South Pasadena, California
South Pasadena is a city in Los Angeles County, United States. As of the 2010 census, it had a population of 25,619, up from 24,292 at the 2000 census, it is located in the West San Gabriel Valley. It is 3.42 square miles in area and lies between the much larger city of Pasadena, of which it was once a part, the metropolis of Los Angeles. South Pasadena is the oldest self-builder of floats in the historic Tournament of Roses Parade; the original inhabitants of South Pasadena and surrounding areas were members of the Native American Hahamog-na tribe, a branch of the Tongva Nation that occupied the Los Angeles Basin. The Tongva name for the area that covers modern-day South Pasadena and part of Pasadena was Akuvranga. Tongva dwellings lined the Arroyo Seco in South Pasadena and south to where it joins the Los Angeles River and along other natural waterways in the city, they lived in dome-shape lodges characteristic for their use of carved wood decorations. For food, they lived on a diet of corn meal, acorns and herbs, venison, berries and other small animals.
They traded for ocean fish with the coastal Tongva on a daily basis. They made cooking vessels from steatite soapstone from Catalina Island. South Pasadena has a strong claim to having the oldest and most historic sites in the San Gabriel Valley. For many centuries, its adjacency to a natural fording place along the Arroyo Seco had served as a gateway to travel and commerce for aboriginal peoples here and along the coast, it was here that Hahamognas greeted Portola and the missionaries who established the San Gabriel Mission a few miles to the east. The initial buildings on the Rancho San Pascual were built on the land which became the cities of Pasadena, South Pasadena and Altadena; the first of these adobe structures became headquarters for General Flores and his staff in 1847 where they agreed to surrender to American forces, ending Mexican Colonial rule in California. In 1875, the landowners of the area encompassing present-day Pasadena and South Pasadena voted to rename their association, Pasadena.
South Pasadena's first mayor was Donald McIntyre Graham. In February 1888, members of the southern portion of Pasadena attempted to gain more control over their own property and a vote for incorporation was made. In 1888, South Pasadena incorporated the southern portion of the Indiana Colony and land south and eastward to the Los Angeles border. Few Tongva had received any land. On 2 March 1888, the city of South Pasadena was incorporated with a population over 500 residents, becoming the sixth municipality in Los Angeles County, it was chartered with the same area as the current South Pasadena, about 3.42 square miles. With the completion of the Pacific Electric Short Line, putting the entire city within easy walking distance of the “red car” stations, South Pasadena became one of the first suburbs of Los Angeles. South Pasadena's history is associated with that of the Cawston Ostrich Farm and the Fair Oaks Pharmacy and Soda Fountain, which played vital roles in the history of the city. South Pasadena's streets are lined with numerous species of native California trees.
These include redwood, ash and sycamore. Some non-native trees, such as sweetgum, are seen; because there are few stucco-clad Spanish Colonial houses and no palm trees in some parts of the city, South Pasadena is a popular stand-in for Midwestern and Northeastern towns in motion picture and television productions. South Pasadena sits less than 10 miles from Downtown Los Angeles. "Mom and Pop" merchants populate the business district, the Mission West area is a part of the original U. S. Route 66. Of historical relevance is The Fair Oaks Pharmacy and Soda Fountain, it is one of the last remaining single screen cinemas in the country. The Rialto was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1978, having narrowly missed being torn down that year, it went out of business on August 2007 because of low profits. It has been featured in many films and commercials, most notably Robert Altman's The Player and more in La La Land; the Farmer's Market has become a tradition in the historic Mission-West District of South Pasadena on every Thursday from 4 pm to 8 pm.
On the first Saturday of December every year, South Pasadena Booster Club hosts an annual 5K/10K run around South Pasadena known as the "Tiger Run", after the SPHS mascot. Racers from kindergarten to age 80 are invited to participate, including a wheelchair event; the 5K is run on flat sidewalks and roads around town. There is a 300-meter children's run for kids 10 and under. South Pasadena can be seen in motion picture productions with its beautiful tree-lined streets and "anywhere in America" feel; such movies as Freaky Friday, The Terminator, Gone with the Wind, Halloween 2, Nightmare On Elm Street, Pee-Wee's Big Adventure, American Pie, The Girl Next Door, Legally Blonde, 13 Going on 30, Back to the Future, Mr. Deeds, Bruce Almighty, Old School, The Ugly Truth, License to Wed are just a few of the notable films shot on location in South Pasadena. Notable television series that have been filmed there include Parenthood, Boston Public, Nip/Tuck, Desperate Housewives, Cold Case, Modern Family, No Ordinary Family, Big Love, CSI: Crime Scene Investigation.
South Pasadena, together with a broad coalition of national, state an
Downtown Los Angeles
Downtown Los Angeles is the central business district of Los Angeles, California, as well as a diverse residential neighborhood of some 58,000 people. A 2013 study found, it is part of Central Los Angeles. A heritage of the city's founding in 1781, Downtown Los Angeles today is composed of different areas ranging from a fashion district to Skid Row, it is the hub for the city's urban rail transit system and the Metrolink commuter rail system for Southern California. Banks, department stores, movie palaces at one time drew residents and visitors into the area, but the district declined economically and suffered a downturn for decades until its recent renaissance starting in the early 2000s. Old buildings are being modified for new uses, skyscrapers have been built. Downtown Los Angeles is known for its government buildings, parks and other public places; the earliest known settlements in the area of what is now Downtown Los Angeles was by the Tongva, a Native American people. European settlement arrived after Father Juan Crespí, a Spanish missionary charged with exploring sites for Catholic missions in California, noted in 1769 that the region had "all the requisites for a large settlement".
On September 4, 1781, the city was founded by a group of settlers who trekked north from present-day Mexico. Land speculation increased in the 1880s, which saw the population of the city explode from 11,000 in 1880 to nearly 100,000 by 1896. Infrastructure enhancements and the laying of a street grid brought development south of the original settlement into what is today the Civic Center and Historic Core neighborhoods. By 1920, the city's private and municipal rail lines were the most far-flung and most comprehensive in the world in mileage besting that of New York City. By this time, a steady influx of residents and aggressive land developers had transformed the city into a large metropolitan area, with DTLA at its center. Rail lines connected four counties with over 1,100 miles of track. During the early part of the 20th century, banking institutions clustered around South Spring Street, forming the Spring Street Financial District. Sometimes referred to as the "Wall Street of the West," the district held corporate headquarters for financial institutions including Bank of America and Merchants Bank, the Crocker National Bank, California Bank & Trust, International Savings & Exchange Bank.
The Los Angeles Stock Exchange was located on the corridor from 1929 until 1986 before moving into a new building across the Harbor Freeway. Commercial growth brought with it hotel construction—during this time period several grand hotels, the Alexandria, the Rosslyn, the Biltmore, were erected — and the need for venues to entertain the growing population of Los Angeles. Broadway became the nightlife and entertainment district of the city, with over a dozen theater and movie palaces built before 1932. Department stores opened flagship stores downtown, including The Broadway, Hamburger & Sons, May Company, JW Robinson's, Bullock's, serving a wealthy residential population in the Bunker Hill neighborhood. Numerous specialty stores flourished including those in the jewelry business which gave rise to the Downtown Jewelry District. Among these early jewelers included the Laykin Diamond Company and Harry Winston & Co. both of which found their beginnings in the Hotel Alexandria at Fifth and Spring streets.
The Los Angeles Union Passenger Terminal opened in May 1939, unifying passenger service among various local and long-distance passenger trains. It was built on a grand scale and would be one of the "last of the great railway stations" built in the United States. Following World War II, the development of the Los Angeles freeway network, increased automobile ownership led to decreased investment downtown. Many corporate headquarters dispersed to new suburbs or fell to mergers and acquisitions; the once-wealthy Bunker Hill neighborhood became a haven for low-income renters, its stately Victorian mansions turned into flophouses. From about 1930 onward, numerous old and historic buildings in the plaza area were demolished to make way for street-level parking lots, the high demand for parking making this more profitable than any other option that might have allowed preservation; the drastic reduction in the number of residents in the area further reduced the viability of streetfront businesses that would be able to attract pedestrians.
For most Angelenos, downtown became a drive-out destination. In an effort to combat blight and lure businesses back downtown, the city's Community Redevelopment Agency undertook the Bunker Hill Redevelopment Project in 1955, a massive clearance project that leveled homes and cleared land for future commercial skyscraper development; this period saw the clearing and upzoning of the entire neighborhood, as well as the shuttering of the Angels Flight funicular railway in 1969. Angels Flight resumed operation in 1996 for a period of five years, shutting down once again after a fatal accident in 2001. On March 15, 2010, the railway once again opened for passenger service following extensive upgrades to brake and safety systems. With Class A office space becoming available on Bunker Hill, many of DTLA's remaining financial corporations moved to the newer buildings, leaving the former Spring Street Financial District devoid of tenants above ground floor. Following the corporate headquarters' moving six blocks west, the large department stores on Broadway shuttered, culminating in the 1980s.
However, the Broadway theaters saw much use as Spanish-language movie houses during this time, beginning with the conve
Herb J. Wesson Jr. is an American politician, the President of the Los Angeles City Council. He is the council member representing the City of Los Angeles' 10th Council District. Wesson was Speaker of the California State Assembly. Wesson was born in Cleveland, Ohio, on November 11, 1951, he has one younger brother. He received his undergraduate degree in history from Lincoln University in 1999, where he was a member of Alpha Phi Alpha fraternity. Before his term in the California State Assembly, Wesson was the chief of staff of former Los Angeles City Council Member Nate Holden and in the same position for former Los Angeles County Supervisor Yvonne Burke. After being termed out of the Assembly, he became a senior adviser and special assistant to Burke, he is a member of the Democratic Party. Wesson served in the California State Assembly, representing the 47th district from 1998 until 2004, he was unanimously elected Speaker of the California State Assembly in 2002 and served in the role until 2004.
He was the second African-American to be elected Speaker of the California Assembly. His legislative agenda focused on environmental protection and healthcare. On November 8, 2005, Wesson was elected with 80% of the vote to represent the 10th Council District in the Los Angeles City Council, in a special election to fill the vacancy created when Martin Ludlow resigned; the 10th Council District is located in central and South Los Angeles, includes the neighborhoods of Koreatown, Little Bangladesh, West Adams, Jefferson Park, Wilshire Center, South Robertson, Arlington Heights, Leimert Park, Faircrest Heights, Gramercy Park and parts of Baldwin Hills. Wesson won a full term in March 2007 with 99.7% of the vote. He was reelected in 2011 and again in 2015. On June 3, 2015 Wesson led the City Council to pass an ordinance that would raise L. A.'s minimum wage to $15 by 2020. In July 2015 he created a committee that would address how Los Angeles could be more business-friendly; some of the developments in the 10th Council District during Wesson's term have been Midtown Crossing, Kaiser Permanente Baldwin Hills/Crenshaw Medical Offices, District Square, Cumulus.
On October 20, 2016 Wesson announced the creation of embRACE L. A. a program to engage Angelenos in a conversation on race and diversity. He partnered with Councilmember Mitch O'Farrell to create the program. On April 25, 2017 Wesson invited over 20 members of the community to dinner at his home to discuss embRACE L. A. and race in Los Angeles. Wesson chaired the City Council's Ad Hoc Committee on the 2024 Summer Olympics. On January 25, 2017 he voted in favor of final approval of L. A.'s Host City Bid. Following the news that L. A. would bid on the 2028 Olympic and Paralympic Games and the City Council voted unanimously in favor of the new proposal. On September 13, 2017, Los Angeles was named as the host of the 2028 Olympic and Paralympic Games. On December 19, 2016, the City Council created a $10 million fund to provide legal assistance for Los Angeles residents facing deportation On January 20, 2017, Wesson was part of the City Council action that approved the hiring of an "immigrant advocate".
On April 20, 2017 Peter Schey was appointed to the position. In April 2017, Wesson welcomed a delegation of governors from Mexico to discuss the relationship between Los Angeles and Mexican states, he concluded the dialogue by making each member of the delegation an honorary citizen in the City of Los Angeles. Every year Wesson, in partnership with the City of Los Angeles Department of Recreation and Parks treats 150 children from disadvantaged communities to a camping trip at Hansen Dam; each summer Wesson hosts several screenings in the 10th Council District of various family-friendly flicks. Dubbed "Movies in the Park", the series provides a fun and safe environment for all ages. In addition to the movie screenings, Wesson provides all attendees with a meal, popcorn, candy and a raffle drawing; each year, the series sees thousands of attendees across the four film screenings. Wesson's Winter Wonderland includes a tobogganing course made from real snow, holiday themed arts and crafts, lunch and an appearance from Santa Claus.
Wesson gives toys to all attendees and raffles off larger prizes such as bicycles. In December 2015 Wesson gave computers to 350 families. Official Herb Wesson website
Antonio Ramón Villaraigosa is an American politician who served as the 41st Mayor of Los Angeles, from 2005 to 2013. Before becoming mayor, he was a member of the California State Assembly, where he served as the Democratic leader of the Assembly, the Speaker of the California State Assembly; as Speaker, Villaraigosa was an advocate for working families and helped to write legislation protecting the environment, expanding healthcare access, increasing funding for public schools. He ran for mayor in 2001 against Los Angeles City Attorney James Hahn, but lost in the second round of voting. Villaraigosa ran for and was elected to the Los Angeles City Council in 2003. In 2005, he won. During his tenure as mayor, he gained national attention for his work and was featured in Time's story on the country's 25 most influential Latinos, he was the first Mexican American in over 130 years to have served as Mayor of Los Angeles. As Mayor, Villaraigosa spearheaded policies to improve student outcomes in the Los Angeles Unified School District, reduce city and highway traffic, enhance public safety.
Since leaving office in 2013, Villaraigosa has continued to be engaged in education, civic engagement, immigration and economic development issues. He speaks nationally and throughout California on these issues. Villaraigosa is a member of the Democratic Party, was a national co-chairman of Hillary Clinton's 2008 presidential campaign, a member of President Barack Obama's Transition Economic Advisory Board, Chairman of the 2012 Democratic National Convention in September 2012. In November 2016, Villaraigosa announced his candidacy for Governor of California in 2018. In June 2018, Villaraigosa came in third in the blanket primary election, losing to Gavin Newsom and John Cox. Born Antonio Ramón Villar, Jr. in the City Terrace neighborhood of Los Angeles County's Eastside, he attended both Catholic and public schools. His father immigrated to the United States and became a successful businessman, but lost his wealth during the Great Depression, his young wife left him at this time. His father abandoned their family when he was 5 years old, at age of 16, a benign tumor in his spinal column paralyzed him from the waist down, curtailing his ability to play sports.
His grades plummeted at Cathedral High School, the next year, he was expelled from the Roman Catholic institution after getting into a fight after a football game. He graduated from Theodore Roosevelt High School in Boyle Heights after taking adult education classes there at night, with the help of his English teacher, Herman Katz. Villar went on to attend East Los Angeles College, a community college, transferred to University of California, Los Angeles, graduating with a Bachelor of Arts degree in History in 1977. At UCLA, he was a leader of MEChA, an organization that seeks to promote Chicano unity and empowerment through political action, but renounced his association with the group citing its controversial stances on race. At this time, he went by the short form Tony of his given name Antonio. After UCLA, Villar attended the Peoples College of Law. After completing law school and subsequently failing the bar exam four times, he became a field representative/organizer with the United Teachers Los Angeles where he organized teachers and was regarded as a gifted advocate.
He served as president of the Los Angeles chapter of the American Civil Liberties Union and the American Federation of Government Employees. He changed his surname to Villaraigosa upon his marriage with Corina Raigosa in 1987. In 1990, Villaraigosa was appointed to the Los Angeles Metropolitan Transportation Board, where he served until 1994. In 1994, he was elected to the California State Assembly. Within his first term, he was selected to serve as Democratic Assembly Whip and Assembly Majority Leader. In 1998, Villaraigosa was chosen by his colleagues to be the Speaker of the Assembly, the first from Los Angeles in 25 years, he left the Assembly in 2000 after serving three two-year terms. Villaraigosa ran for election as Mayor of Los Angeles in the 2001 citywide contest, but was defeated by Democrat James Hahn in a run-off election. In 2003, Villaraigosa defeated incumbent Councilman Nick Pacheco to win a seat on the Los Angeles City Council representing the 14th District. Villaraigosa placed first in the primary for the Los Angeles mayoral election of March 8, 2005, won the run-off election on May 17, receiving 58.7% of the vote.
On July 1, 2005, Villaraigosa was sworn in as the 41st Mayor of Los Angeles. He became the first Latino Mayor of Los Angeles since 1872. Attendees to his first inauguration included Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger. S. Secretary of State Warren Christopher, New York City Mayor Michael Bloomberg. Villaraigosa was re-elected in 2009, receiving 55.65% of the vote against his most prominent challenger, attorney Walter Moore who won 26.23% of the vote. Villaraigosa drew controversy by refusing to debate any of his opponents before the election, namely Walter Moore. One of Villaraigosa's main transportation-related goals is to extend the Purple Line subway down Wilshire Boulevard to Santa Monica. Proponents have dubbed the project the "Subway to the Sea." Villaraigosa worked to persuade Congressman Henry Waxman to repeal the ban on subway tunneling in Los Angeles, which occurred in 2006. On November 4, 2008, Los Angeles County voters passed Measure R, an additional half-cent per dollar sales tax that increased the sale
Pasadena is a city in Los Angeles County, United States, located 10 miles northeast of Downtown Los Angeles. The estimated population of Pasadena was 142,647 in 2017, making it the 183rd-largest city in the United States. Pasadena is the ninth-largest city in Los Angeles County. Pasadena was incorporated on June 19, 1886, becoming one of the first cities to be incorporated in what is now Los Angeles County, following the city of Los Angeles, it is one of the primary cultural centers of the San Gabriel Valley. The city is known for hosting Tournament of Roses Parade. In addition, Pasadena is home to many scientific and cultural institutions, including Caltech, Pasadena City College, Fuller Theological Seminary, ArtCenter College of Design, the Pasadena Playhouse, the Ambassador Auditorium, the Norton Simon Museum, the USC Pacific Asia Museum; the original inhabitants of Pasadena and surrounding areas were members of the Native American Hahamog-na tribe, a branch of the Tongva Nation. They had lived in the Los Angeles Basin for thousands of years.
Tongva dwellings lined the Arroyo Seco in present day Pasadena and south to where it joins the Los Angeles River and along other natural waterways in the city. The native people lived in dome-shape lodges, they lived on a diet of acorn meal and herbs, other small animals. They traded for ocean fish with the coastal Tongva, they made cooking vessels from steatite soapstone from Catalina Island. The oldest transportation route still in existence in Pasadena is the old Tongva foot trail known as the Gabrielino Trail, that follows the west side of the Rose Bowl and the Arroyo Seco past the Jet Propulsion Laboratory into the San Gabriel Mountains; the trail has been in continuous use for thousands of years. An arm of the trail is still in use in what is now known as Salvia Canyon; when the Spanish occupied the Los Angeles Basin they built the San Gabriel Mission and renamed the local Tongva people "Gabrielino Indians," after the name of the mission. Today, several bands of Tongva people live in the Los Angeles area.
Pasadena is a part of the original Mexican land grant named Rancho del Rincon de San Pascual, so named because it was deeded on Easter Sunday to Eulalia Perez de Guillén Mariné of Mission San Gabriel Arcángel. The Rancho comprised the lands of today's communities of Pasadena and South Pasadena. Before the annexation of California in 1848, the last of the Mexican owners was Manuel Garfias who retained title to the property after statehood in 1850. Garfias sold sections of the property to the first Anglo settlers to come into the area: Dr. Benjamin Eaton, the father of Fred Eaton. Much of the property was purchased by Benjamin Wilson, who established his Lake Vineyard property in the vicinity. Wilson, known as Don Benito to the local Indians owned the Rancho Jurupa and was mayor of Los Angeles, he was the grandfather of Jr. and the namesake of Mount Wilson. In 1873, Wilson was visited by Dr. Daniel M. Berry of Indiana, looking for a place in the country that could offer a mild climate for his patients, most of whom suffered from respiratory ailments.
Berry claimed that he had his best three night's sleep at Rancho San Pascual. To keep the find a secret, Berry code-named the area "Muscat" after the grape. To raise funds to bring the company of people to San Pascual, Berry formed the Southern California Orange and Citrus Growers Association and sold stock in it; the newcomers were able to purchase a large portion of the property along the Arroyo Seco and on January 31, 1874, they incorporated the Indiana Colony. As a gesture of good will, Wilson added 2,000 acres of then-useless highland property, part of which would become Altadena. Colonel Jabez Banbury opened the first school on South Orange Grove Avenue. Banbury had twin daughters, named Jessie; the two became the first students to attended Pasadena’s first school on Orange Grove. At the time, the Indiana Colony was a narrow strip of land between the Arroyo Seco and Fair Oaks Avenue. On the other side of the street was Wilson's Lake Vineyard development. After more than a decade of parallel development on both sides, the two settlements merged into the City of Pasadena.
The popularity of the region drew people from across the country, Pasadena became a stop on the Atchison and Santa Fe Railway, which led to an explosion in growth. From the real estate boom of the 1880s until the Great Depression, as great tourist hotels were developed in the city, Pasadena became a winter resort for wealthy Easterners, spurring the development of new neighborhoods and business districts, increased road and transit connections with Los Angeles, culminating with the opening of the Arroyo Seco Parkway, California's first freeway. By 1940, Pasadena had become the eighth-largest city in California and was considered a twin city to Los Angeles; the first of the great hotels to be established in Pasadena was the Raymond atop Bacon Hill, renamed Raymond Hill after construction. Pasadena was served by the Atchison and Santa Fe Railway at the Santa Fe Depot in downtown when the Second District was opened in 1887; the original Mansard Victorian 200-room facility burned down on Easter morning of 1895, was rebuilt in 1903, razed during the Great Depression to make way for residential development.
The Maryland Hotel existed from the early 1900s and was demolished in 1934. The world-famous Mount Lowe Railway and associated mountain hotels shu
San Fernando Valley
The San Fernando Valley is an urbanized valley in Los Angeles County, California in the Los Angeles metropolitan area, defined by the mountains of the Transverse Ranges circling it. Home to 1.77 million people, it is north of the more populous Los Angeles Basin. Nearly two thirds of the valley's land area is part of the city of Los Angeles; the other incorporated cities in the valley are Glendale, San Fernando, Hidden Hills, Calabasas. The San Fernando Valley is about 260 square miles bound by the Santa Susana Mountains to the northwest, the Simi Hills to the west, the Santa Monica Mountains and Chalk Hills to the south, the Verdugo Mountains to the east, the San Gabriel Mountains to the northeast; the northern Sierra Pelona Mountains, northwestern Topatopa Mountains, southern Santa Ana Mountains, Downtown Los Angeles skyscrapers can be seen from higher neighborhoods and parks in the San Fernando Valley. The Los Angeles River begins at the confluence of Calabasas Creek and Bell Creek, between Canoga Park High School and Owensmouth Ave. in Canoga Park.
These creeks' headwaters are in the Santa Monica Calabasas foothills, the Simi Hills' Hidden Hills, Santa Susana Field Laboratory, Santa Susana Pass Park lands. The river flows eastward along the southern regions of the Valley. One of the river's two unpaved sections can be found at the Sepulveda Basin. A seasonal river, the Tujunga Wash, drains much of the western facing San Gabriel Mountains and passes into and through the Hansen Dam Recreation Center in Lake View Terrace, it flows south along the Verdugo Mountains through the eastern communities of the valley to join the Los Angeles River in Studio City. Other notable tributaries of the river include Dayton Creek, Caballero Creek, Bull Creek, Pacoima Wash, Verdugo Wash; the elevation of the floor of the valley varies from about 600 ft to 1,200 ft above sea level. Most of the San Fernando Valley is within the jurisdiction of the city of Los Angeles, although a few other incorporated cities are located within the valley as well: Burbank and Glendale are in the southeastern corner of the valley, Hidden Hills and Calabasas are in the southwestern corner, San Fernando, surrounded by Los Angeles, is in the northeastern valley.
Universal City, an enclave in the southern part of the valley, is unincorporated land housing the Universal Studios filming lot and theme park. Mulholland Drive, which runs along the ridgeline of the Santa Monica Mountains, marks the boundary between the valley and the communities of Hollywood and the Los Angeles Westside; the valley's natural habitat is a "temperate grasslands and shrublands biome" of grassland, oak savanna, chaparral shrub forest types of plant community habitats, along with lush riparian plants along the river and springs. In this Mediterranean climate, post-1790s European agriculture for the mission's support consisted of grapes, figs and general garden crops; the San Fernando Valley contains five incorporated cities—Glendale, San Fernando, Hidden Hills, Calabasas—and part of a sixth, Los Angeles, which governs a majority of the valley. The unincorporated communities are governed by the County of Los Angeles; the Los Angeles city section of the valley is divided into seven city council districts: 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 12.
Of the 95 neighborhood councils in the city, 34 are in the valley. The valley is represented in the California State Legislature by seven members of the State Assembly and five members of the State Senate; the valley falls into four congressional districts: the 28th, 29th, 30th, 33rd, represented by Adam Schiff, Tony Cárdenas, Brad Sherman, Ted Lieu. In the Los Angeles County board of supervisors, it is represented by two supervisorial districts, with the western portion represented by Sheila Kuehl and the eastern portion by Kathryn Barger; the San Fernando Valley, for the most part, tends to support Democrats in state and national elections. This is true in the southern areas, which include Sherman Oaks and the city of Burbank; the Los Angeles satellite administrative center for the valley, The Civic Center Van Nuys, is in Van Nuys. The area in and around the Van Nuys branch of Los Angeles City Hall is home to a police station and superior courts and Los Angeles city and county administrative offices.
Northridge is home to Northridge. Many branches of the Los Angeles Public Library are located in the valley. For independent libraries see "Incorporated Cities" in the "Municipalities and districts" list below. Los Angeles Police Department, Los Angeles County Sheriff's Department, independent valley city departments. Los Angeles Fire Department, Los Angeles County Fire Department, Burbank Police Department, independent valley city departments. City of Los Angeles neighborhood councils The Tongva known as the Gabrieleño Mission Indians after colonization, the Tataviam to the north and Chumash to the west, had lived and thrived in the valley and its arroyos for over 8,000 years, they had numerous settlements, trading and hunting camps, before the Spanish arrived in 1769 to settle in the Valley. The first Spanish land grant in the San Fernando Valley was called "Rancho Encino", in the northern part of the San Fernando Valley. Juan Francisco Reyes built an adobe dwelling beside a Tongva village or rancheria at natural springs, but the land was soon taken from him so that a mission could be built there
Beverly Boulevard is one of the main east-west thoroughfares in Los Angeles, in the U. S. state of California. It begins off Santa Monica Boulevard in Beverly Hills and ends on the Lucas Avenue overpass near downtown Los Angeles to become 1st Street. A separate Beverly Boulevard begins off 3rd Street and Pomona Boulevard in East Los Angeles, runs through Montebello and Pico Rivera, becomes Turnbull Canyon Road in Whittier near Rose Hills Memorial Park. Work on paving Beverly Boulevard through Northwest Los Angeles began in the 1910s, making it one of Los Angeles's first boulevards; the Boulevard's most famous stretch is in West Hollywood, where it passes Cedars-Sinai Medical Center and the Beverly Center Mall. In addition, much of the Fairfax District is centered on Beverly Boulevard; the Grove is southeast of Fairfax. The intersection of Beverly and La Cienega is the center of the studio zone, the area that Los Angeles-based entertainment industry unions consider as "local" for purposes of work rules.
Beverly Boulevard runs parallel to Melrose Avenue to 3rd Street to the south. It passes directly through the Wilshire Country Club; the famous CBS Television City is located opposite The Grove. Original Tommy's, a famous Southern California burger chain, is located at the corner of Rampart and Beverly Boulevards. Situated on Beverly Boulevard are studios belonging to Westlake Recording Studios, noted as the site where music albums such as Michael Jackson's Thriller were recorded; the area of Beverly Boulevard that intersects La Cienega Boulevard and its satellite streets is part of the La Cienega Design Quarter. Its shops and galleries house many antiques, rugs and art. Belmont High School is located at Belmont Avenue. Metro Local line 14 operates on Beverly Boulevard; the Metro Red Line serves an underground station at Vermont Avenue