The Hanriot HD.15 was a French two seat fighter aircraft fitted with a supercharger for good high altitude performance, built in the 1920s. Three were lost at sea during delivery; the Hanriot HD.15 was designed in response to a government call for a turbo-supercharged high altitude fighter-reconnaissance aircraft. It was powered by a Hispano-Suiza 8Fb 8-cylinder upright water-cooled V-8 engine fitted with a Rateau turbo-supercharger intended to maintain sea level powers to altitudes up to 5,000 m. Structurally the HD.15 was an all-metal aircraft, though the flying surfaces and rear fuselage were fabric covered. The wings had rectangular section Duralumin box spars, assisted by tubular auxiliary spars forward and aft of them. In plan they were straight edged, unswept and of constant chord and thickness; the lower wing had a greater span. The wing tips were square, except that the horn balances of the short span ailerons on both upper and lower wings projected beyond. There was no stagger; the HD.15 had unusual interplane struts: instead of the familiar division of the wing into bays by struts braced with crossed flying and landing wires, it had a rigid, spanwise, X-shaped strut on each side, linking the upper and lower spars.
Vertical wires maintained the interplane gap and the location of the crossing point, below mid-gap. The inboard end of each upper X-strut met the wing at the top of the aft member of a pair of cabane struts; the lower ends of the X-strut met the wing further outboard, at the bottom of a strut that ran to the upper fuselage longeron. The empennage of the HD.15 was like those used on earlier Emile Dupont designs, with a braced, rectangular tailplane mounted on top of the fuselage and a small, curved edged fin. Both carried balanced control surfaces, the elevator's balances projecting beyond the tailplane tips, the low but broad chord, curved edge, deep rudder reaching down to the keel and moving within an elevator cut-out; the rather tubby fuselage of the HD.15 had tubular cross-section longerons with similar, triangularly arranged, cross bracing. The pilot's open cockpit was just behind the main wing spar, under a deep trailing edge cut-out to improve his upwards and forward vision. Close behind was the observer's cockpit, fitted with a mounted pair of swivelling machine guns.
The fuselage was fabric covered from the pilot's cockpit aft. The Hispano engine, enclosed under a metal cowling, was cooled with a pair of circular cross-section radiators mounted ventrally between the undercarriage legs; the HD.15 had a fixed conventional undercarriage, with mainwheels on a single axle mounted on the lower fuselage longerons by two pairs of V-struts. The HD.15 first flew in April 1922 and should have been in competition with the Gourdou-Leseurre GL.50, but the two seat reconnaissance fighter programme had been abandoned before this date. The whole high altitude fighter project, which included single seaters, was dropped with the inability of Rateau to deliver reliable superchargers in quantity because of high temperature material problems. Nonetheless, the Japanese Army became interested in supercharger-engined fighters and in 1926 the prototype HD.15 was sold and delivered to them. An order for three more followed, but the ship taking them to Japan was sunk by a tidal wave en voyage.
Data from Green & Swanborough p.278General characteristics Crew: Two Length: 7.60 m Wingspan: 11.40 m Height: 2.57 m Wing area: 32.48 m2 Empty weight: 1,050 kg Gross weight: 1,750 kg Powerplant: 1 × Hispano-Suiza 8Fb 8-cylinder upright water-cooled supercharged V-8, 220 kW Propellers: 2-bladedPerformance Maximum speed: 180 km/h Range: 800 km Service ceiling: 10,250 m Armament Guns: 2 × fixed, forward-firing 7.7 mm Darne machine guns.
Hanriot H.46 Styx
The Hanriot H.46 Styx was a French, single-engined, parasol wing aircraft which could be configured for training, liaison or ambulance roles. Several different engines were fitted and flown but the type did not reach production; the Styx had a one piece parasol wing with a constant chord centre-section, straight-tapered outer parts and blunt tips. Thick centrally, it thinned outwards from below beyond, its plywood-covered ailerons were towards the tips, which could be adjusted on the ground for trimming. The ply-covered wing was built around twin wooden spars and was supported centrally, well above the fuselage, on a fore and aft pair of steel inverted V-struts to those spars. Outward leaning N-struts ran from the fuselage to the wing struts at the ends of the centre-section; the engine mounting was designed so that the Styx could be powered with a variety of engines in the 71–134 kW range. Five different engine types are listed below. Early photos show the seven-cylinder Salmson 7Ac, 71 kW radial engine, mounted with its cylinders uncowled.
The main accessories, attached to the frame behind the engine, could be reached via cowling side doors. Its fuel tank was in the wing. Behind a sloping firewall the fuselage was all-metal and of rectangular section, its duralumin tube frame covered with long, narrow dural strips placed horizontally, edge-to-edge; the pilot's cockpit was open and placed under the wing with a circular window forward of the port-side cockpit door and at mid-fuselage height to provide a downward view. Behind the cockpit the top of the fuselage was domed; when the Styx was configured as a trainer, a forward section of this covering was removed and a second seat, dual controls and a windscreen were fitted. The main flight instruments were mounted under the wing leading edge so they could be seen from both cockpits; the pupil's downward view was through a pair of circular windows on each side. A partition separated him from the instructor and his access was by a upward-hinged door on the starboard side which gave access to the full length of the space behind the primary cockpit.
Alternatively, the roof could be retained and the clear, ventilated compartment space used to carry a stretcher, supported above the floor on oleo struts and loaded via the side door. The tail of the Styx was conventional, with horizontal surfaces mounted on top of the fuselage, they were tapered in plan with rounded tips. The tailplane angle of incidence was ground-adjustable but the elevators were unbalanced. A broad angular, manually adjustable fin carried a tall, narrow unbalanced rudder which extended down to the keel, operating in a small elevator cut-out; these vertical surfaces were dural-framed but were fabric covered. The undercarriage of the Styx was fixed, with a wide track, large wheels and no cross-axle, making it suitable for prepared landing fields; each mainwheel was mounted on a V-strut hinged on the lower fuselage frame with a single, shock absorbing oleo landing leg to the upper frame. Undercarriage legs and struts were enclosed in dural fairings. There was a steel-shod, rubber cord sprung tailskid.
The prototype H.46, powered by the Salmson 7A engine, first flew in April 1928. Over the next eighteen months variants with other engines, summarised below, were flown, it is not known. The 75 kW, Lorraine 5Pa-engined H.461 was on display, unflown, at the Paris Salon which opened on 29 June 1928. The most powerful variant, the Hispano-powered H.465, took part in a meeting of air ambulance aircraft held in May 1929 and the H.463, with its uprated Lorraine 5Pc engine was flying at Villacoublay in July 1929. H.46 7-cylinder Salmson 7Ac, 71 kW radial engine. First flown April 1928. H.461 5-cylinder Lorraine 5Pa, 75 kW radial engine. First flown November 1928. H.462 9-cylinder Salmson 9Ac, 89 kW radial engine. First flown June 1928. H.463 5-cylinder Lorraine 5Pc, 89 kW radial engine. Flying by July 1929. H.464 9-cylinder Clerget 9B, 97 kW rotary engine. First flown 1929. H.465 V-8 Hispano-Suiza 8Ab 130 kW. First flown March 1929. Data from Les Ailes, July 1928General characteristics Crew: One Capacity: One pupil or patient Length: 7.50 m Wingspan: 12.45 m Height: 3.0 m Wing area: 23 m2 Gross weight: 900 kg Powerplant: 1 × Salmson 9AC 9-cylinder air-cooled radial, 89 kW Propellers: 2-bladedPerformance Maximum speed: 150 km/h at ground level Endurance: 3 hr Time to altitude: 17 m to 2,000 m
The Hanriot HD.3 C.2 was a two-seat fighter aircraft produced in France during World War I. Similar in appearance to a scaled-up HD.1, the Hanriot HD.3 was a conventional, single-bay biplane with staggered wings of equal span. The pilot and gunner sat in tandem, open cockpits and the main units of the fixed tailskid undercarriage were linked by a cross-axle. Short struts braced the fuselage sides to the lower wing. Flight testing revealed excellent performance, the French government ordered 300 of the type in 1918, in preparation for a major offensive the following year; when the war ended, the contract was cancelled with around 75 aircraft having been delivered to the Aéronautique Militaire and at least 15 to the Aéronautique Maritime. One example was delivered to the Aéronautique Maritime in summer 1918 equipped with twin float undercarriage and a larger tailfin; the Armistice led to the abandonment of a dedicated night fighter variant, the HD.3bis, with enlarged and balanced ailerons and rudder and with a wing of increased section.
After the war, one of the navy's machines was used for trials aboard the new aircraft carrier Béarn, while another was used for floatation tests at the Isle of Grain. HD.3 C.2 Main production version HD.3bis CN.2 Nightfighter prototype with thick wing section and revised control surfaces HD.4 Floatplane derivative of HD.3. One built. HD.9 Ap.1 Single-seat photo-reconnaissance biplane, powered by a 190 kW Salmson 9Za water-cooled radial piston engine. Ten evaluation aircraft were ordered, with the first completed in November 1918. FranceFrench Navy Kingdom of ItalyAeronautica Militare Data from War Planes of the First World WarGeneral characteristics Crew: Two and gunner Length: 6.95 m Wingspan: 9.00 m Height: 3.00 m Wing area: 25.5 m2 Empty weight: 760 kg Gross weight: 1,180 kg Powerplant: 1 × Salmson 9Za nine-cylinder water-cooled radial engine, 195 kW Performance Maximum speed: 192 km/h Range: 498 km Endurance: 2 hours Service ceiling: 5,700 m Rate of climb: 4.1 m/s Armament 2 × fixed, forward-firing.303 Vickers machine guns 2 × trainable, rearward-firing.303 Lewis guns S, W. "Rara Avis - The Hanriot HD.3.
C2". Windsock Worldwide. Albatros Productions. 28: 15–18
The Hanriot HD.22 was a racer aircraft built by Hanriot in the early 1920s. The HD.22 was a high-wing monoplane intended for the Coupe Deutsch de la Meurthe. It had an all-metal fuselage. Data from General characteristics Crew: 1 Length: 5.93 m Wingspan: 6.38 m Height: 2.20 m Wing area: 7.50 m2 Gross weight: 800 kg Powerplant: 1 × Hispano-Suiza 8Fb V-8 water-cooled piston engine, 220 kW Propellers: 2-bladed fixed-pitch propellerPerformance Maximum speed: 133 km/h at sea level. It is not certain if these performance figures relate to the MS.180 or the MS.181. Cruise speed: 360 km/h
The Hanriot H.110 was an unusual pusher configuration, twin boom, single seat fighter aircraft built in France in the early 1930s. It proved to be slower and less manoeuvrable than its contemporaries and failed to reach production as the Hanriot H.115 after receiving a more powerful engine and cannon armament. From 1916 until 1933, the only Hanriot fighter aircraft had been tractor biplanes; the Hanriot H.110, a twin boom pusher cantilever monoplane was therefore a considerable departure from the past. It was designed to compete in the STAé 1930/31 C1 programme; the all-metal H. 110 had an open engine in a short central nacelle. It was powered by a 485 kW Hispano-Suiza 12Xbrs supercharged upright water-cooled V-12 engine behind the pilot, driving a three-blade pusher propeller; the pilot's headrest was smoothly faired into the engine cowling. There was a circular Chausson radiator in the short nose ahead of the open cockpit, with a variable position central cone to control the airflow; the wings were built around two spars.
The central 25% of their span, between the booms, had constant chord. Outboard they had a wider chord and beyond were double straight tapered to rounded tips, they carried full-span, narrow-chord Frise ailerons. Forward, the slim, square section and untapered tail booms blended into the wings at about mid-chord, the aft ends carrying a constant-chord tailplane above them; this had rounded a central elevator with a trim tab. A central, tall, round-tipped, wire-braced vertical tail was mounted on in it; the H.110 had a fixed, conventional undercarriage with each spatted mainwheel on a faired, near vertical shock absorber and a rearward leaning strut together forming a V, laterally braced with an inverted V-strut attached near the under-fuselage centre line. There was a central tailwheel on a long leg under the fin; the H.110 began flight testing in April 1933. Tested against its smaller and lighter competitors, it proved slower and less manoeuvrable and was returned to Hanriot for modification, it flew in April 1934 as the H.115, with its HS 12Xbrs engine uprated to 515 kW, a new four-blade propeller with variable-pitch and a revised nacelle, shortened forward of the cockpit by 360 mm.
A 33 mm APX cannon was now housed in a fairing below the nacelle as an alternative to the earlier pair of Chatellerault 7.5 mm machine guns. With its new engine and propeller the H.115 was quicker than the earlier version, with a top speed of 390 km/h. After more modifications over the winter of 1934-5 it returned to Villacoublay in June 1935 and was flight tested until mid August, but failed to attract a contract. H.110 Original version. H. 115 Uprated shorter nose, four blade propeller and 33 mm cannon. Data from Green & Swanborough p.279-80General characteristics Crew: One Length: 7.96 m Wingspan: 13.50 m Height: 2.70 m Wing area: 24.00 m2 Empty weight: 1,260 kg Gross weight: 1,750 kg Powerplant: 1 × Hispano-Suiza 12Xbrs supercharged upright watercooled V-12 engine, 480 kW at 4,000 m Propellers: 3-bladed pusher configuration Rated power 370 kW Performance Maximum speed: 355 km/h Range: 600 km Time to altitude: 7.78 min to 5,000 m Armament Guns: 2×7.5 mm MAC 1934 machine guns
France the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean, it is bordered by Belgium and Germany to the northeast and Italy to the east, Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic and Indian oceans; the country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Toulouse, Bordeaux and Nice. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia.
The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into Middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia which became the Kingdom of France in 987 emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages following its victory in the Hundred Years' War. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world; the 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Protestants. France became Europe's dominant cultural and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French Revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, established one of modern history's earliest republics, saw the drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day. In the 19th century, Napoleon established the First French Empire, his subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870.
France was a major participant in World War I, from which it emerged victorious, was one of the Allies in World War II, but came under occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War; the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains today. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s and retained close economic and military connections with France. France has long been a global centre of art and philosophy, it hosts the world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country with the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, human development.
France is considered a great power in global affairs, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member state of the European Union and the Eurozone, a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, La Francophonie. Applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name "France" comes from the Latin "Francia", or "country of the Franks". Modern France is still named today "Francia" in Italian and Spanish, "Frankreich" in German and "Frankrijk" in Dutch, all of which have more or less the same historical meaning. There are various theories as to the origin of the name Frank. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm, the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank in English, it has been suggested that the meaning of "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation.
Another theory is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankon, which translates as javelin or lance as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca. However, it has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use by the Franks, not the other way around; the oldest traces of human life in what is now France date from 1.8 million years ago. Over the ensuing millennia, Humans were confronted by a harsh and variable climate, marked by several glacial eras. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life. France has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved, Lascaux. At the end of the last glacial period, the climate became milder. After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium working gold and bronze, iron. France has numerous megalithic sites from the Neolithic period, including the exceptiona
The Hanriot H.38 was a French twin-engined sesquiplane flying boat built in the mid-1920s. Though the sole prototype was fitted with two defensive machine gun posts; the H.38 was described at the time as a utility aircraft.. The upper wing of the H.38 was mounted high above the water, with the smaller lower wing attached to the upper hull. Both wings had low aspect ratio and were rectangular in plan, with constant thickness; each was built around two steel spars and they were braced together with pairs of parallel steel interplane struts. There were three sets of these on each side, one pair outwards from the lower wing, another from the same points inwards to the engine mountings on the upper wing and another between the engines and the lower wing root; the H.38 was powered by two 130 kW Hispano-Suiza 8Ab water-cooled V8 engines with front-mounted radiators, placed as close together as their propellers diameters allowed in order to minimise asymmetric thrust in the event of an engine failure.
Its hull was wooden, with a concave section, single step bottom curved sides and a flat top. The underside was triple surfaced and the sides double. Stability on the water was provided by a pair of floats under the lower wings beneath the interplane strut mountings, separated by about 4.7 m. The hull contained three open crew positions. Two of them, one in the extreme nose and the other midway between the trailing edge and the tail, housed machine gunners; the cockpit, under the leading edge of the upper wing, had two side-by-side seats, equipped with dual controls. The hull underside sloped upward aft to the tail, where a low fin served as a step on which to mount a rectangular tailplane braced on each side with struts to the lower side of the hull, it carried balanced elevators. The rhomboidal, generous rudder was balanced; the exact date of the first flight of the Hanriot H.38 is not known but it had flown many times before mid-March 1926. It continued to fly for another ten months until, after alighting on the Marne at Bezons, it was caught by the current and lost after hitting the pier of a bridge.
Neither Marcel Haegelen, Hanriot's chief test pilot, nor the flight engineer Quéro were injured. Data from Les Ailes, March 1926General characteristics Crew: Three/four Length: 10.75 m Upper wingspan: 14 m Lower wingspan: 7.75 m Height: 3.50 m Wing area: 50 m2 Empty weight: 1,555 kg Gross weight: 2,377 kg Fuel capacity: 322 kg fuel + oil Powerplant: 2 × Hispano-Suiza 8Ab water-cooled V8, 130 kW each Propellers: 2-bladedPerformance Maximum speed: 160 km/h at ground level Service ceiling: 4,600 m