States government agency created in part by the National Housing Act of 1934. The FHA sets standards for construction and underwriting and insures loans made by banks and other private lenders for home building; the goals of this organization are to improve housing standards and conditions, provide an adequate home financing system through insurance of mortgage loans, to stabilize the mortgage market. The Commissioner of the FHA is Brian Montgomery, it is different from the Federal Housing Finance Agency, which supervises government-sponsored enterprises. During the Great Depression many banks failed, causing a drastic decrease in home loans and ownership. At that time, most home mortgages were short-term, with no amortization, balloon instruments at loan-to-value ratios below sixty percent; the banking crisis of the 1930s forced all lenders to retrieve due mortgages. Many homes were foreclosed, causing the housing market to plummet. Banks collected the loan collateral but the low property values resulted in a relative lack of assets.
In 1934 the federal banking system was restructured. The National Housing Act of 1934 created the Federal Housing Administration, its intention was to regulate the terms of mortgages that it insured. These new lending practices increased the number of people who could afford a down payment on a house and monthly debt service payments on a mortgage, thereby increasing the size of the market for single-family homes; the FHA calculated appraisal value based on eight criteria and directed its agents to lend more for higher appraised projects, up to a maximum cap. The two most important were "Relative Economic Stability", which constituted 40% of appraisal value, "protection from adverse influences", which made up another 20%. In 1935, Colonial Village in Arlington, was the first large-scale, rental housing project erected in the United States, Federal Housing Administration-insured. During World War II, the FHA financed a number of worker's housing projects including the Kensington Gardens Apartment Complex in Buffalo, New York.
In 1965 the Federal Housing Administration became part of the Department of Housing and Urban Development. Following the subprime mortgage crisis, FHA, along with Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac, became a large source of mortgage financing in the United States; the share of home purchases financed with FHA mortgages went from 2 percent to over one-third of mortgages in the United States, as conventional mortgage lending dried up in the credit crunch. Without the subprime market, many of the riskiest borrowers ended up borrowing from the Federal Housing Administration, the FHA could suffer substantial losses. Joshua Zumbrun and Maurna Desmond of Forbes have written that eventual government losses from the FHA could reach $100 billion; the troubled loans are now weighing on the agency's capital reserve fund, which by early 2012 had fallen below its congressionally mandated minimum of 2%, in contrast to more than 6% two years earlier. By November 2012, the FHA was bankrupt. Since 1934, the FHA and HUD have insured over 34 million home mortgages and 47,205 multifamily project mortgages.
The FHA has 4.8 million insured single family mortgages and 13,000 insured multifamily projects in its portfolio. Mortgage insurance protects lenders from mortgage defaulting. If a property purchaser borrows more than 80% of the property's value, the lender will require that the borrower purchase private mortgage insurance to cover the lender's risk. If the lender is FHA approved and the mortgage is within FHA limits, the FHA provides mortgage insurance that may be more affordable for higher-risk borrowers Lenders can obtain FHA mortgage insurance for 96.5% of the appraised value of the home or building. FHA loans are insured through a combination of an upfront mortgage insurance premium and annual mutual mortgage insurance premiums; the UFMIP is a lump sum ranging from 1 – 2.25% of loan value, paid by the borrower either in cash at closing or financed via the loan. MMI, although annual, is included in monthly mortgage payments and ranges from 0 – 1.35% of loan value. If a borrower has poor to moderate credit history, MMI is much less expensive with an FHA insured loan than with a conventional loan regardless of LTV – sometimes as little as one-ninth as much depending on the borrower's credit score, LTV, loan size, approval status.
Conventional mortgage insurance rates increase as credit scores decrease, whereas FHA mortgage insurance rates do not vary with credit score. Conventional mortgage premiums spike if the borrower's credit score is lower than 620. Due to a increased risk, most mortgage insurers will not write policies if the borrower's credit score is less than 575; when insurers do write policies for borrowers with lower credit scores, annual premiums may be as high as 5% of the loan amount. A borrower's down payment may come from a number of sources; the 3.5% requirement can be satisfied with the borrower using their own cash or receiving a gift from a family member, their employer, labor union, or government entity. Since 1998, non-profit organizations have been providing down payment gifts to borrowers who purchase homes where the seller has agreed to reimburse the non-profit organization and pay an additional processing fee. In May 2006, the IRS determined that this is not "charitable activity" and has moved to revoke the non-profit status of organizations providing down payment assistance in
World War II
World War II known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China, it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, the fall of France in mid 1940, the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht, into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U. S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers declared war on the U.
S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942. Key setbacks in 1943, which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945.
Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in 1941; this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935; the British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the fo
Howard University is a private, federally chartered black university in Washington, D. C, it is categorized by the Carnegie Foundation as a research university with higher research activity and is accredited by the Middle States Commission on Higher Education. From its outset Howard has been open to people of all sexes and races. Howard offers more than 120 areas leading to undergraduate and professional degrees. Howard is classified as a Tier 1 national university and ranks second among HBCUs by U. S. News & World Report. Howard is the only HBCU ranked in the top 40 on the Bloomberg Businessweek college rankings; the Princeton Review ranked the school of business first in opportunities for minority students and in the top five for most competitive students. The National Law Journal ranked the law school among the top 25 in the nation for placing graduates at the most successful law firms. Howard has produced four Rhodes Scholars between 1986 and 2017. Between 1998 and 2018, Howard University produced two Marshall Scholars, eleven Truman Scholars, seventy Fulbright Scholars, a Schwarzman Scholar and twenty-two Pickering Fellows.
Howard produces the most black doctorate recipients of any university. Shortly after the end of the American Civil War, members of The First Congregational Society of Washington considered establishing a theological seminary for the education of African-American clergymen. Within a few weeks, the project expanded to include a provision for establishing a university. Within two years, the University consisted of the Colleges of Liberal Medicine; the new institution was named for General Oliver Otis Howard, a Civil War hero, both the founder of the University and, at the time, Commissioner of the Freedmen's Bureau. Howard served as President of the University from 1869–74. U. S. Congress chartered Howard on March 2, 1867, much of its early funding came from endowment, private benefaction, tuition. (In the 20th and 21st centuries an annual congressional appropriation, administered by the U. S. Department of Education, funds Howard University and Howard University Hospital After five years of being an institution, Howard University became the place of education for over 150,000 freed slaves.
Many improvements were made on campus. Howard Hall was made a dormitory for women. From 1926-1960, Howard University's first African-American presideant, Dr. Mordecai Wyatt Johnson, Sr. reigned. The Great Depression years of the 1930s brought hardship to campus. Despite appeals from Eleanor Roosevelt, Howard saw its budget cut below Hoover administration levels during the Presidency of Franklin D. Roosevelt. Howard University has played an important role in American history and the Civil Rights Movement on a number of occasions. Alain Locke, Chair of the Department of Philosophy and first African American Rhodes Scholar, authored The New Negro, which helped to usher in the Harlem Renaissance. Ralph Bunche, the first Nobel Peace Prize winner of African descent, served as chair of the Department of Political Science. Beginning in 1942, Howard University students pioneered the "stool-sitting" technique of occupying stools at a local cafeteria which denied service to African Americans blocking other customers waiting for service.
This tactic was to play a prominent role in the Civil Rights Movement. By January 1943, students had begun to organize regular sit-ins and pickets at cigar stores and cafeterias around Washington, D. C. which refused to serve them because of their race. These protests continued until the fall of 1944. Stokely Carmichael known as Kwame Toure, a student in the Department of Philosophy and the Howard University School of Divinity, coined the term "Black Power" and worked in Lowndes County, Alabama as a voting rights activist. Historian Rayford Logan served as chair of the Department of History. E. Franklin Frazier served as chair of the Department of Sociology. Sterling Allen Brown served as chair of the Department of English; the first sitting president to speak at Howard was Calvin Coolidge in 1924. His graduation speech was entitled, "The Progress of a People," and highlighted the accomplishments to date of the blacks in America since the Civil War, his concluding thought was, "We can not go out from this place and occasion without refreshment of faith and renewal of confidence that in every exigency our Negro fellow citizens will render the best and fullest measure of service whereof they are capable."
In 1965, President Lyndon B. Johnson delivered a speech to the graduating class at Howard, where he outlined his plans for civil rights legislation and endorsed aggressive affirmative action to combat the effects of years of segregation of blacks from the nation's economic opportunities. At the time, the Voting Rights bill was still pending in the House of Representatives. In 1975 the historic Freedman's Hospital closed after 112 years of use as Howard University College of Medicine's primary teaching hospital. Howard University Hospital opened that same year and continues to be used as Howard University College of Medicine's primary teaching hospital with service to the surrounding community. In 1989, Howard gained national attention when students rose up in protest against the appointment of then-Republican National Committee Chairman Lee Atwater as a new member of the university's board of trustees. Student activists disrupted Howard's 122nd anniversary celebrations, occupied the university's Administration building.
Within days, both Atwater and Howard's President, James E. Cheek, resigned. In April 2007, the head of the faculty senate called for the ouster of Howard University President H. Patrick Swygert, saying the school was in a state of crisis and it was time to end "an intolerable condition of incompetence
The Crisis is the official magazine of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People. It was founded in 1910 by W. E. B. Du Bois, Oswald Garrison Villard, J. Max Barber, Charles Edward Russell, Kelly Miller, W. S. Braithwaite, Mary Dunlop Maclean; the Crisis has been in continuous print since 1910, it is the oldest black oriented magazine in the world. Today, The Crisis is "a quarterly journal of civil rights, history and culture and seeks to educate and challenge its readers about issues that continue to plague African Americans and other communities of color." The original title of the magazine was The CRISIS: A Record of The Darker Races. The magazine's name was inspired by The Present Crisis; the suggestion to name the magazine after the poem came from one of the NAACP co-founders and noted white abolitionist Mary White Ovington. The first issue was arranged by NAACP secretary Richetta Randolph Wallace; as the founding editor of The Crisis, Du Bois proclaimed his intentions in his first editorial: The object of this publication is to set forth those facts and arguments which show the danger of race prejudice as manifested today toward colored people.
It takes its name from the fact that the editors believe that this is a critical time in the history of the advancement of men. …Finally, its editorial page will stand for the rights of men, irrespective of color or race, for the highest ideals of American democracy, for reasonable but earnest and persistent attempts to gain these rights and realize these ideals." Although The Crisis was an organ of the NAACP, Du Bois had a large degree of control over the periodical's expressed opinion. Du Bois wrote in Dusk of Dawn that he intended for The Crisis to represent his personal opinions: I determine to make the opinion of the Crisis a personal opinion; the NAACP was founded in response to the Springfield Race Riots of Illinois in 1908, calling attention to the injustices that the black community was subjected to. After this riot, William Walling composed an article in the newspaper, prompting his audience to fight racism in a united fashion. Oswald Villard responded to Walling's article in an article of his own titled The Call, an article welcoming individuals to attend a national meeting dedicated to intersectional justice for all citizens despite race.
There were 60 individuals that attended the call, 7 of them were persons of color, including Mary Church Terrell, Ida B. Wells, W. E. B. Du Bois; this meeting and signing of the call led to the formation of the NAACP in 1909. The NAACP was recognized as a grassroots foundation, as it relied on the surrounding to community to sell subscriptions to the magazine, The Crisis. In its first year, the journal had a monthly circulation of 1,000. Ten years by 1918, it had more than 100,000 readers, it grew in size, beginning at 20 pages and rising to as many as 68 pages. The Crisis would go on to become influential during the 1910s and 1920s and would take a large role in the Harlem Renaissance literature movement. While the magazine was intended to be much more of a political and news publication than a literary publication, it had undeniable impact on the Harlem Renaissance literary and arts movement during the 1920s from 1918 to 1926 when Jessie Redmon Fauset served as Literary Editor, it was during Jessie Fauset's tenure that literature abounded.
Though not nearly as well-known today as Du Bois, Fauset's literary contributions were equal in importance. The poet Langston Hughes described Fauset as one of the "midwives of the Harlem Renaissance. Hughes wrote in his autobiography The Big Sea that the parties at Fauset's Harlem home were rather exclusive "literary soirees with much poetry but little to drink"; some of the best-known writers of the Harlem Renaissance were first published or became well known by being published in The Crisis during Fauset's tenure, including Hughes, Countee Cullen, Arthur Huff Fauset, Jean Toomer, James Weldon Johnson, Claude McKay, Effie Lee Newsome, Zora Neale Hurston, Gwendolyn Bennett, Arna Bontemps, Charles Chesnutt, Marita Bonner, Walter White. Despite Fauset's personal tastes and interests in her own writing, she featured poetry, short stories and plays in The Crisis. Fauset was the primary force that kept the New York office going logistically between 1919 and 1926. After her departure from The Crisis, the quality and quantity of the literature section of The Crisis declined.
In her biography of Fauset, Jessie Redmon Fauset, Black American Writer, Carolyn Wedin Sylvander writes that after Fauset's departure, several poets criticized Du Bois for neglecting literature, printing pieces the poets had requested not be published, or printing old pieces. In addition to literature, art played an important role in The Crisis's overall message and function. In his famous October 1926 essay, "Criteria of Negro Art", delivered as an address at the Chicago conference of the NAACP in 1926, Du Bois stated one of his opinions on art: Thus all art is propaganda and must be, despite the wailing of the purists. I stand in utter shamelessness and say that whatever art I have for writing has been used always for propaganda for gaining the right of black folk to love and enjoy. I do not care a damn for any art, not used for propaganda. But
South Los Angeles
South Los Angeles is a region in southern Los Angeles County and lies within the city limits of Los Angeles, just south of downtown. According to the Los Angeles Times, South Los Angeles ”is defined on Los Angeles city maps as a 16-square-mile rectangle with two prongs at the south end.” In 2003, the Los Angeles City Council renamed this area "South Los Angeles". The name South Los Angeles can refer to a larger 51-square mile area that includes areas within the city limits of Los Angeles as well as five unicorporated neighborhoods in the southern portion of the County of Los Angeles; the City of Los Angeles delineates South Los Angeles as an area of 15.5 square miles. Adjacent neighborhoods include West Adams, Baldwin Hills, Leimert Park to the west and the Southeast Los Angeles region of the city on the east. According to the Los Angeles Times Mapping Project, South Los Angeles comprises 51 square miles, consisting of 25 neighborhoods within the City of Los Angeles as well as three unincorporated neighborhoods in the County of Los Angeles.
Google Maps delineates a similar area to the Los Angeles Times Mapping Project with notable differences on the western border. On the northwest, it omits a section of Los Angeles west of La Brea Avenue. On the southwest, it includes a section of the City of Inglewood north of Century Boulevard. According to the Mapping L. A. survey of the Los Angeles Times, the South Los Angeles region consists of the following neighborhoods: In 1880, the University of Southern California, in 1920, the Doheny Campus of Mount St. Mary's College, were founded in South Los Angeles; the 1932 and 1984 Olympic Games took place near the USC campus at neighboring Exposition Park, where the Los Angeles Coliseum is located. Until the 1920s, the South Los Angeles neighborhood of West Adams was one of the most desirable areas of the City; as the wealthy were building stately mansions in West Adams and Jefferson Park, the white working class was establishing itself in Crenshaw and Hyde Park. Affluent blacks moved into West Adams and Jefferson Park.
As construction along the Wilshire Boulevard corridor increased in the 1920s, the development of the city was drawn west of downtown and away from South Los Angeles. At the same time, the area of modest bungalows and low-rise commercial buildings along Central Avenue emerged as the heart of the black community in southern California, it had one of the first jazz scenes in the western U. S. with trombonist Kid Ory a prominent resident. Under racially restrictive covenants, blacks were allowed to own property only within the Main-Slauson-Alameda-Washington box and in Watts, as well as in small enclaves elsewhere in the city; the working- and middle-class blacks who poured into Los Angeles during the Great Depression and in search of jobs during World War II found themselves penned into what was becoming a overcrowded neighborhood. During the war, blacks faced such dire housing shortages that the Housing Authority of the City of Los Angeles built the all-black and Latino Pueblo Del Rio project, designed by Richard Neutra.
When the Supreme Court banned the legal enforcement of race-oriented restrictive covenants in 1948's Shelley v. Kraemer, blacks began to move into areas outside the overcrowded Slauson-Alameda-Washington-Main settlement area. For a time in the early 1950s, southern Los Angeles became the site of significant racial violence, with whites bombing, firing into, burning crosses on the lawns of homes purchased by black families south of Slauson. In an escalation of behavior that began in the 1920s, white gangs in nearby cities such as South Gate and Huntington Park accosted blacks who traveled through white areas; the black mutual protection clubs that formed in response to these assaults became the basis of the region's fearsome street gangs. As in most urban areas, 1950s freeway construction radically altered the geography of southern Los Angeles. Freeway routes tended to reinforce traditional segregation lines. Beginning in the 1970s, the rapid decline of the area's manufacturing base resulted in a loss of the jobs that had allowed skilled union workers to have a middle class life.
Downtown Los Angeles' service sector, which had long been dominated by unionized African Americans earning high wages, replaced most black workers with newly arrived Mexican and Central American immigrants. Widespread unemployment and street crime contributed to the rise of street gangs in South Central, such as the Crips and Bloods, they became more powerful with money from drugs the crack cocaine trade, dominated by gangs in the 1980s. By the early 2000s, the crime rate of South Los Angeles had declined significantly. Redevelopment, improved police patrol, community-based peace programs, gang intervention work, youth development organizations lowered the murder and crime rates to levels that had not been seen since the 1940s and'50s. South Los Angeles was still known for its gangs at the time. In mid 2003, the City of Los Angeles changed the region's name from South Central to South Los Angeles, a move supporters said would "help erase a stigma that has dogged the southern part of the city."On August 11, 2014, just two days after the shooting of Michael Brown in Ferguson, Missouri, a resident of South L.
A. Ezell Ford, described as "a mentally ill 25-year-old man," was fatally shot by two Los Angeles police officers. Since a number of protests focused on events in Ferguson have taken place in South Los Angeles. After the 2008 economic recession, housing prices in South Los Angeles recovered and by 2018, many had come to see South Los Angeles as a
Los Angeles Times
The Los Angeles Times is a daily newspaper, published in Los Angeles, since 1881. It has the fourth-largest circulation among United States newspapers, is the largest U. S. newspaper not headquartered on the East Coast. The paper is known for its coverage of issues salient to the U. S. West Coast, such as immigration trends and natural disasters, it has won more than 40 Pulitzer Prizes for its coverage of other issues. As of June 18, 2018, ownership of the paper is controlled by Patrick Soon-Shiong, the executive editor is Norman Pearlstine. In the nineteenth century, the paper was known for its civic boosterism and opposition to unions, the latter of which led to the bombing of its headquarters in 1910; the paper's profile grew in the 1960s under publisher Otis Chandler, who adopted a more national focus. In recent decades, the paper's readership has declined and it has been beset by a series of ownership changes, staff reductions, other controversies. In January 2018, the paper's staff voted to unionize, in July 2018 the paper moved out of its historic downtown headquarters to a facility near Los Angeles International Airport.
The Times was first published on December 4, 1881, as the Los Angeles Daily Times under the direction of Nathan Cole Jr. and Thomas Gardiner. It was first printed at the Mirror printing plant, owned by Jesse Yarnell and T. J. Caystile. Unable to pay the printing bill and Gardiner turned the paper over to the Mirror Company. In the meantime, S. J. Mathes had joined the firm, it was at his insistence that the Times continued publication. In July 1882, Harrison Gray Otis moved from Santa Barbara to become the paper's editor. Otis made the Times a financial success. Historian Kevin Starr wrote that Otis was a businessman "capable of manipulating the entire apparatus of politics and public opinion for his own enrichment". Otis's editorial policy was based on civic boosterism, extolling the virtues of Los Angeles and promoting its growth. Toward those ends, the paper supported efforts to expand the city's water supply by acquiring the rights to the water supply of the distant Owens Valley; the efforts of the Times to fight local unions led to the October 1, 1910 bombing of its headquarters, killing twenty-one people.
Two union leaders and Joseph McNamara, were charged. The American Federation of Labor hired noted trial attorney Clarence Darrow to represent the brothers, who pleaded guilty. Otis fastened a bronze eagle on top of a high frieze of the new Times headquarters building designed by Gordon Kaufmann, proclaiming anew the credo written by his wife, Eliza: "Stand Fast, Stand Firm, Stand Sure, Stand True." Upon Otis's death in 1917, his son-in-law, Harry Chandler, took control as publisher of the Times. Harry Chandler was succeeded in 1944 by his son, Norman Chandler, who ran the paper during the rapid growth of post-war Los Angeles. Norman's wife, Dorothy Buffum Chandler, became active in civic affairs and led the effort to build the Los Angeles Music Center, whose main concert hall was named the Dorothy Chandler Pavilion in her honor. Family members are buried at the Hollywood Forever Cemetery near Paramount Studios; the site includes a memorial to the Times Building bombing victims. The fourth generation of family publishers, Otis Chandler, held that position from 1960 to 1980.
Otis Chandler sought legitimacy and recognition for his family's paper forgotten in the power centers of the Northeastern United States due to its geographic and cultural distance. He sought to remake the paper in the model of the nation's most respected newspapers, notably The New York Times and The Washington Post. Believing that the newsroom was "the heartbeat of the business", Otis Chandler increased the size and pay of the reporting staff and expanded its national and international reporting. In 1962, the paper joined with The Washington Post to form the Los Angeles Times–Washington Post News Service to syndicate articles from both papers for other news organizations, he toned down the unyielding conservatism that had characterized the paper over the years, adopting a much more centrist editorial stance. During the 1960s, the paper won four Pulitzer Prizes, more than its previous nine decades combined. Writing in 2013 about the pattern of newspaper ownership by founding families, Times reporter Michael Hiltzik said that: The first generations bought or founded their local paper for profits and social and political influence.
Their children enjoyed both profits and influence, but as the families grew larger, the generations found that only one or two branches got the power, everyone else got a share of the money. The coupon-clipping branches realized that they could make more money investing in something other than newspapers. Under their pressure the companies split apart, or disappeared. That's the pattern followed over more than a century by the Los Angeles Times under the Chandler family; the paper's early history and subsequent transformation was chronicled in an unauthorized history Thinking Big, was one of four organizations profiled by David Halberstam in The Powers That Be. It has been the whole or partial subject of nearly thirty dissertations in communications or social science in the past four decades; the Los Angeles Times began a decline with Los Angeles itself with the decline in military production at the end of the Cold War. It faced hiring freezes in 1991-1992. Another major decision at the same time was to cut the range of circulation.
They cut circulation in California's Central Valley, Nevada and the San Diego ed