Lorestan Province

Lorestan Province, is a province of western Iran in the Zagros Mountains. The population of Lorestan was estimated at 1,716,527 people in 2006. In 2014 it was placed in Region 4. Lorestan covers an area of 28,392 km2; the major cities in this province are Khorramabad, Dorud, Kuhdasht, Aleshtar and Pol-e Dokhtar. The name Lorestan means "land of the Lurs". In the wider sense it consists of that part of western Iran coinciding with the Ilam Province and extending for about 650 km on a northwest to southeast axis from Kermanshah to Fars, with a breadth of 150–180 km; the terrain consists chiefly of mountains, with numerous ranges, part of the Zagros chain, running northwest to southeast. The central range has many summits that reach the line of perpetual snow, rising to 4000 m and more, it feeds the headwaters of Iran's most important rivers, such as the Zayanderud, Karun, Abi, Karkheh. Between the higher ranges lie many fertile plains and low hilly, well-watered districts; the highest point of the province is the Oshtorankuh peak at 4,050 m.

The low-lying areas being in the southernmost sector of the province are 500 m above sea level. Oak forest covers the outer slopes, together with elm, maple and almond trees. Western Luristan comprises a series of parallel fertile valleys running high in the Zagros mountains; the Pusht-i Kuh region is in the western foothills of the Kabir Kuh range. The Pish-i Kuh region lies to the east of Kabir Kuh; this area had human settlements during the Bronze Age as early as the mid–3rd millennium B. C. Climatically, the province can be divided into three parts: the mountainous regions, such as Boroujerd, Azna and Alishtar experience cold winters and moderate summers. In the central region, the spring season lasts till mid May; the township of Khorramabad is in this realm. However, southern areas such as Pol-e-Dokhtar and Papi are under the influence of the warm air currents of Khuzestan, have hot summers and moderate winters; the climate is sub-humid continental with winter precipitation, a lot of which falls as snow.

Because it lies on the westernmost slopes of the Zagros Mountains, annual precipitation in Lorestan is among the highest anywhere in Iran south of the Alborz Mountains. At Khorramabad, the average annual precipitation totals 530 millimetres of rainfall equivalent, while up to 1270 millimetres may fall on the highest mountains; the months June to September are absolutely dry, but Khorramabad can expect 4 inches of rainfall equivalent in December and January. Temperatures vary with the seasons and between day and night. At Khorramabad, summer temperatures range from a minimum of 12 °C to a hot maximum of 32 °C. In winter, they range from a minimum of -2 °C to a chilly maximum of 8 °C. Lorestan includes eleven counties: Aligudarz County, Azna County, Borujerd County, Delfan County, Dorud County, Dowreh County, Khorramabad County, Kuhdasht County, Selseleh County, Poldokhtar County, as of 2013 Rumeshkan County. Since the creation of the map at the left, Kuhdasht County has been divided into Rumeshkan County and a smaller Kuhdasht County.

The ancient history of Lorestan is intertwined with the rest of the Ancient Near East. In the 3rd and 4th millennium BC, migrant tribes settled down in the mountainous area of the Zagros Mountains; the Kassites, an ancient people who spoke neither an Indo-European nor a Semitic language, originated in Lorestān. They would control Babylonia after the fall of the Old Babylonian Empire ca. 1531 BC and until ca. 1155 BC. Parts of Luristan were invaded and settled by the Iranian Medes in the 2nd millennium BC; the Medes absorbed the indigenous inhabitants of the region the Kassites as well as the Gutians, by the time the area was conquered by the Persians in the 1st millennium BC. In February 2017, archeological discoveries related to the Achaemenid era were made in Lorestan for the first time. Small Luristan bronze artworks dated about 1000 to 650 BC, reached the outside world from the late 1920s and are found in museums all over the world, where they are valued for their vigorous style, with many representations of animals.

But the beginning of this bronze-making tradition goes back to the mid–3rd millennium BC. Archaeologists characterized these techniques by the metallurgical analysis of different artifacts, We have characterized these practices by the compositional and metallurgical analysis of grave goods from several cemeteries in the region including six dating to different phases of the Bronze Age —Kalleh Nisar, Bani Surmah, Chigha Sabz, Kamtarlan and Gulal-i Galbi—and four dating to different phases of the Iron Age —Bard-i Bal, Kutul-i Gulgul, Sar Kabud, War Kabud. Technically, the term'Luristan bronze' refers only to the bronze objects, although they have many similarities; the earlier bronze objects were made during the Elam period. Lorestan was integrated into the Achaemenid and Sasanian empires. Parts of the region managed to stay independent during the Arab and Mongol invasions. According to the Encyclopaedia of Islam, the Lurs open adherents of the Ahl-e-Haqq faith, revere bread and fire like the Zoroastrians.

"Being split up into numerous tribes and sections, they migrate to their summer pastures as separate bands without overall command. In 1936, Reza Shah's army conquered them, with much bloodshed and starvation, forcing many of the survivors to settle in villages under landlords."In the early 1930s

15th Arizona State Legislature

The 15th Arizona State Legislature, consisting of the Arizona State Senate and the Arizona House of Representatives, was constituted in Phoenix from January 1, 1941 to December 31, 1942, during the first of Sidney Preston Osborn's four consecutive terms as Governor of Arizona. The number of senators and house representatives remained constant at 52, respectively; the Democrats controlled one hundred percent of house seats. The Legislature met for the regular session at the State Capitol in Phoenix on January 13, 1941. There was a special session, held from April 6–25, 1942; the asterisk denotes members of the previous Legislature who continued in office as members of this Legislature. The asterisk denotes members of the previous Legislature who continued in office as members of this Legislature; the size of the House remained constant at 52 members


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