Eric Michael Garcetti is an American politician serving as the 42nd and current Mayor of Los Angeles since 2013. A member of the Democratic Party, he was first elected in the 2013 election and won reelection in 2017. A former member of the Los Angeles City Council, Garcetti served as council president from 2006 to 2012, he is the city's first elected Jewish mayor, its youngest mayor in history, its second consecutive Mexican American mayor. Garcetti was born on February 4, 1971 at Good Samaritan Hospital in Los Angeles and was raised in Encino, in the San Fernando Valley, he is Gil Garcetti, a former Los Angeles County district attorney. Garcetti's paternal grandfather, was born in Parral, Mexico. Salvador was brought by his family to the United States as a child after his father, Massimo "Max" Garcetti, was murdered by hanging during the Mexican Revolution. Max had immigrated to Mexico from Italy, where he became a judge, his paternal grandmother, Juanita Iberri, was born in Arizona, one of 19 children born to an immigrant father from Sonora, Mexico and an Arizona-born mother whose father and mother were both Mexican.
Garcetti's maternal grandparents were from Russian Jewish immigrant families. His maternal grandfather, Harry Roth and ran the clothing brand Louis Roth Clothes. Garcetti attended elementary school at UCLA Lab School University Elementary School. While in high school, he was a member of the Junior State of America, a national civic engagement and political debate organization for students. Garcetti majored in political science and urban planning and received a Bachelor of Arts from Columbia University in 1992 as a John Jay Scholar. During that time, he served on the student council, was president of the St. Anthony Hall fraternity and literary society, founded the Columbia Urban Experience, co-wrote and performed in three years of the Varsity Show, a student-written musical, whose past co-writers include Richard Rodgers, Oscar Hammerstein II, Lorenz Hart, he received a Masters of International Affairs from the School of International and Public Affairs at Columbia University, graduating in 1993.
He met his future wife while they were both studying as Rhodes Scholars at The Queen's College, Oxford. He studied for a PhD in ethnicity and nationalism at the London School of Economics. Prior to his election to the Los Angeles City Council, Garcetti was a visiting instructor of international affairs at the University of Southern California and an assistant professor of diplomacy and world affairs at Occidental College, his academic work focused on ethnic nationalism in Southeast Asia and Northeast Africa. During this time, he published articles and chapters of books on post-conflict societies, Eritrean nationalism, non-violent action, he has served on the California board of Human Rights Watch, serves on the advisory board for Young Storytellers, an arts education nonprofit organization based in Los Angeles. City Council District 13 was left vacant after incumbent Jackie Goldberg was elected to the State Assembly in 2000. Garcetti ran for the open seat and was elected in 2001, narrowly defeating former city councilmember Michael Woo.
He was re-elected again in 2005 and 2009. Garcetti served as council president from January 1, 2006 to January 12, 2012, he was elected by his colleagues to succeed succeeded Alex Padilla, who resigned after being elected to the California State Senate. He was one of the first elected officials in Los Angeles to hold "office hours" each month, where constituents can meet with him face-to-face, he implemented a "Constituent Bill of Rights" that ensures that constituents' phone calls are returned within a single workday, that constituents are included in all land-use decisions in their neighborhood, that all constituent concerns are tracked on a computer system that details all actions taken on that particular case. He ensured that the meetings started on time, all past meetings were made available online, he has helped more than 1,500 local constituents learn about the governmental process by hosting Government and Planning 101 courses throughout the city. In 2004, Garcetti authored Proposition O, a county stormwater bond which sought to clean the city's waterways.
Voters approved the bond with just over 76% of the vote, making it the largest clean water bond in the United States. In 2005, Garcetti helped, he authored two of the nation's most far-reaching municipal green building ordinances: the first requires all city buildings to be built to the LEED-certified standard, the second mandates that all commercial buildings of more than 50,000 sq ft in Los Angeles be built to a LEED standard. He supported changes in the city's landscape ordinance and plumbing codes to promote water conservation. In July 2010, Garcetti council president, weakened a 2009 lawn watering ordinance, allowing watering three days per week instead of two; the ordinance restricting watering to two days a week had been passed 13 months earlier by Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa. While it helped the city cut its water use and cope with ongoing drought, the measure was unpopular and was accused of causing pressure fluctuations and water main breaks. A Los Angeles Times editorial said that the city council's changes to the watering ordinance was a "death knell for one of the best collective environmental efforts made by the citizens of Los Angeles".
Garcetti worked to have Historic Filipinotown desingated a Preserve America Community. He championed renovating the Hollywood Palladium by Live Nation Entertainment, at risk of being demolished, he has faced public scrutiny f
1898 Los Angeles mayoral election
The 1898 election for Mayor of Los Angeles took place on December 5, 1898. Incumbent Meredith P. Snyder was defeated by Frederick Eaton. Office of the City Clerk, City of Los Angeles
Los Angeles City Hall
Los Angeles City Hall, completed in 1928, is the center of the government of the city of Los Angeles and houses the mayor's office and the meeting chambers and offices of the Los Angeles City Council. It is located in the Civic Center district of downtown Los Angeles in the city block bounded by Main, Temple and Spring streets; the building was designed by John Parkinson, John C. Austin, Albert C. Martin, Sr. and was completed in 1928. Dedication ceremonies were held on April 26, 1928, it has 32 floors and, at 454 feet high, is the tallest base-isolated structure in the world, having undergone a seismic retrofit from 1998 to 2001 so that the building will sustain minimal damage and remain functional after a magnitude 8.2 earthquake. The concrete in its tower was made with sand from each of California's 58 counties and water from its 21 historical missions. City Hall's distinctive tower was based on the shape of the Mausoleum of Mausolus, shows the influence of the Los Angeles Public Library, completed shortly before the structure was begun.
An image of City Hall has been on Los Angeles Police Department badges since 1940. To keep the City's architecture harmonious, prior to the late 1950s the Charter of the City of Los Angeles did not permit any portion of any building other than a purely decorative tower to be more than 150 ft. Therefore, from its completion in 1928 until 1964, the City Hall was the tallest building in Los Angeles, shared the skyline with only a few structures having decorative towers, including the Richfield Tower and the Eastern Columbia Building. City Hall has an observation deck, free to the public and open Monday through Friday during business hours; the peak of the pyramid at the top of the building is an airplane beacon named in honor of Colonel Charles A. Lindbergh, cf Lindbergh Beacon. Circa 1939, there was an art gallery, in Room 351 on the third floor, that exhibited paintings by California artists; the building was designated a Los Angeles Historic-Cultural Monument in 1976. In 1998 the building was closed during a total $135 million refurbishment which included upgrading it so it could withstand a magnitude 8.2 earthquake including permitting it to sway in a quake.
Prior to the completion of the current structure, the L. A. City Council utilized various other buildings: 1850s: used rented hotel and other buildings for City meetings 1860s: rented adobe house on Spring Street—across from current City Hall 1860s–1884: relocated to Los Angeles County Court House 1884–1888: moved to building at South Spring Street and West 2nd Street 1888–1928: moved to new Romanesque Revival building on 226-238 South Broadway between 2nd Street and 3rd Street; the Mayor of Los Angeles has an office in room 300 of this building and every Tuesday and Friday at 10:00am, the Los Angeles City Council meets in its chamber. City Hall and the adjacent federal and county buildings are served by the Civic Center station on the LA Metro Red Line and Purple Line; the Silver Line stops in front of the building. An observation level is open to the public on the 27th floor; the interior of this floor, comprises a single large and vaulted room distinguished by the iconic tall square columns that are far more familiar as one of the building's most distinguishing exterior features.
The Mayor Tom Bradley Room, as this large interior space is named, is used for ceremonies and other special occasions. The Los Angeles Dodgers wore a commemorative uniform patch during the 2018 season celebrating 60 years in the city depicting a logo of Los Angeles City Hall; the building has been featured in the following popular movies and television shows: Adventures of Superman: The building appears as the Daily Planet building beginning in the second season of the 1950s TV series. At the time the TV program was broadcast, the show's Daily Planet building was confused with the designed Pennsylvania Power & Light Building in Allentown built in 1928. Additionally, the exact design of this building is used as the Newstime magazine headquarters in the Superman comic books. Alias: A CIA black ops unit is located behind a maintenance door at Civic Station. Dragnet: The building appears as itself in the TV series; the first episode of Dragnet Season 1, Episode 1: "The Human Bomb", original air date 16 December 1951, was filmed at Los Angeles City Hall.
It was embossed on Sgt. Joe Friday's famous badge number 714, displayed under the credits. Perry Mason: The City Hall building appears in the view from Perry's office window; this has led viewers of the show to speculate where the fictional office would have been located in downtown Los Angeles. L. A. Confidential: The police in the 1997 neo-noir film operate out of the City hall, as well as the police badges featuring a depiction the building itself. At the time the film takes place no building in Los Angeles was allowed to be taller than City Hall, so the cameras were placed at certain points so that any building taller than City Hall would not be seen. Tower of Terror: In this 1997 made-for-TV movie, the main character's love interest works at a fictional newspaper, The Los Angeles Banner; the newspaper's logo is based on the top of the city hall. Adam-12: During the seventh season opening credits montage, City Hall is shown directly at the end, as the building that officers Reed and Malloy drive away from.
It is shown on the embossed badges numbered 744 and 2430. The 2003 Dragnet series used the L. A. City Hall building aerial shot and badge throughout its introduction. War of the Worlds: The Ci
Los Angeles the City of Los Angeles and known by its initials L. A. is the most populous city in California, the second most populous city in the United States, after New York City, the third most populous city in North America. With an estimated population of four million, Los Angeles is the cultural and commercial center of Southern California; the city is known for its Mediterranean climate, ethnic diversity and the entertainment industry, its sprawling metropolis. Los Angeles is the largest city on the West Coast of North America. Los Angeles is in a large basin bounded by the Pacific Ocean on one side and by mountains as high as 10,000 feet on the other; the city proper, which covers about 469 square miles, is the seat of Los Angeles County, the most populated county in the country. Los Angeles is the principal city of the Los Angeles metropolitan area, the second largest in the United States after that of New York City, with a population of 13.1 million. It is part of the Los Angeles-Long Beach combined statistical area the nation's second most populous area with a 2015 estimated population of 18.7 million.
Los Angeles is one of the most substantial economic engines within the United States, with a diverse economy in a broad range of professional and cultural fields. Los Angeles is famous as the home of Hollywood, a major center of the world entertainment industry. A global city, it has been ranked 6th in the Global Cities Index and 9th in the Global Economic Power Index; the Los Angeles metropolitan area has a gross metropolitan product of $1.044 trillion, making it the third-largest in the world, after the Tokyo and New York metropolitan areas. Los Angeles hosted the 1932 and 1984 Summer Olympics and will host the event for a third time in 2028; the city hosted the Miss Universe pageant twice, in 1990 and 2006, was one of 9 American cities to host the 1994 FIFA men's soccer World Cup and one of 8 to host the 1999 FIFA women's soccer World Cup, hosting the final match for both tournaments. Home to the Chumash and Tongva, Los Angeles was claimed by Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo for Spain in 1542 along with the rest of what would become Alta California.
The city was founded on September 4, 1781, by Spanish governor Felipe de Neve. It became a part of Mexico in 1821 following the Mexican War of Independence. In 1848, at the end of the Mexican–American War, Los Angeles and the rest of California were purchased as part of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, becoming part of the United States. Los Angeles was incorporated as a municipality on April 4, 1850, five months before California achieved statehood; the discovery of oil in the 1890s brought rapid growth to the city. The completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, delivering water from Eastern California assured the city's continued rapid growth; the Los Angeles coastal area was settled by the Chumash tribes. A Gabrieleño settlement in the area was called iyáangẚ, meaning "poison oak place". Maritime explorer Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo claimed the area of southern California for the Spanish Empire in 1542 while on an official military exploring expedition moving north along the Pacific coast from earlier colonizing bases of New Spain in Central and South America.
Gaspar de Portolà and Franciscan missionary Juan Crespí, reached the present site of Los Angeles on August 2, 1769. In 1771, Franciscan friar Junípero Serra directed the building of the Mission San Gabriel Arcángel, the first mission in the area. On September 4, 1781, a group of forty-four settlers known as "Los Pobladores" founded the pueblo they called El Pueblo de Nuestra Señora la Reina de los Ángeles,'The Town of Our Lady the Queen of the Angels'; the present-day city has the largest Roman Catholic Archdiocese in the United States. Two-thirds of the Mexican or settlers were mestizo or mulatto, a mixture of African and European ancestry; the settlement remained a small ranch town for decades, but by 1820, the population had increased to about 650 residents. Today, the pueblo is commemorated in the historic district of Los Angeles Pueblo Plaza and Olvera Street, the oldest part of Los Angeles. New Spain achieved its independence from the Spanish Empire in 1821, the pueblo continued as a part of Mexico.
During Mexican rule, Governor Pío Pico made Los Angeles Alta California's regional capital. Mexican rule ended during the Mexican–American War: Americans took control from the Californios after a series of battles, culminating with the signing of the Treaty of Cahuenga on January 13, 1847. Railroads arrived with the completion of the transcontinental Southern Pacific line to Los Angeles in 1876 and the Santa Fe Railroad in 1885. Petroleum was discovered in the city and surrounding area in 1892, by 1923, the discoveries had helped California become the country's largest oil producer, accounting for about one-quarter of the world's petroleum output. By 1900, the population had grown to more than 102,000; the completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, under the supervision of William Mulholland, assured the continued growth of the city. Due to clauses in the city's charter that prevented the City of Los Angeles from selling or providing water from the aqueduct to any area outside its borders, many adjacent city and communities became compelled to annex themselves into Los Angeles.
Los Angeles created the first municipal zoning ordinance in the United States. On September 14, 1908, the Los Angeles City Council promulgated residential and industrial land use zones; the new ordinance established three residential zones of a single type, where industrial uses were
1929 Los Angeles mayoral election
The 1929 election for Mayor of Los Angeles took place on June 9, 1929. Incumbent George E. Cryer did not contest the election, won by John Clinton Porter. Office of the City Clerk, City of Los Angeles
Los Angeles Public Library
The Los Angeles Public Library system serves the residents of the City of Los Angeles. The system holds more than six million volumes, with over 18 million residents in the Los Angeles Metropolitan area, it serves the largest population of any publicly funded library system in the United States; the system is overseen by a Board of Library Commissioners with five members appointed by the mayor of Los Angeles in staggered terms in accordance with the city charter. Library cards are free to California residents. Circulating books, periodicals, computer access and audiovisual materials are available to patrons. Books and audiobooks are loaned for 3 weeks. Music cassettes, music CDs, documentary videos, documentary DVDs are loaned for 1 week. Entertainment videos and entertainment DVDs are loaned for 4 days. Fines are charged. There is a loan limit of 10 books, 10 magazines, 4 DVDs or videos at one time up to maximum of 30 items on the patron's record. Items checked out from Los Angeles Public Library may be returned to any of its 72 branches or to the Central Library.
Most items may be renewed a maximum of two times. Entertainment DVDs and videos may be renewed one time; the Los Angeles Public Library has many community support organizations which work with the library to raise funds and sponsor programs to enhance library service throughout the community. The Library's Rare Books Department is located in its downtown Los Angeles location. There is an extensive selection of databases covering a wide variety of topics, many of which are available to remote users who hold an LAPL library card. Examples include full-text databases of periodicals, business directories, language learning tools; the Central Library at 630 West 5th Street, between Grand Avenue and Flower Street in Downtown Los Angeles, remains an important research library, despite the development of accessible databases and public access to the Internet. The library offers an online program that allows adult patrons who have not completed high school to earn their high school diploma; the Los Angeles Library Association was formed in late 1872, by early 1873, a well-stocked reading room had opened under the first librarian, John Littlefield.
Aggressive expansion and growth of the system began in the 1920s. Under Library Board of Commissioners Chairman Orra E. Monnette, the system was improved with a large network of branch libraries with new buildings. Thelma Jackman founded the Business & Economics section of the library sometime prior to 1970; the historic Central Library Goodhue building was constructed in 1926 and is a Downtown Los Angeles landmark. The Central Library was designed by Bertram Goodhue; the Richard Riordan Central Library complex is the third largest public library in the United States in terms of book and periodical holdings. Named the Central Library, the building was first renamed in honor of the longtime president of the Board of Library Commissioners and President of the University of Southern California, Rufus B. von KleinSmid. The new wing of Central Library, completed in 1993, was named in honor of former mayor Tom Bradley; the complex was subsequently renamed in 2001 for former Los Angeles Mayor Richard Riordan, as the Richard Riordan Central Library.
The Los Angeles Public Library received the National Medal for Museum and Library Service, the nation's highest honor given to museums and libraries for service to the community. City Librarian John F. Szabo and community member Sergio Sanchez accepted the award on behalf of the library from First Lady Michelle Obama during a White House Ceremony on May 20, 2015; the Los Angeles Public Library was selected for its success in meeting the needs of Angelenos and providing a level of social and cultural services unmatched by any other public institution in the city. The award recognizes the library's programs that help people on their path to citizenship, earn their high school diploma, manage personal finances and access health and well-being services and resources. Architect Bertram Grosvenor Goodhue designed the original Los Angeles Central Library with influences of ancient Egyptian and Mediterranean Revival architecture; the central tower is topped with a tiled mosaic pyramid with suns on the sides with a hand holding a torch representing the "Light of Learning" at the apex.
Other elements include sphinxes and celestial mosaics. It has sculptural elements by the preeminent American architectural sculptor Lee Lawrie, similar to the Nebraska State Capitol in Lincoln, Nebraska designed by Goodhue; the interior of the library is decorated with various figures, statues and grilles, notably a four-part mural by illustrator Dean Cornwell depicting stages of the History of California, completed around 1933. The building is a designated Los Angeles Historic-Cultural Monument, is on the National Register of Historic Places; the Central Library was extensively renovated and expanded in a Modernist/Beaux-Arts architecture, according to Norman Pfeiffer, the principal architect of the renovation by Hardy Holzman Pfeiffer Associates from 1988 through 1993. It included an eight-story atrium wing dedicated to former mayor Tom Bradley. Now, the library contains an area of 538,000 square feet, has nearly 89 miles of shelves and seating for over 1,400 people; the building's limited access had caused a number of problems.
The accessible public stacks in the reading rooms only displayed about 10 to 20 percent of the actual collections of the Central Library. For anything else, a patron had to submit a request slip and a clerk would retrieve the desired material from the internal stacks. Internal stacks
1937 Los Angeles mayoral election
The 1937 election for Mayor of Los Angeles took place on April 6, 1937, with a run-off election on May 4, 1937. Incumbent Frank L. Shaw was re-elected. Office of the City Clerk, City of Los Angeles