Governors Island is a 172-acre island in New York Harbor 800 yards from the southern tip of Manhattan Island and separated from Brooklyn by Buttermilk Channel 400 yards. It is part of the borough of Manhattan in New York City; the National Park Service administers a small portion of the north of the island as the Governors Island National Monument, while the Trust for Governors Island operates the remaining 150 acres, including 52 historic buildings. Today, Governors Island is a popular seasonal destination open to the public between May and September with a 43-acre public park completed between 2012 and 2016, free arts and cultural events, recreational activities; the island is accessed by ferries from Manhattan. The Lenape of the Manhattan region referred to the island as Paggank after the island's plentiful hickory and chestnut trees; the island's current name, made official in 1784, stems from the British colonial era, when the colonial assembly reserved the island for the exclusive use of New York's royal governors.
In 1776, during the American Revolutionary War, Continental Army troops raised defensive works on the island, which they used to fire upon British ships before they were taken. From 1783 to 1966, the island was a United States Army post, from 1966 to 1996, the island served as a major United States Coast Guard installation. About 103 acres of fill was added to the island by 1912. In 1524, Giovanni da Verrazzano saw the called Paggank island, becoming the first European in record to do so. By the Native Americans. In May 1624, Noten Eylandt was the landing place of the first settlers in New Netherland, they had arrived from the Dutch Republic with the ship New Netherland under the command of Cornelius Jacobsen May, who disembarked on the island with thirty families in order to take possession of the New Netherland territory. As such, the New York State Senate and Assembly recognize Governors Island as the birthplace of the state of New York, certify the island as the place on which the planting of the "legal-political guaranty of tolerance onto the North American continent" took place.
In 1633, the fifth director of New Netherland, Wouter van Twiller, arrived with a 104-man regiment on Governors Island—its first use as a military base. He operated a farm on the island, he secured his farm by drawing up a deed on June 16, 1637, signed by two Lenape and Pewihas, on behalf of their community at Keshaechquereren, situated in what today is New Jersey. New Netherland was conditionally ceded to the English in 1664, the English renamed the settlement New York in June 1665. By 1674, the British had total control of the island. After the beginning of the American Revolutionary War, in one night, April 9, 1776, Continental Army General Israel Putnam fortified the island with earthworks and 40 cannons in anticipation of the return of the British Army and navy who had quit New York City the year before; the harbor defenses on the island continued to be improved over the summer, on July 12, 1776, engaged HMS Phoenix and HMS Rose as they made a run up the Hudson River to the Tappan Zee. The colonists' cannon inflicted enough damage to make the British commanders cautious of entering the East River, which contributed to the success of General George Washington's retreat across it from Brooklyn into Manhattan after the Battle of Long Island, the British Army effort to take Brooklyn Heights overlooking Manhattan and the largest battle of the entire war.
The Continental Army forces collapsed after being flanked and withdrew from Brooklyn and from Governors Island as well, the British occupied it in late August. From September 2 to 14, the new British garrison would engage volleys with Washington's guns on the battery in front of Fort George in Manhattan; the fort, along with the rest of New York City, was held by the British for the rest of the war until Evacuation Day at the end of the war in 1783. At the end of the Revolution, the island, as a former holding of the Crown, came into ownership by the state of New York and saw no military usage. Prompted by the unsettled international situation between the warring powers of France and Great Britain and the need for more substantial harbor fortifications, the Revolutionary War-era earthworks were rehabilitated into harbor defenses by the city and state of New York. Noten Island was renamed Governors Island in 1784 as the island, in earlier times, had been reserved by the British colonial assembly for the exclusive use of New York's royal governors.
The Governor's House survives as the oldest structure on the island. By the late 1790s, the Quasi-War with France prompted a national program of harbor fortifications and the state of New York began improvements as a credit for its Revolutionary War debt. In February 1800, the island was conveyed to the federal government, which undertook the reconstruction of Fort Jay and new construction of two waterfront batteries, Castle Williams and South or Half Moon Battery. Two forts were built; the first, Fort Jay, was built in 1794 by the state of New York on the site of the earlier Revolutionary War earthworks, was a square four-bastioned fort of earthworks and timber. A sandstone and brick gate house topped with a sculpture of an eagle dates to that time and is the oldest structure on the island. From 1806 to 1809, Fort Jay renamed Fort Columbus was reconstructed in
Syracuse University is a private research university in Syracuse, New York, United States. The institution's roots can be traced to the Genesee Wesleyan Seminary, founded in 1831 by the Methodist Episcopal Church in Lima, New York. After several years of debate over relocating the college to Syracuse, the university was established in 1870, independent of the college. Since 1920, the university has identified itself as nonsectarian, although it maintains a relationship with The United Methodist Church; the campus is in the University Hill neighborhood of Syracuse and southeast of downtown, on one of the larger hills. Its large campus features an eclectic mix of buildings, ranging from nineteenth-century Romanesque Revival structures to contemporary buildings. SU is organized into 13 schools and colleges, with nationally recognized programs in information studies and library science, communications, business administration, inclusive education and wellness, sport management, public administration and the College of Arts and Sciences.
Syracuse University athletic teams, known as the Orange, participate in 20 intercollegiate sports. SU is a member of the Atlantic Coast Conference, or ACC for all NCAA Division I athletics, except for the men's rowing and women's ice hockey teams. SU is a member of the Eastern College Athletic Conference; the Genesee Wesleyan Seminary was founded in 1831 by the Genesee Annual Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church in Lima, New York, south of Rochester. In 1850, it was resolved to enlarge the institution from a seminary into a college, or to connect a college with the seminary, becoming Genesee College. However, the location was soon thought by many to be insufficiently central, its difficulties were compounded by the next set of technological changes: the railroad that displaced the Erie Canal as the region's economic engine bypassed Lima completely. The trustees of the struggling college decided to seek a locale whose economic and transportation advantages could provide a better base of support.
The college began looking for a new home at the same time Syracuse, ninety miles to the east, was engaged in a search to bring a university to the city, having failed to convince Ezra Cornell and Andrew Dickson White to locate Cornell University there rather than in Ithaca. Syracuse resident White pressed that the new university should locate on the hill in Syracuse due to the city's attractive transportation hub, which would ease the recruitment of faculty and other persons of note. However, as a young carpenter working in Syracuse, Cornell had been twice robbed of his wages, thereafter considered Syracuse a Sodom and Gomorrah insisting the university be in Ithaca on his large farm on East Hill, overlooking the town and Cayuga Lake. Meanwhile, there were several years of dispute between the Methodist ministers and contending cities across the state, over proposals to move Genesee College to Syracuse. At the time, the ministers wanted a share of the funds from the Morrill Land Grant Act for Genesee College.
They agreed to a quid pro quo donation of $25,000 from Senator Cornell in exchange for their support for his bill. Cornell insisted the bargain be written into the bill and Cornell became New York State's Land Grant University in 1865. In 1869, Genesee College obtained New York State approval to move to Syracuse, but Lima got a court injunction to block the move, Genesee stayed in Lima until it was dissolved in 1875. By that time, the court injunction had been made moot by the founding of a new university on March 24, 1870. On that date the State of New York granted the new Syracuse University its own charter, independent of Genesee College; the City of Syracuse had offered $100,000 to establish the school. Bishop Jesse Truesdell Peck had donated $25,000 to the proposed school and was elected the first president of the Board of Trustees. Rev. Daniel Steele, a former Genesee College president, served as the first administrative leader of Syracuse until its chancellor was appointed; the university opened in September 1871 in rented space downtown.
George F. Comstock, a member of the new university's board of trustees, had offered the school 50 acres of farmland on a hillside to the southeast of the city center. Comstock intended the hill to develop as an integrated whole; the university was founded as coeducational. President Peck stated at the opening ceremonies, "The conditions of admission shall be equal to all persons... There shall be no invidious discrimination here against woman.... Brains and heart shall have a fair chance... " Syracuse implemented this policy with a high proportion of women students. In the College of Liberal Arts, the ratio between male and female students during the 19th century was even; the College of Fine Arts was predominantly female, a low ratio of women enrolled in the College of Medicine and the College of Law. Men and women were taught together in the same courses, many extra-curricular activities were coeducational as well. Syracuse developed "women-only" organizations and clubs. Coeducation at Syracuse traced its roots to the early days of Genesee College where educators and students like Frances Willard and Belva Lockwood were influenced by the Women's movement in nearby Seneca Falls, NY.
However, the progressive "co-ed" policies practiced at Genesee would soon find controversy at the new university in Syracuse. C
Arlington National Cemetery
Arlington National Cemetery is a United States military cemetery in Arlington County, across the Potomac River from Washington, D. C. in whose 624 acres the dead of the nation's conflicts have been buried, beginning with the Civil War, as well as reinterred dead from earlier wars. The United States Department of the Army, a component of the United States Department of Defense, controls the cemetery; the national cemetery was established during the Civil War on the grounds of Arlington House, the estate of Confederate general Robert E Lee's wife Mary Anna Custis Lee. The Cemetery, along with Arlington House, Memorial Drive, the Hemicycle, the Arlington Memorial Bridge, form the Arlington National Cemetery Historic District, listed on the National Register of Historic Places in April 2014. George Washington Parke Custis, grandson of Martha Washington and adopted son of George Washington, acquired the land that now is Arlington National Cemetery in 1802, began construction of Arlington House, named after the village of Arlington, England, where his family was from.
The estate passed to Custis' daughter, Mary Anna, who had married United States Army officer Robert E. Lee. Custis' will gave a "life inheritance" to Mary Lee, allowing her to live at and run Arlington Estate for the rest of her life but not enabling her to sell any portion of it. Upon her death, the Arlington estate passed to George Washington Custis Lee; when Virginia seceded from the Union after the start of the American Civil War at Fort Sumter, Robert E. Lee resigned his commission on April 20, 1861, took command of the armed forces of the Commonwealth of Virginia becoming commander of the Army of Northern Virginia. On May 7, troops of the Virginia militia occupied Arlington House. With Confederate forces occupying Arlington's high ground, the capital of the Union was left in an untenable military position. Although unwilling to leave Arlington House, Mary Lee believed her estate would soon be recaptured by federal soldiers. So she buried many of her family treasures on the grounds and left for her sister's estate at Ravensworth in Fairfax County, Virginia, on May 14.
On May 3, General Winfield Scott ordered Brigadier General Irvin McDowell to clear Arlington and the city of Alexandria, Virginia, of all troops not loyal to the United States. McDowell occupied Arlington without opposition on May 24. At the outbreak of the Civil War, most military personnel who died in battle near Washington, D. C. were buried at the United States Soldiers' Cemetery in Washington, D. C. or Alexandria Cemetery in Alexandria, but by late 1863 both were nearly full. On July 16, 1862, Congress passed legislation authorizing the U. S. federal government to purchase land for national cemeteries for military dead, put the U. S. Army Quartermaster General in charge of this program. In May 1864, Union forces suffered large numbers of dead in the Battle of the Wilderness. Quartermaster General Montgomery C. Meigs ordered that an examination of eligible sites be made for the establishment for a large new national military cemetery. Within weeks, his staff reported; the property was high and free from floods, it had a view of the District of Columbia, it was aesthetically pleasing.
It was the home of the leader of the armed forces of the Confederate States of America, denying Robert E. Lee use of his home after the war was a valuable political consideration; the first military burial at Arlington, for William Henry Christman, was made on May 13, 1864, close to what is now the northeast gate in Section 27. However, Meigs did not formally authorize establishment of burials until June 15, 1864. Arlington did not desegregate its burial practices until President Harry S. Truman issued Executive Order 9981 on July 26, 1948; the government acquired Arlington at a tax sale in 1864 for $26,800, equal to $429,313 today. Mrs. Lee had not appeared in person but rather had sent an agent, attempting to pay the $92.07 in property taxes assessed on the estate in a timely manner. The government turned away her agent. In 1874, Custis Lee, heir under his grandfather's will passing the estate in trust to his mother, sued the United States claiming ownership of Arlington. On December 9, 1882, the U.
S. Supreme Court ruled 5–4 in Lee's favor in United States v. Lee, deciding that Arlington had been confiscated without due process. After that decision, Congress returned the estate to him, on March 3, 1883, Custis Lee sold it back to the government for $150,000 at a signing ceremony with Secretary of War Robert Todd Lincoln; the land became a military reservation. President Herbert Hoover conducted the first national Memorial Day ceremony in Arlington National Cemetery, on May 30, 1929. Beginning in 1863, the federal government used the southern portion of the land now occupied by the cemetery as a settlement for freed slaves, giving the name of "Freedman's Village" to the land; the government constructed rental houses that 1,100 to 3,000 freed slaves occupied while farming 1,100 acres of the estate and receiving schooling and occupational training during the Civil War and after War ended. However, after the land became part of a military reservation, the government asked the Villagers to leave.
When some remained, John A. Commerford, the Superintendent of Arlington National Cemetery, asked the Army's Quartermaster General in 1887 to close the Village on the grounds that people living in the Village had been taking trees at night from the cemetery for use as firew
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Great Barrington, Massachusetts
Great Barrington is a town in Berkshire County, United States. It is part of Massachusetts Metropolitan Statistical Area; the population was 7,104 at the 2010 census. Both a summer resort and home to Ski Butternut, Great Barrington includes the villages of Van Deusenville and Housatonic, it is the birthplace of W. E. B. Du Bois. In 2012, Smithsonian magazine ranked Great Barrington #1 in its list of "The 20 Best Small Towns in America"; the Mahican Indians called the area Mahaiwe, meaning "the place downstream". It lay on the New England Path, which connected Fort Orange near Albany, New York, with Springfield and Massachusetts Bay; the first recorded account of Europeans in the area happened in August 1676, during King Philip's War. Major John Talcott and his troops chased a group of 200 Mahican Natives west from Westfield overtaking them at the Housatonic River in what now Great Barrington. According to reports at the time, Talcott's troops killed twenty-five Indians and imprisoned another twenty.
Today, a plaque for John Talcott marks the spot. On April 25, 1724 Captain John Ashley of Westfield, Massachusetts bought on behalf of himself and a committee of the Massachusetts General Court the land that became the towns of Great Barrington, Egremont, Mount Washington, Boston Corner for £460, three barrels of "sider," and thirty quarts of rum from 21 Native American sachems headed by Conkepot Poneyote; the Konkapot River in southwestern Massachusetts is named after him. The village was first settled by colonists in 1726 and from 1742–1761 was the north parish of Sheffield. In 1761, it was incorporated as Great Barrington, named after the village of Barrington, England. In the summer of 1774, 1,500 men shut down the Berkshire County Court in response to British oppression. In the winter of 1776, Henry Knox passed through Great Barrington while transporting the cannon from Fort Ticonderoga to the Siege of Boston. Due to his time in the area, he established an agricultural interest in the area of Great Barrington.
With the arrival of the railroad in the late 19th century, Great Barrington developed as a Gilded Age resort community for those seeking relief from the heat and pollution of cities. Wealthy families built grand homes called Berkshire Cottages here, as others would in Lenox and Stockbridge. Among the earliest estates was that built by New York City banker and art patron David Leavitt, who built an elaborate 300-acre estate, was soon followed by those of his sons nearby. Leavitt was instrumental in the development of the local Housatonic Railroad, serving as its president. Estates included Searles Castle, commissioned in 1888 by the widow of Mark Hopkins together with her second husband, Edward Francis Searles, "Brookside", built for William Hall Walker. In 1895, Colonel William L. Brown, part owner of the New York Daily News, presented Great Barrington with a statue of a newsboy, now a landmark on the western edge of town. Great Barrington is the birthplace of W. E. B. Du Bois, an African-American academic and civil rights activist, most known for being one of the co-founders of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People in 1909.
Du Bois was born on February 23, 1868, at a house replaced by where present-day Route 23 would run. As a child, Du Bois attended the Congregational Church. Many of these church members donated. Du Bois lived in the town; the W. E. B. Du Bois Boyhood Homesite has a walking tour. In November 1885 electrical engineer William Stanley, Jr. a sometime Great Barrington resident working for George Westinghouse, began installing a demonstration transformer based alternating current lighting system. Stanley felt AC was an improvement over the direct current system being used by Thomas Edison, Stanley was trying to get Westinghouse to adopt it. Stanley had developed a series transformer, he built his components at the "Old Rubber Factory" south of Cottage Street and installed a Westinghouse steam engine powering a 500 volt Siemens generator. Stringing the power lines from tree to tree down the street, in March 1886 Stanley powered the system up and was able to expand it to the point where it could light 23 businesses along Main Street with little power loss over 4,000 ft.
The system's 500 AC volt current was stepped down to 100 volts using the new Stanley transformer to power incandescent lamps at each location. This was the world's first practical demonstration of a transformer/alternating current system and the basis of the AC systems that Westinghouse would begin installing that year. Arlo Guthrie's song "Alice's Restaurant," which runs for 18 1⁄2 minutes, is based on true-life events of the late 20th century in Great Barrington and the adjoining towns of Stockbridge and Lee; the Old Trinity Church, the home of Ray and Alice Brock at the time of these incidents, is now owned by Guthrie, is at 4 Van Deusenville Road in Great Barrington. On October 18, 1990, Richard Stanley purchased the old Miller Hotel known as the Barrington House. Stanley started to upgrade the building, evicting tenants, involved in drugs, he removed the 1960s aluminum facade and returned the historic building through renovation to its 1929 appearance. The town was the site of an F4 tornado around 7:00 PM on Memorial Day, May 29, 1995.
The tornado caused damage in the area. On November 15, 1995, Richard Stanley and Joseph Wasserman opened The Triplex Cinema in the heart of Great Barrington; this contributed to further developments in the town, changing the economy and enhanc
McKim, Mead & White
McKim, Mead & White was a prominent American architectural firm that thrived at the turn of the twentieth century. The firm's founding partners were William Rutherford Mead and Stanford White, they hired many other architects, associates and draftsmen, who came to prominence during or after their time at the firm. The firm's New York City buildings include Manhattan's former Pennsylvania Station, the Brooklyn Museum, the main campus of Columbia University. Elsewhere in New York State and New England, the firm designed college, library and other buildings such as the Boston Public Library and Rhode Island State House. In Washington, D. C. the firm renovated the West and East Wings of the White House, designed Roosevelt Hall on Fort Lesley J. McNair and the National Museum of American History. Across the United States, the firm designed buildings in Illinois, Ohio, Tennessee and Wisconsin. Other examples are in Canada and Italy. McKim and Mead joined forces in 1872, they were joined in 1879 by White, like McKim, had worked for architect Henry Hobson Richardson.
Their work applied the principles of Beaux-Arts architecture, the adoption of the classical Greek and Roman stylistic vocabulary as filtered through the Parisian École des Beaux-Arts, the related City Beautiful movement after 1893 or so. Its vision was to clean up the visual confusion of American cities and imbue them with a sense of order and formality during America's Gilded Age. According to one scholar, "Running through the world of McKim, Mead & White was a sense of the exploration of life's pleasures. A circle of bisexual and homosexual entertainment can be traced within the office; the circle included Stanford White, Saint Gaudens, Joseph M. Wells, Frank Millet, Whitney Warren, Thomas Hastings and Mead, many others."The firm retained its name long after the deaths of founding partners White, McKim, Mead. Among the firm's final works under the name McKim, Mead & White was the National Museum of American History in Washington, D. C. Designed by partner James Kellum Smith, it opened in 1964.
Smith died in 1961, the firm was soon renamed Steinmann and White. In 1971, it became Associates. Henry Bacon – worked at the firm from about 1886 through 1897. William A. Boring – worked at the firm in 1890 before forming a separate partnership with Edward Lippincott Tilton. Charles Lewis Bowman – a draftsman at the firm until 1922, noted for his large number of private residences throughout Westchester County, New York including Bronxville, Pelham Manor and New Rochelle. A. Page Brown - worked with the firm beginning in the 1880s. Walker O. Cain – worked at the firm. J. E. R. Carpenter – worked at the firm for several years before designing much of upper Fifth and Park Avenues, including 907 Fifth Avenue, 825 Fifth Avenue, 625 Park Avenue, 550 Park Avenue and the Lincoln Building on 42nd Street. John Merven Carrère – worked with McKim, Mead & White from 1883 through 1885 joined Thomas Hastings to form the firm Carrère and Hastings. Thomas Harlan Ellett. Cass Gilbert -- worked with the firm until 1882.
Arthur Loomis Harmon – of Shreve and Harmon. Thomas Hastings – of Carrère and Hastings, worked with McKim, Mead & White from 1883 through 1885. John Galen Howard John Mead Howells William Mitchell Kendall, worked with the firm from 1882 until his death. Harrie T. Lindeberg – started at the firm in 1895 as an assistant to Stanford White and remained with the firm until White's death in 1906. Austin W. Lord – worked with the firm in 1890-94 on designs for Brooklyn Museum of Arts and Sciences, the Metropolitan Club, buildings at Columbia University Harold Van Buren Magonigle Albert Randolph Ross Philip Sawyer James Kellum Smith – a member of the firm from 1924 to 1961, he designed academic buildings, but his last major work was the National Museum of American History. Egerton Swartwout of Tracy and Swartwout – both Tracy and Swartwout worked together for the firm on multiple projects prior to starting their own practice. Edward Lippincott Tilton – helped design the Boston Public Library in 1890 before leaving with Boring.
Robert von Ezdorf – took over much of the firm's business after White's death. Joseph M. Wells – worked as firm's first Chief Draftsman from 1879–90. William M. Whidden – worked at the firm from at least 1882 until 1888. Notes Bibliography Baker, Paul R. Stanny: The Gilded Life of Stanford White. New York: Free Press, 1989. ISBN 0-02-901781-5 Broderick, Mosette. Triumvirate: McKim, Mead & White: Art, Architecture and Class in America's Gilded Age New York: Knopf, 2010. ISBN 0-394-53662-2 McKim, Mead & White. A Monograph of the Work of McKim, Mead & White, 1879-1915. N
United States Post Office (Forest Hills, Queens)
US Post Office-Forest Hills Station is a historic post office building located at Forest Hills in Queens County, New York, United States. It was built in 1937, was designed by architect Lorimer Rich as a consultant to the Office of the Supervising Architect, it is a one-story flat roofed building clad with reddish brown terra cotta above a base of granite in the International style. It features exterior terra cotta relief sculptures by artist Sten Jacobsson, it was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1988