In US railroad terminology, a gondola is an open-topped rail vehicle used for transporting loose bulk materials. Because of their low side walls, gondolas are suitable for the carriage of such high-density cargos as steel plates or coils, or of bulky items such as prefabricated sections of rail track. Before the opening of the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad and the Chesapeake & Ohio Canal in Harpers Ferry, considerable amounts of coal were carried via the Potomac River. Since timber was an abundant resource, flat boats, called "gondolas", were constructed to navigate the "black diamonds" down river to markets around Washington, DC. There, both the boat and cargo were sold and the boatmen returned home by foot; the railroad cars first employed in the haulage of coal were thus named after these shallow-draft boats called "gondola cars". Early gondola cars had low sides, their contents had to be shoveled out by hand, they took a long time to unload. In 1905, the Ralston Steel Car Company patented a flat bottom gondola with lever operated chutes that allowed the gondola to be unloaded automatically from the bottom.
The chutes would direct the contents of the gondola to the sides. This coincided with the switch from wood to steel freight cars, as the pulling force of locomotives tended to crush the older wood cars. An open railroad car with a tipping trough found in mines. Known in the UK as a tippler or chaldron wagon and in the US as a mine car; the first railway bulk-cargo gondolas, the first freight wagons, were the chaldron cars of the early coal-carrying plateways. These were short in length and tall in proportion, with a tapered body that widened upwards, above the wheels. Once locomotive haulage began, the unstable and top-heavy nature of this design became a problem with increasing speeds and wagons became lower and longer; the chaldron shape survived in a few cases, such as low-speed working around a large factory sites including steelworks. In the second half of the 20th century, coal haulage shifted from open hopper cars to high-sided gondolas. Using a gondola, the railroads are able to haul a larger amount of coal per car since gondolas do not include the equipment needed for unloading.
However, since these cars do not have hatches for unloading the products shipped in them, railroads must use rotary car dumpers or other means to empty them. The term "bathtub" refers to the shape of the car. Track ballast gondolas carry ballast. Double Stack Intermodal Cars-Freight Origins of name in railroad use In Australia these wagons are called open wagons. Atchison and Santa Fe Railway #72312 — photos and short history of an example of a typical steel, four-axle, solid bottom, fixed end, mill gondola. Guide to Railcarsdead link] Rail car manufacturing Flexiwaggon
Michael Lawrie is a British computer security and social networking expert known for many things ranging from running MUDs to accidentally being the world's first Cybersquatter. He lives in Cambridge, England where he created and runs the Cambridge Freecycle group, one of the largest in Europe. While at the University of Leeds, he took over management of MUD1 at Essex University in 1987. MUD1 was the first online role playing world, played by text through X.25/PSS and Telnet. After its shutdown he carried on running MIST, another early virtual world, until he closed that down in 1991. Famous simply as Lorry, he wrote the seminal guide for MUD management "Confessions of an Arch-Wizard". Years he wrote a few updates to this explaining how it all worked in practice. In 1988 he took over the AberMUD project for a year, running a standard distribution of the game at Southampton University, Leeds University and the IBM PC Users Group, he managed a VAX based mud at St David's University College, Lampeter.
Lawrie was the first person to send out the AberMUD source code to Vijay Subramaniam thus starting the proliferation of MUDs throughout the world. Lawrie has been involved in IRC since it first left Finland and had his first IRC Operator on Vijay Subramaniam's IRC Server in 1989. Since he has been involved in IRC both in the UK and worldwide and was central in creating Ircnet when the European servers split away from EFnet. Michael Lawrie is an ardent supporter of free, public-access systems and servers and is rooted in the history of such services and in the development and opening up of the internet in the UK, he was one of the management team of Edinburgh University's Tardis Project in 1987 and managed HICOM, a joint project between the British Computer Society, the British Psychological Society, Digital Equipment Corporation and British Telecom into HCI and CSCW. HICOM's VMS system was open to anybody who wanted an account and as well as being famous for being the only machine that the hacker Kevin Mitnick had a legitimate account on.
It was the first public access Internet Service Provider in the UK. In his non-online life Michael Lawrie started off as systems and security manager and computer misuse expert and is now a Commercial Security Consultant and threat assessment specialist, he has worked for a number of large companies and headed up the Commercial Security team at British Telecom. He is the owner of a huge collection of historical computers, peripherals, electronic games, more than a tonne of technical documentation, it contains more than 200 microcomputers dating from 1968 onwards and a number of larger machines, including significant VAXes and old PDPs. The collection is not available for public view. Lawrie's Professional Page Lawrie's Personal Page Lawrie's Weblog Extracts from "Internet Culture in Easy Steps" by Josh Smith MP3 recording of a radio interview on BBC Radio Cambridge about Freecycle
Lorry is a former entertainment venue in the Frederiksberg district of Copenhagen, Denmark. It takes its name after its founder, Frederik Laurentius Feilberg, popularly known as Lorry; the listed building complex now houses TV2's local news station for the Copenhagen area. Lorry's history as an entertainment venue goes back to 1834 when the country house Enighedslyst was converted into a tea garden. In the mid-1860s it became an entertainment venue where female singers performed in front of an audience consisting of local craftsmen; the restaurateur Carl Kehlet took the place over in 1877 and his successful business enabled him to purchase the entire property. He turned the ground floor into a restaurant and moved the singing girls upstairs to Café Chantant, a new venue on the first flor; the establishment began to attract a larger audience. Among the well-known guests were the writer and painter Holger Drachmann, who found his muse, among the singers. In 1896, Kehlet sold his establishment to Frederik Laurentius Feilberg, known as Lorry, who named it after himself.
He changed the name of Café Chantant inro Operetten. The tradition with singing girls was discontinued in 1914, it served as a venue for cabarets. In 1909 and 1913, he acquired two neighbouring buildings for expanding his entertainment establishment. In 1910, he expanded the ground floor into Landsbyen; the interior walls were painted as facades of half-timbered farmhouses and there were a forge, a farmer's kitchen and a well while the stage resembled a horse carriage. The audience was seated at small tables spread out across the floor. In 1913, Kehlet opened Drachmenn Kroen, a large popular restaurant named after a former guest who had died in 1909; the room was decorated with a series of paintings by Aksel Jørgensen which incorporated Drachmann and Edith in scenes from Drachmann's works. Feilberg had plans to convert it into an elegant hall where afternoon guests could have tea accompanied by subtle music while it could be rented out for private celebrations in the evening. However, due to an illness which prompted him to sell, Feilberg never put his plans through but they were realized by his successor, Valdemar Nielsen, who opened Guldaldersalen.
The Landsbyen venue saw another expansion in 1929. The decorations were adapted to resemble tyrolean houses with balconies and murals of snow-capped mountains painted on the rear walls. An expansion of the stage created room both for soloists; the inspiration was Haus Vaterland on Potsdamer Platz in Berlin. In 1945, Landsbyen was hit by Schalburgtage but it was rebuilt just a few month later. Over the following decades, it remained a popular venue, attracting family excursions in the afternoon and international performances in the evenings, but with the advance of television and new habits, it lost its audience and closed in 1976. After a few years, Frederiksberg Municipality acquired the buildings and put them through a comprehensive refurbishment, yet attempts to revive the place as a venue for popular entertainment remained unsuccessful. TV2/Lorry rented the complex from its establishment and purchased it from Frederiksberg Municipality in 1999, they now have their television studios in Landsbyen while Guldaldersalen and Drachmann Kroen serve as editorial rooms.
Riddersalen is a theatre. It has been run by Jytte Abildstrøn since 1970. Dating from 1881, 11 Allégade now houses a Café Grock. Frederiksberg Allé. Danish Revue Museum TV2 Lorry clip about Aksel Jørgensen's paintings PDF about the locality Aksel Hørgensen's paintings in Drachmannskroen
Jarvis Lorry is a character in Charles Dickens' novel, A Tale of Two Cities. Jarvis Lorry is one of the oldest employees of Tellson's Bank, he deals with the bank's offices in London and Paris, he is a confirmed bachelor and a man of business, describing himself as not much else than a speaking machine. He shows an awkward sympathy towards Dr. Alexandre Manette and his daughter Lucie Manette. While serving in Tellson's Paris office, Lorry takes the infant Lucie to safety in London after her father is imprisoned in the Bastille; when the novel begins, Lorry escorts the adult Lucie Manette to Paris to retrieve her freed father and is troubled by what they will find on their arrival. When Charles Darnay is arrested on his arrival in England, Mr. Lorry retains the lawyers Stryver and Sydney Carton to defend Darnay. Mr. Lorry becomes an intimate friend of the Manettes. Years when the French Revolution begins, Mr. Lorry goes to Paris to handle Tellson's bank business and at the same time tries to provide assistance to Lucie and her father during Darnay’s imprisonment.
He softens to Carton and by the time Darnay is delivered back to the family, Lorry has undergone a transformation from a crusty curmudgeon, to a man who realizes the importance of people over all else. In the 1935 Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer film adaptation, Jarvis Lorry is portrayed by Claude Gillingwater. In the 2008 Broadway musical adaptation of'A Tale of Two Cities,' Jarvis Lorry is played by Michael Hayward-Jones
A truck or lorry is a motor vehicle designed to transport cargo. Trucks vary in size and configuration. Commercial trucks can be large and powerful, may be configured to mount specialized equipment, such as in the case of fire trucks, concrete mixers, suction excavators. Modern trucks are powered by diesel engines, although small to medium size trucks with gasoline engines exist in the US, Mexico. In the European Union, vehicles with a gross combination mass of up to 3.5 t are known as light commercial vehicles, those over as large goods vehicles. Trucks and cars have a common ancestor: the steam-powered fardier Nicolas-Joseph Cugnot built in 1769. However, steam wagons were not common until the mid-1800s; the roads of the time, built for horse and carriages, limited these vehicles to short hauls from a factory to the nearest railway station. The first semi-trailer appeared in 1881, towed by a steam tractor manufactured by De Dion-Bouton. Steam-powered wagons were sold in France and the United States until the eve of World War I, 1935 in the United Kingdom, when a change in road tax rules made them uneconomic against the new diesel lorries.
In 1895 Karl Benz designed and built the first truck in history using the internal combustion engine. That year some of Benz's trucks were modified to become the first bus by the Netphener, the first motorbus company in history. A year in 1896, another internal combustion engine truck was built by Gottlieb Daimler. Other companies, such as Peugeot, Renault and Büssing built their own versions; the first truck in the United States was built by Autocar in 1899 and was available with optional 5 or 8 horsepower motors. Trucks of the era used two-cylinder engines and had a carrying capacity of 3,300 to 4,400 lb. In 1904, 700 heavy trucks were built in the United States, 1000 in 1907, 6000 in 1910, 25000 in 1914. After World War I, several advances were made: pneumatic tires replaced the common full rubber versions. Electric starters, power brakes, 4, 6, 8 cylinder engines, closed cabs, electric lighting followed; the first modern semi-trailer trucks appeared. Touring car builders such as Ford and Renault entered the heavy truck market.
Although it had been invented in 1897, the diesel engine did not appear in production trucks until Benz introduced it in 1923. The diesel engine was not common in trucks in Europe until the 1930s. In the United States, Autocar introduced engines for heavy applications in the mid-1930s. Demand was high enough Autocar launched the "DC" model in 1939. However, it took much longer for diesel engines to be broadly accepted in the US: gasoline engines were still in use on heavy trucks in the 1970s. Truck is used in American English, is common in Canada, New Zealand, Puerto Rico and South Africa, while lorry is the equivalent in British English, is the usual term in countries like the United Kingdom, Malaysia and India; the word "truck" might come from a back-formation of "truckle", meaning "small wheel" or "pulley", from Middle English trokell, in turn from Latin trochlea. Another possible source is the Latin trochus, meaning "iron hoop". In turn, both sources emanate from trekhein; the first known usage of "truck" was in 1611, when it referred to the small strong wheels on ships' cannon carriages.
In its extended usage it came to refer to carts for carrying heavy loads, a meaning known since 1771. Its expanded application to "motor-powered load carrier" has been in usage since 1930, shortened from "motor truck", which dates back to 1901."Lorry" has a more uncertain origin, but has its roots in the rail transport industry, where the word is known to have been used in 1838 to refer to a type of truck a large flat wagon. It derives from the verb lurry of uncertain origin, its expanded meaning, "self-propelled vehicle for carrying goods", has been in usage since 1911. Before that, the word "lorry" was used for a sort of big horse-drawn goods wagon. In the United States and the Philippines "truck" is reserved for commercial vehicles larger than normal cars, includes pickups and other vehicles having an open load bed. In Australia, New Zealand and South Africa, the word "truck" is reserved for larger vehicles. In the United Kingdom, Malaysia, Singapore and Hong Kong lorry is used instead of truck, but only for the medium and heavy types.
Produced as variations of golf cars, with internal combustion or battery electric drive, these are used for off-highway use on estates, golf courses, parks. While not suitable for highway use some variations may be licensed as slow speed vehicles for operation on streets as a body variation of a neighborhood electric vehicle. A few manufactures produce specialized chassis for this type of vehicle, while Zap Motors markets a version of their xebra electric tricycle. Popular in Europe and Asia, many mini trucks are factory redesigns of light automobiles with monocoque bodies. Specialized designs with substantial frames such as the Italian Piaggio shown here are based upon Japanese designs and are popular for use in "old town" sections of European cities that have narrow alleyways. Regardless of name, these smal