Roberto Alemann is an Argentine lawyer, economist and academic. Alemann was born in Buenos Aires, Argentina, in 1922, his family, prominent German Argentines of Swiss extraction, had established the nation's premier German language daily, Argentinisches Tageblatt, in 1874. He graduated from the Buenos Aires National College in 1941, from the University of Buenos Aires with a Law Degree in 1947. Alemann studied Economics at the University of Bern in 1947–48, received a Doctorate in Social Sciences in 1952. Opposed to the populist policies of President Juan Perón, he joined senior policy adviser Raúl Prebisch's team following the 1955 coup against Perón, took part in negotiations leading to the first loans granted to the Argentine government by the Paris Club of multilateral creditors. Alemann co-founded the Argentine Association of Political Economy in 1957; the group prioritized dealing with structural inflation over the monetarist approach favored by more conservative policy-makers, such as Economy Minister Álvaro Alsogaray, appointed to the post in 1959 without President Arturo Frondizi's support.
Frondizi, a proponent of developmentalism, opposed Alsogaray's austerity program, which brought down inflation, though at the cost of a severe recession in 1959. Alsogaray was replaced in April 1961 by Roberto Alemann. Alemann's structuralist approach complemented unofficial Frondizi point man Rogelio Julio Frigerio's policies well, as both focused on correcting the adverse effects of financing costly machinery imports with raw material exports of declining value, though conservative and military pressure resulted in his removal in January 1962. Following his ouster, Alemann returned to the private sector as a lobbyist for Swiss banking giant UBS, was from 1964 to 1973, Professor of Economic Policy at his alma mater; the right-wing economist appointed by a National Reorganization Process dictatorship installed in 1976, José Alfredo Martínez de Hoz, implemented a sweeping program of financial deregulation and free trade which by 1981 collapsed under the weight of a US$37 billion foreign debt – most of it the result of a wave of private currency speculation and government military spending.
Alemann's brother, Juan Alemann, served as Treasury Secretary during the dictatorship, was nearly killed by a bomb placed in his residence in 1979 by a Montoneros guerilla operative. Named Economy Minister by a new dictator, General Leopoldo Galtieri, in December 1981, Alemann departed from his expansionist policies of twenty years earlier and introduced his own austerity program: cuts in public sector spending, accelerated devaluation of the peso, a mandatory wage freeze, he attempted to repair relations with the International Monetary Fund by proposing the privatization of an array of State enterprises, elicited signals of support from the Reagan administration, but triggered protest from labor unions, culminating in a massive, March 30, 1982, rally against Alemann by the General Confederation of Labour South America's largest trade union. Gatieri's invasion of the Falkland Islands, on April 2, derailed Alemann's rapproachment with U. S. and European creditors, following Galtieri's defeat and subsequent resignation in June, Alemann was replaced.
He retired from public service, devoting his time to the Tageblatt as managing editor, contributing occasional op ed columns in the centrist Clarín. Continuing to lecture on economic policy matters, the octogenarian was assaulted by opponents at least twice after 2002, though he suffered only minor injuries. Sistemas Económicos, Buenos Aires: Arayú Hacia una política de inversiones, Buenos Aires: Selección Contable Curso de Política Económica Argentina, Buenos Aires: EUDEBA Breve historia de la política económica argentina, Buenos Aires: Claridad Recordando a Kennedy, Buenos Aires: Sudamericana
Ministry of the Treasury (Argentina)
The Ministry of the Treasury of the Argentine Nation is a ministry and the treasury of the Argentine federal government. The current Minister of the Treasury is Nicolás Dujovne; the Argentine Ministry of the Treasury has, since the building's 1939 inaugural, been based in a 14-story Rationalist office building designed by local architect Carlos Pibernat. The Economy Ministry building was built on a 0.57 ha Montserrat neighborhood lot facing the Casa Rosada presidential office building to the north, the Defense Ministry to the east – a government building designed by Pibernat. The building's lobby was decorated with murals painted by the architect's brother, Antonio Pibernat, a post-impressionist painter influenced by the naturalist Barbizon School; the post has existed on a formal basis since the 1826 inaugural of Bernardino Rivadavia, who named lawmaker Salvador María del Carril as the nation's first official Ministro de Hacienda. The office became among the most powerful in Argentine Government during the generation after 1880, when English Argentine investment, foreign trade, immigration spurred development.
Customs collections and the Central Bank were among the responsibilities placed under the Economy Ministry's aegis, successive ministers' policies were enacted through presidential decrees. Its influence grew further when it absorbed the cabinet post of Minister of Public Works in 1991, to help facilitate Economy Minister Domingo Cavallo's privatizations initiative, and, in turn, divested oversight over the nation's goods-producing sectors with the 2008 designation of the Production Ministry by President Cristina Kirchner, in a bid to improve strained relations with the country's agrarian sector following the 2008 Argentine government conflict with the agricultural sector over export tariffs; the Ministry of the Treasury was appropriated a US$1.7 billion operational budget in 2009, employed over 4,000 staffers. Argentina Economy of Argentina Ministry of Economy - Official ministry portal Argentina.gov.ar - Official national portal Gobierno Electrónico - Official government website Presidencia de la Nación - Official presidential website
Roberto Eduardo Viola
Roberto Eduardo Viola was an Argentine military officer who served as president of Argentina from March 29 to December 11, 1981 as a military dictatorship. He was born as Roberto Eduardo Viola Prevedini on October 13, 1924. Viola appointed Lorenzo Sigaut as finance minister, it became clear that Sigaut were looking for ways to reverse some of the economic policies of Videla's minister José Alfredo Martínez de Hoz. Notably, Sigaut abandoned the sliding exchange rate mechanism and devalued the peso, after boasting that "they who gamble on the dollar, will lose". Argentines braced for a recession after the excesses of the plata dulce years, which destabilized Viola's position. Viola was the victim of infighting within the armed forces. After being replaced as Navy chief, Eduardo Massera started looking for a political space to call his own enlisting the enforced and unpaid services of political prisoners held in concentration camps by the regime; the mainstream of the Junta's support was opposed to Massera's designs and to any attempt to bring about more "populist" economic policies.
Viola found his maneuvering space reduced, was ousted by a military coup in December 1981, led by the Commander-in-Chief of the Army, Lieutenant General Leopoldo Galtieri, who soon became President. The official explanation given for the ousting was Viola's alleged health problems. Galtieri swiftly appointed Roberto Alemann as finance minister and presided over the build-up and pursuit of the Falklands War. After the collapse of the military regime and the election of Raúl Alfonsín in 1983, Viola was arrested, judged for human rights violations committed by the military junta during the Dirty War, sentenced to 17 years in prison, his health deteriorated in prison. He died on 30 September 1994, two weeks before his 70th birthday. National Reorganization Process