Pope Gregory XIII
Pope Gregory XIII, born Ugo Boncompagni, was Pope of the Catholic Church from 13 May 1572 to his death in 1585. He is best known for commissioning and being the namesake for the Gregorian calendar, which remains the internationally accepted civil calendar to this day. Ugo Boncompagni was born the son of Cristoforo Boncompagni and of his wife Angela Marescalchi in Bologna, where he studied law and graduated in 1530, he taught jurisprudence for some years, his students included notable figures such as Cardinals Alexander Farnese, Reginald Pole and Charles Borromeo. He had an illegitimate son after an affair with Maddalena Fulchini, Giacomo Boncompagni, but before he took holy orders. At the age of thirty-six he was summoned to Rome by Pope Paul III, under whom he held successive appointments as first judge of the capital and vice-chancellor of the Campagna e Marittima. Pope Paul IV attached him as datarius to the suite of Cardinal Carlo Carafa, Pope Pius IV made him Cardinal-Priest of San Sisto Vecchio and sent him to the Council of Trent.
He served as a legate to Philip II of Spain, being sent by the Pope to investigate the Cardinal of Toledo. It was there that he formed a lasting and close relationship with the Spanish King, to become important in his foreign policy as Pope. Upon the death of Pope Pius V, the conclave chose Cardinal Boncompagni, who assumed the name of Gregory XIII in homage to the great reforming Pope, Gregory I, surnamed the Great, it was a brief conclave, lasting less than 24 hours. Many historians have attributed this to the backing of the Spanish King. Cardinal Borromeo and the cardinals wishing reform accepted Boncompagni's candidature and so supported him in the conclave while the Spanish faction deemed him acceptable due to his success as a nuncio in Spain. Gregory XIII's character seemed to be perfect for the needs of the church at the time. Unlike some of his predecessors, he was to lead a faultless personal life, becoming a model for his simplicity of life. Additionally, his legal brilliance and management abilities meant that he was able to respond and deal with major problems and decisively, although not always successfully.
Once in the chair of Saint Peter, Gregory XIII's rather worldly concerns became secondary and he dedicated himself to reform of the Catholic Church. He committed himself to putting into practice the recommendations of the Council of Trent, he allowed no exceptions for cardinals to the rule that bishops must take up residence in their sees, designated a committee to update the Index of Forbidden Books. He was the patron of a new and improved edition of the Corpus juris canonici. In a time of considerable centralisation of power, Gregory XIII abolished the Cardinals Consistories, replacing them with Colleges, appointing specific tasks for these colleges to work on, he was renowned for having a fierce independence. The power of the papacy increased under him, whereas the influence and power of the cardinals decreased. Noteworthy is his establishment of the Discalced Carmelites, an offshoot of the Carmelite Order, as a distinct unit or "province" within the former by the decree "Pia consideratione" dated 22 June 1580, ending a period of great difficulty between them and enabling the former to become a significant religious order in the Catholic Church.
A central part of the strategy of Gregory XIII's reform was to apply the recommendations of Trent. He was a liberal patron of the formed Society of Jesus throughout Europe, for which he founded many new colleges; the Roman College of the Jesuits grew under his patronage, became the most important centre of learning in Europe for a time. It is now named the Pontifical Gregorian University. Pope Gregory XIII founded numerous seminaries for training priests, beginning with the German College at Rome, put them in the charge of the Jesuits. In 1575 he gave official status to the Congregation of the Oratory, a community of priests without vows, dedicated to prayer and preaching. In 1580 he commissioned artists, including Ignazio Danti, to complete works to decorate the Vatican and commissioned The Gallery of Maps. Noteworthy during his pontificate as a further means of putting into practice the recommendations of the Council of Trent is the transformation in 1580 of the Dominican studium founded in the 13th century at Rome into the College of St. Thomas, the precursor of the Pontifical University of St. Thomas Aquinas, Angelicum.
Pope Gregory XIII is best known for his commissioning of the calendar after being authored by the doctor/astronomer Aloysius Lilius and with the aid of Jesuit priest/astronomer Christopher Clavius who made the final modifications. The reason for the reform was that the average length of the year in the Julian calendar was too long – as it treated each year as 365 days, 6 hours in length, whereas calculations showed that the actual mean length of a year is less As a result, the date of the actual vernal equinox had slipped to 10 March, while the computus of the date of Easter still followed the traditional date of 21 March; this was verified by the observations of Clavius, the new calendar was instituted when Gregory decreed, by the papal bull Inter gravissimas of 24 February 1582, that the day after Thursday, 4 October 1582 would be not Friday, 5 October, but Friday, 15 October 1582. The new calendar duly replaced the Julian calendar, in use since 45 B
Federico Zuccari known as Federico Zuccaro, was an Italian Mannerist painter and architect, active both in Italy and abroad. Zuccari was born at Sant'Angelo in Vado, near Urbino, his documented career as a painter began in 1550, when he moved to Rome to work under Taddeo, his elder brother. He went on to complete decorations for Pius IV, help complete the fresco decorations at the Villa Farnese at Caprarola. Between 1563 and 1565, he was active in Venice with the Grimani family of Santa Maria Formosa. During his Venetian period, he traveled alongside Palladio in Friuli, he was involved in the following fresco projects: Decoration of the Casina Pio IV, Rome Grimani Chapel, San Francesco della Vigna, Venice Monumental staircase, Palazzo Grimani, Venice Pucci Chapel in the church of Trinità dei Monti, Rome San Marcello al Corso, Rome Cathedral of Orvieto Oratorio del Gonfalone, Rome Dome of Santa Maria del Fiore, Florence Another picture in the same collection appears to be a replica of his painting of the "Allegory of Calumny", as suggested by Lucian's description of a celebrated work by Apelles.
Zuccari was recalled to Rome by Pope Gregory XIII to continue in the Pauline chapel of the Vatican. He visited Brussels, there made a series of cartoons for the tapestry-weavers. In 1574 he came to England, where he received a commission from Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester to portray himself and Queen Elizabeth, he painted Mary, Queen of Scots, Sir Nicholas Bacon, Sir Francis Walsingham, Lord High Admiral Howard. He painted a portrait of a Man with Two Dogs, in the Pitti Palace, the Dead Christ and Angels in the Galleria Borghese. In 1585, he accepted an offer by Philip II of Spain to decorate the new Escorial at a yearly salary of 2,000 crowns, he worked at the palace from January 1586 to end of 1588. His paintings were disliked by Philip II and many were painted over; however the parting was amicable: "We must not blame him. He was succeeded by Pellegrino Tibaldi, he there founded in 1595, under a charter confirmed by Pope Sixtus V, the Accademia di San Luca, of which he was the first president.
Bartolomeo Carducci is said to have studied with him. Like his Giorgio Vasari a generation before, Zuccari aimed at being historian, his chief book, L'idea de' Pittori, Scultori, ed Architetti, was far less popular. Zuccari was raised to the rank of cavaliere not long before his death, which took place at Ancona in 1609. Freedberg, Sydney J.. Pelican History of Art, ed. Painting in Italy, 1500-1600. Enguin Books Ltd. Lee, Sidney, ed.. "Zuccaro, Federigo". Dictionary of National Biography. 63. London: Smith, Elder & Co; the Zuccaro Scholarship Getty Museum Exhibition Taddeo and Federico Zuccari: Artist Brothers in Rome
Orazio Samacchini was an Italian painter of the late-Renaissance and Mannerist style, active in Rome and his native city. He was died in Bologna. A close friend of Lorenzo Sabbatini, Samacchini traveled to Rome where he participated in 1563 in the decoration of the Vatican Belvedere and of the Sala Regia of Pius IV, along with Taddeo Zuccari and his brother, he returned to Bologna. Sammacchini painted for the Palazzo Vitelli a Sant'Egidio, Città di Castello, San Giacomo Maggiore, the church of Corpus Domini in Bologna, Santa Maria Maggiore in Bologna, he painted frescoes of Virtues and Angels in Sant'Abbondio, Cremona. Instructions for how to paint in the Cathedral of Parma are collected in Gualandi's Memorie. Freedberg, Sydney J.. Pelican History of Art, ed. Painting in Italy, 1500-1600. Penguin Books. P. 567. ISBN 0-300-05587-0. Web Gallery of Art Grove encyclopedia on Artnet
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Basilica of San Giacomo Maggiore
The Basilica of San Giacomo Maggiore is an historic Roman Catholic church in Bologna, region of Emilia Romagna, serving a monastery of Augustinian friars. It was built starting in 1267 and houses, among the rest, the Bentivoglio Chapel, featuring numerous Renaissance artworks. A community of hermits founded by the Blessed John the Good of Modena had established itself near the walls of Bologna, along the Savena river, as early as 1247, they founded a monastery with its church, dedicated to St. James the Greater; the hermits were merged in 1256 by the pope with other eremetical communities of the region to form the Order of Hermits of St. Augustine, with one of their number being elected the first Prior General of the new Order; as they needed a larger religious complex within the walls, in 1267 construction was undertaken of the new church in the present location. The edifice was finished in 1315, but its consecration took place in 1344, with the completion of the apse section; the church, built in sober Romanesque style, had a single nave with visible trusses and ended with a polygonal apse-chapel and two square chapel.
In the 15th century the Bentivoglio family built their family chapel in the church, added a long portico on the Via San Donato. Across the church is the flank of the 1560 Palazzo Malvezzi de' Medici, Bologna. In 1471 the bell tower was raised and, from 1483 to 1498, the interior was renovated with a new cover and a dome. New chapels were created in the side walls, which were decorated with Renaissance and Baroque altars and paintings; the Augustinian friars were expelled during the French occupation in the early 19th century. They returned in 1824, although part of the monastery remained a music school, now the Conservatorio Giovanni Battista Martini. With the anti-clerical laws again suppressing religious orders legislated by the new Kingdom of Italy, the friars gave up the monastery, keeping only possession of the church; the facade is the oldest part of the church, with its late-Romanesque proportions. The decorations in Istrian stone on the ogival windows, in Venetian style, were added by Lombardy masters in 1295.
The four funerary cells were added in the early 14th century, shortly after those in the portico, which date to the 13th century and had frescoes. The portico, traditionally attributed to Tommaso Filippi, had 36 Corinthian columns; the entablature has a frieze. The portico gives access to two cloisters, one from the 15th and another the 16th century; the complex is bounded by the only surviving section of Bologna's 11th-century walls. Next to them is the Oratory of Santa Cecilia within the monastery cloister; the oratory includes frescoed panels by the Renaissance painters Francesco Francia, Lorenzo Costa, Amico Aspertini. The 15th-century portico built by the bell tower; the church has a Renaissance dome designed by Antonio Morandi. The interior has Baroque decorations; the vaults have frescoes executed in 1495 by Lorenzo Costa's workshops. There are numerous chapels: the main ones include the Poggi Chapel, with artworks by Pellegrino Tibaldi, the Bentivoglio Chapel; this element of the basilica was designed by Pagno di Lapo Portigiani.
It has a majolica pavement by the Della Robbia workshop, with traces of the Bentivoglio coat of arms. The painted decoration was executed by Lorenzo Costa the Elder, includes the Bentivoglio Altarpiece; the altarpiece is by Francesco Raibolini. The tomb of Anton Galeazzo Bentivoglio was sculpted by Jacopo della Quercia in 1438; this chapel was built by Cardinal Giovanni Poggi, a native of the city, buried in it. Poggi met Pellegrino Tibaldi a native of Bologna, after the painter had moved to Rome in 1547, commissioned him to paint the Palazzo Poggi in their hometown. Tibaldi returned to the city in 1555 and painted frescoes for the cardinal in both his palace and the family chapel; this work is considered Tibaldi's masterpiece. In this chapel there are two portraits by Tibaldi of one on each side of the altar; the one on the left shows him as papal nuncio to Spain, while the one on the right shows him in his career, as a cardinal. Other artworks include Polyptych of the Holy Cross Relic by Paolo Veneziano, a Virgin in Glory by Bartolomeo Cesi, an early 15th-century late Gothic crucifix in the Malvezzi Chapel.
Raule, Angelo. San Giacomo Maggiore in Bologna. Bologna: A. Nanni
Accademia di Belle Arti di Firenze
The Accademia di Belle Arti di Firenze is an instructional art academy in Florence, in Tuscany, in central Italy. It was founded under the influence of Giorgio Vasari. Michelangelo Buonarroti, Benvenuto Cellini and other significant artists have been associated with it. Like other state art academies in Italy, it became an autonomous degree-awarding institution under law no. 508 dated 21 December 1999, falls under the Ministero dell'Istruzione, dell'Università e della Ricerca, the Italian ministry of education and research. The adjacent Galleria dell'Accademia houses the original David by Michelangelo; the Accademia e Compagnia delle Arti del Disegno, or "academy and company of the arts of drawing", was founded on 13 January 1563 by Cosimo I de' Medici, under the influence of Giorgio Vasari. It was made up of two parts: the Company was a kind of guild for all working artists, while the Academy was a more select group of artists responsible for supervision of artistic production in the Medici state.
At first, the Academy met in the cloisters of the Basilica della Santissima Annunziata. Artists including Michelangelo Buonarroti, Lazzaro Donati, Francesco da Sangallo, Agnolo Bronzino, Benvenuto Cellini, Giorgio Vasari, Giovanni Angelo Montorsoli, Bartolomeo Ammannati, Giambologna were members. Most members of the Accademia were male. Artemisia Gentileschi was the first woman to be admitted, it was housed in a former convent in via premises which it still occupies. In 1873 the Accademia was divided into two separate bodies: the teaching institution, the Accademia di Belle Arti; the Galleria dell'Accademia was founded in 1784. It has housed the original David by Michelangelo since 1873. List of academies of fine art in Italy
Sala Regia (Vatican)
The Sala Regia is a state hall in the Apostolic Palace in Vatican City. Although not intended as such, this broad room is an antechamber to the Sistine Chapel, it connects to the Pauline Chapel and is reached by the long staircase known as the Scala Regia. To the left of the entrance stood the papal throne, now at the opposite side before the door leading to the Pauline Chapel; the hall was begun under Pope Paul III by Antonio da Sangallo the Younger and was completed in 1573. The elegant barrel vault is graced by the impressive plaster decorations of Perino del Vaga; the stucco ornaments over the doors are by Daniele da Volterra. By 2019, the room and staircase were open to tourists; the walls were decorated by Giorgio Vasari and Taddeo Zuccari. The frescoes depict momentous turning-points in the history of the Church, including the return of Pope Gregory XI from Avignon to Rome, the Battle of Lepanto, the St. Bartholomew's Day massacre, the raising of the ban from Henry IV, the reconciliation of Pope Alexander III with Frederick Barbarossa and Peter II of Aragon offering the Kingdom to Pope Innocent III.
The hall was used for the reception of princes and royal ambassadors, hence its name. Consistories were held in it, but were transferred to the Saint Peter's Basilica on November 19, 2016, the area has provided an occasional musical recital in the presence of the pope. Index of Vatican City-related articles Attribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Herbermann, Charles, ed.. "The Vatican". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton; the Vatican: spirit and art of Christian Rome, a book from The Metropolitan Museum of Art Libraries, which contains material on Sala Regia Alessio Celletti, Autorappresentazione papale ed età della Riforma: gli affreschi della Sala Regia Vaticana, Roma 2013