The Hollywood Hills is a hillside neighborhood of the same name in the central region of the city of Los Angeles, California. The Hollywood Hills straddle the Cahuenga Pass within the Santa Monica Mountains; the neighborhood touches Studio City, Universal City and Burbank on the north, Griffith Park on the north and east, Los Feliz on the southeast, Hollywood on the south and Hollywood Hills West on the west. It includes Forest Lawn Memorial Park, the Hollywood Reservoir, the Hollywood Sign, the Hollywood Bowl and the John Anson Ford Theater. Hollywood Hills is bisected southeast-northwest by US 101; the neighborhood is bounded on the northwest and north by the Los Angeles city line, on the east by a fireroad through Griffith Park, continuing on Western Avenue, on the south by Franklin Avenue and on the west by an irregular line that includes Outpost Drive. The neighborhood of Hollywood Hills includes the Hollywood Bowl and Forest Lawn Memorial Park as well as two private and three public schools.
Hollywood Hills contains several neighborhoods: A total of 21,588 people lived in the neighborhood's 7.05 square miles, according to the 2000 U. S. census—averaging 3,063 people per square mile, among the lowest population densities in the city or the county. The population was estimated at 22,988 in 2008; the median age for residents was 37, considered old for the county. The percentages of residents aged 19 through 64 were among the county's highest; the neighborhood is "not diverse" for the city, the diversity index being 0.433, the percentage of Non-Hispanic Whites is considered high, at 74.1%. Latinos make up 9.4%, Asians are at 6.7%, African American at 4.6% and others at 5.3%. In 2000, Mexico and the United Kingdom were the most common places of birth for the 22.8% of the residents who were born abroad, considered a low percentage of foreign-born when compared with the city or county as a whole. The median household income in 2008 dollars was $69,277, considered high for the city but about average for the county.
The percentage of households earning $125,000 or more was high, compared to the county at large. The average household size of 1.8 people was low. Renters occupied 56.5% of the housing units, homeowners the rest. In 2000, there were 270 families headed by single parents, or 6.9%, a rate, low in both the county and the city. In 2000, 54.8% of residents aged 25 and older held a four-year degree, considered high when compared with the city and the county as a whole. There are five secondary or elementary schools within the neighborhood's boundaries: Immaculate Heart High and Middle School, private, 5515 Franklin Avenue Valley View Elementary School, LAUSD, 6921 Woodrow Wilson Drive The Neilson Academy, private, 2528 Canyon Drive Cheremoya Avenue Elementary School, LAUSD, 6017 Franklin Avenue The Oaks, private elementary, 6817 Franklin AvenueThe American Film Institute is at 2021 North Western Avenue The neighborhood includes: The Hollywood Bowl The John Anson Ford Amphitheatre A portion of Griffith Park, including Hollywoodland Camp Forest Lawn Memorial Park Elisha Cuthbert, actress Ben Affleck, actor Christina Aguilera, singer Earle D. Baker, Los Angeles City Council member Halle Berry, actress Jolene Blalock, actress Gisele Bundchen, Victoria's Secret supermodel, bought her three-bedroom house in the Hollywood Hills for close to $2 million Sam Cooke, singer Kevin Costner, actor Robert Culp, actor William De Los Santos, poet, producer, film director Richard Dreyfuss, actor Anna Faris, actress Errol Flynn, actor David Giuntoli, actor Stuart Hamblen, country singer Salma Hayek, actress Niall Horan, Irish pop singer Helen Hunt, actress Billy Idol, English rock musician Tom Leykis and internet talk show personality Demi Lovato, actress and songwriter Tobey Maguire paid more than $2 million for a modern home in the Hollywood Hills Johnny Mathis, singer Joel McHale, American actor and comedian Simon Monjack, producer, writer Brittany Murphy, actress Kristin Nelson and painter Ricky Nelson, actor and songwriter Tracy Nelson, actress Matthew Perry, actor Joaquin Phoenix, actor Chris Pratt, Keanu Reeves actor, bought a house in May 2003 for $4.5 million Kevin Smith, actor and comedian Sage Stallone and son of Sylvester Stallone Robert and Peggy Stevenson, Los Angeles City Council members Quentin Tarantino, film director Justin Timberlake, American singer, songwriter and record producer Bitsie Tulloch, actress Anna Kendrick, singer Rebel Wilson, actress and singer Lloyd G. Davies, Los Angeles City Council member, 1943–51, active against gravel extraction in the hills
Melrose Avenue is a shopping and entertainment destination in Los Angeles that starts at Santa Monica Boulevard, at the border between Beverly Hills and West Hollywood. It ends at Lucile Avenue in Silver Lake. Melrose runs south of Santa Monica Boulevard. Paved in 1909, Melrose Avenue's namesake comes from the Massachusetts town of the same name, its most famous section, known as the Melrose District, is the West End through West Hollywood and Hollywood. At the corner of Fairfax and Melrose is Fairfax High School, which marks the start of the Fairfax District. One of the most famous landmarks located on Melrose Avenue is Paramount Pictures. Metro Local line 10 operates on Melrose Avenue; the eastern end of the district, which runs from Fairfax to Highland Avenue, became a popular underground and new wave shopping area in the early 1980s. Pioneered by adventurous independent retailers and restaurateurs, Melrose Avenue captured the global imagination as the birthplace of Southern California's New Wave and Punk cultures.
Rapid notoriety lured movie stars and style seekers, leading the press to dub Melrose Avenue "the new Rodeo Drive." Ready for its close-up, the avenue enjoyed its share of TV and movie cameos, appeared on Jay Leno's "Jaywalking" segments of The Tonight Show With Jay Leno, in addition to shows such as Entourage and LA Ink. Melrose District got its notoriety in Aaron Spelling's 1990s soap opera on the Fox network Melrose Place; as a evolving merchant district, it has featured stores such as Vinyl Fetish, Harvey's On Melrose Golden Girls Rattan Furniture and Retail Slut, They all closed several years ago, Harvey's has made a comeback after 20 years but on Beverly the new Melrose while The Burger That Ate L. A. a landmark fast food stand, was in recent years replaced with a Starbucks. The original Johnny Rockets opened in this end of Melrose in 1986. Long-term stakeholders like The Groundlings, l.a. Eyeworks, Angeli Caffe and Sportie LA have shown continued dedication to the community. In 2005, musician and director Joe Hahn, member of the rock band Linkin Park, opened his concept retail store SURU on the 7600 block of Melrose.
Canadian designer John Fluevog opened on Melrose in 2003. As one of the city's most walking-friendly neighborhoods, this must-see destination has maintained its reputation for an original and independent experience for more than three decades. Since 1997, the Melrose Trading Post outdoor flea market has created opportunities for Fairfax High School and the surrounding neighborhood; every Sunday 250+ local vendors, collectors and artists gather in the parking lot on the corner of Melrose and Fairfax Avenues to celebrate the thriving community culture. Food vendors and live music round out this weekly local event hosted by the Greenway Arts Alliance. Money raised by this nonprofit organization from the low-cost patron admission and vendor booth fees fuel a thriving arts education program on the FHS campus called, Institute for the Arts at Greenway. At the corner of Highland and Melrose is what has been described by the Los Angeles Times as the "boss of LA's Italian dining scene", Osteria Mozza, which marks the eastern end of the Fairfax District.
The Melrose Business Improvement District Association is tasked with working to enhance the commercial vitality of Melrose Avenue between Highland and Fairfax Avenues by providing improvements and activities throughout the district. The Western End, popularly referred to as Melrose Heights, runs from La Cienega Blvd. to Fairfax Avenue and features a variety of upscale restaurants, boutiques such as the Kardashian sisters boutique D-A-S-H and salons such as Elixir, The Bodhi Tree Bookstore, Fred Segal, Plush Home, The Improv. Melrose Heights is home to several high-end designer stores, such as Marc Jacobs, Diane von Fürstenberg, Carolina Herrera, Sergio Rossi, Alexander McQueen, Oscar de la Renta, BCBG Max Azria, Paul Smith, Temperley London, John Varvatos, Diesel, Vivienne Westwood and Vera Wang. North of the intersection with La Cienega Boulevard is Melrose Place, a branch of the main avenue made famous thanks to the soap opera of the same name. However, in reality, Melrose Place features no residences but has been home to antique shops and salons.
The area of Melrose Avenue that intersects La Cienega Boulevard and its satellite streets is part of the La Cienega Design Quarter. Its shops and galleries house many antiques, rugs and art. Melrose Avenue Official Guide Melrose Avenue Merchant Alliance Huffington Post - October 8 2010 Music Video by Bobby Valentino performing'Slow Down'
Griffith Park is a large municipal park at the eastern end of the Santa Monica Mountains, in the Los Feliz neighborhood of Los Angeles, California. The park covers 4,310 acres of land, it is the second-largest city park in California, after Mission Trails Preserve in San Diego, the 11th largest municipally owned park in the United States. It has been referred to as the Central Park of Los Angeles but is much larger, more untamed, rugged than its New York City counterpart. After investing in mining, Griffith J. Griffith purchased Rancho Los Feliz in 1882 and started an ostrich farm there. Although ostrich feathers were used in making women's hats in the late-19th century, Griffith's purpose was to lure residents of Los Angeles to his nearby property developments, which were haunted by the ghost of Antonio Feliz. After the property rush peaked, Griffith donated 3,015 acres to the city of Los Angeles on December 16, 1896. Griffith was tried and convicted of shooting and wounding his wife in a 1903 incident.
When released from prison, he attempted to fund the construction of an amphitheater, planetarium, a girls' camp and boys' camp in the park. His reputation in the city was tainted by his crime, however, so the city refused his money. In 1912, Griffith designated 100 acres of the park, at its northeast corner along the Los Angeles River, be used to "do something to further aviation"; the Griffith Park Aerodrome was the result. Aviation pioneers such as Glenn L. Martin and Silas Christoffersen used it, the aerodrome passed to the National Guard Air Service. Air operations continued on a 2,000-foot -long runway until 1939, when it was closed due to danger from interference with the approaches to Grand Central Airport across the river in Glendale, because the City Planning commission complained that a military airport violated the terms of Griffith's deed; the National Guard squadron moved to Van Nuys, the Aerodrome was demolished, though the rotating beacon and its tower remained for many years.
From 1946 until the mid-1950s, Rodger Young Village occupied the area, the Aerodrome. Today that site is occupied by the Los Angeles Zoo parking lot, the Gene Autry Western Heritage Museum, soccer fields, the interchange between the Golden State Freeway and the Ventura Freeway. Griffith set up a trust fund for the improvements he envisioned, after his death in 1919 the city began to build what Griffith had wanted; the amphitheater, called the Greek Theatre, was completed in 1930, Griffith Observatory was finished in 1935. Subsequent to Griffith's original gift further donations of land, city purchases, the reversion of land from private to public have expanded the Park to its present size. In December, 1944 the Sherman Company donated 444 acres of Hollywoodland open space to Griffith Park; this large, eco-sensitive property borders the Lake Hollywood reservoir, the former Hollywoodland sign, Bronson Canyon where it connects into the original Griffith donation. The Hollywoodland residential community is surrounded by this land.
After the bombing of Pearl Harbor, the Civilian Conservation Corps camp contained within Griffith Park was converted to a holding center for Japanese Americans arrested as "enemy aliens" before they were transferred to more permanent internment camps. The Griffith Park Detention Camp opened immediately after the Pearl Harbor attack, taking in 35 Japanese immigrants suspected of fifth column activity because they lived and worked near military installations; these men fishermen from nearby Terminal Island, were transferred to an Immigration and Naturalization Service detention station after a brief stay, but Issei internees arrested in the days and weeks following the outbreak of the war arrived soon after to take their place. Up to 550 Japanese Americans were confined in Griffith Park from 1941 to 1942, all subsequently transferred to Fort Lincoln, Fort Missoula and other DOJ camps. On July 14, 1942, the detention camp became a POW Processing Center for German and Japanese prisoners of war, operating until August 3, 1943, when the prisoners were transferred elsewhere.
The camp was changed to the Army Western Corps Photographic Center and Camouflage Experimental Laboratory until the end of the war. Hired as part of a welfare project, 3,780 men were in the park clearing brush on October 3, 1933, when a fire broke out in the Mineral Wells area. Many of the workers were ordered to fight the fire. In all, 29 men were killed and 150 were injured. Professional firefighters limited the blaze to 47 acres. On May 12, 1961, a wildfire on the south side of the park burned 814 acres, it destroyed eight homes and damaged nine more, chiefly in the Beachwood Canyon area. Another fire occurred circa 1971 in the Toyon Canyon area. Repelled by the ugliness of the devastated area, Amir Dialameh replanted a portion of it himself by hand. Over the course of more than 30 years, he tended the garden he built there with the help of occasional volunteers. On May 8, 2007, a major wildfire burned more than 817 acres, destroying the bird sanctuary, Dante's View, Captain's Roost, forcing the evacuation of hundreds of people.
The fire came right up to one of the largest playgrounds in Los Angeles, Shane's Inspiration, the Los Angeles Zoo, threatened the Griffith Observatory, but left such areas intact. Several local organizations, including SaveGriffithPark.org, have been working since with local officials to restore the park in a way that would benefit all. It was the third fire
Hollywood Boulevard is a major east–west street in Los Angeles, California. It begins in the west as a winding residential street at Sunset Plaza Drive in the Hollywood Hills West district. After crossing Laurel Canyon Boulevard, it proceeds due east as a major thoroughfare through Hollywood, Little Armenia and Thai Town to Vermont Avenue, it runs southeast to its eastern terminus at Sunset Boulevard in the Los Feliz district. Parts of the boulevard are popular tourist destinations the fifteen blocks between La Brea Avenue east to Gower Street where the Hollywood Walk of Fame is located. Hollywood boulevard was named Prospect Avenue until 1910, when the town of Hollywood, created by H. J. Whitley, was annexed by the neighboring City of Los Angeles. After annexation, the street numbers changed from 100 Prospect Avenue, at Vermont Avenue, to 6400 Hollywood Boulevard. In the early 1920s, real estate developer Charles E. Toberman envisioned a thriving Hollywood theatre district. Toberman was involved in 36 projects while building the Max Factor Building, Hollywood Roosevelt Hotel and the Hollywood Masonic Temple.
With Sid Grauman, he opened the three themed theatres: Egyptian, El Capitan, Chinese. In 1946, Gene Autry, while riding his horse in the Hollywood Christmas Parade — which passes down Hollywood Boulevard each year on the Sunday after Thanksgiving — heard young parade watchers yelling, "Here comes Santa Claus, here comes Santa Claus!" and was inspired to write "Here Comes Santa Claus" with Oakley Haldeman. In 1958, the Hollywood Walk of Fame, which runs from La Brea Avenue east to Gower Street, was created as a tribute to artists working in the entertainment industry. In 1985, a portion of Hollywood Boulevard in Hollywood was listed in the National Register of Historic Places as part of the "Hollywood Boulevard Commercial and Entertainment District". In 1992, the street was paved with glittery asphalt between La Brea Boulevard; the El Capitan Theatre was refurbished in 1991 damaged in the 1994 Northridge earthquake. The full El Capitan building was restored and upgraded in December 1997; the Hollywood Entertainment District, a self-taxing business improvement district, was formed for the properties from La Brea to McCadden on the boulevard.
The Hollywood extension of the Metro Red Line subway was opened in June 1999, running from Downtown Los Angeles to the San Fernando Valley. Stops on Hollywood Boulevard are located at Western Avenue, Vine Street, Highland Avenue. Metro Local lines 180, 181, 217, Metro Rapid line 780 serve Hollywood Boulevard. An anti-cruising ordinance prohibits driving on parts of the boulevard more than twice in four hours. Beginning in 1995 Los Angeles City Council member Jackie Goldberg initiated efforts to clean up Hollywood Boulevard and reverse its decades-long slide into disrepute. Central to these efforts was the construction of the Hollywood and Highland Center and adjacent Dolby Theatre in 2001. In early 2006, the city made revamping plans on Hollywood Boulevard for future tourists; the three-part plan was to exchange the original streetlights with red stars into two-headed old-fashioned streetlights, put in new palm trees, put in new stoplights. The renovations were completed in late 2006. In the few years leading up to 2007, more than $2 billion was spent on projects in the neighborhood, including mixed-use retail and apartment complexes and new schools and museums.
Advocates promote the idea of closing Hollywood Boulevard to traffic and create a Pedestrian zone from La Brea Avenue to Highland Avenue citing an increase in tourism, movie premier and award shows show closures, including 10 days for the Academy Award ceremony at the Dolby Theater. Similar to Third Street Promenade, Fremont Street or similar to some street closures in Times Squares Pedestrian Plaza's created in 2015. A popular event that takes place on the Boulevard is the complete transformation of the street to a Christmas theme. Shops and department stores attract customers by lighting their stores and the entire street with decorated Christmas trees and Christmas lights; the street becomes "Santa Claus Lane." List of Los Angeles Historic-Cultural Monuments in Hollywood Hollywood Chamber of Commerce
Santa Monica Mountains
The Santa Monica Mountains is a coastal mountain range in Southern California, paralleling the Pacific Ocean. It is part of the Transverse Ranges; because of its proximity to densely populated regions, it is one of the most visited natural areas in California. Santa Monica Mountains National Recreation Area is located in this mountain range; the range extends 40 miles east-west from the Hollywood Hills in Los Angeles to Point Mugu in Ventura County. The western mountains, separating the Conejo Valley from Malibu end at Mugu Peak as the rugged, nearly impassible shoreline gives way to tidal lagoons and coastal sand dunes of the alluvial Oxnard Plain; the mountain range contributed to the isolation of this vast coastal plain before regular transportation routes reached western Ventura County. The eastern mountains form a barrier between the San Fernando Valley and the Los Angeles Basin, separating "the Valley" on the north and west-central Los Angeles on the south; the Santa Monica Mountains are parallel to Santa Susana Mountains, which are located directly north of the mountains across the San Fernando Valley.
The range is of moderate height, with no craggy or prominent peaks outside the Sandstone Peak and Boney Mountains area. While rugged and wild, the range hosts a substantial amount of human activity and development. Houses, roads and recreational centers are dotted throughout the Santa Monica Mountains. A number of creeks in the Santa Monica Mountains are part of the Los Angeles River watershed. Beginning at the western end of the San Fernando Valley the river runs to the north of the mountains. After passing between the range and the Verdugo Mountains it flows south around Elysian Park defining the easternmost extent of the mountains; the Santa Monica Mountains have more than 1,000 archeology sites of significance from the Californian Native American cultures of the Tongva and Chumash people. The mountains were part of their regional homelands for over eight thousand years before the arrival of the Spanish; the Spanish mission system had a dramatic impact on their culture and by 1831, their population had dropped from over 22,000 to under 3,000.
Geologists consider the northern Channel Islands to be a westward extension of the Santa Monicas into the Pacific Ocean. The range was created by repeated episodes of uplifting and submergence by the Raymond Fault that created complex layers of sedimentary rock. Volcanic intrusions have been exposed, including the poorly named, andesitic, "Sandstone Peak" the highest in the range at 3,111 feet. Malibu Creek, which eroded its own channel while the mountains were uplifted, bisects the mountain range; the Santa Monica Mountains have dry summers with frequent coastal fog on the ocean side of the range and wet, cooler winters. In the summer, the climate is quite dry, which makes the range prone to wildfires during dry "Santa Ana" wind events. Snow is unusual in the Santa Monica Mountains, since they are not as high as the nearby San Gabriel Mountains; the highest slopes of the central and western Santa Monica Mountains average as much as 27 inches of rain per year, but 18-22 inches is more typical of the range.
The bulk of the rain falls between March. Rainfall is higher in the central and western parts of the range; this is reflected in the vegetation. The central and western portions of the range support more widespread woodlands than the eastern part of the range, where trees are restricted to the stream courses. On January 17, 2007, an unusually cold storm brought snow in the Santa Monica Mountains; the hills above Malibu picked up three inches of snow - the first measurable snow in five decades. Snow was reported on Boney Peak, in the winter of 2005. Snow fell on the peak of Boney Mountain in late December 2008; the latest recorded snowfall in the area was in February of 2019 where an unusual amount of snowfall accumulated in low passes in the mountains. The storm system brought rare snowfall to the Los Angeles area. Much of the mountains are located within the Santa Monica Mountains National Recreation Area. Preservation of lands within the region are managed by the Santa Monica Mountains Conservancy, the National Park Service, the California State Parks, County and Municipal agencies.
Today, the Santa Monica Mountains face pressure from local populations as a desirable residential area, in the parks as a recreational retreat and wild place that's rare in urban Los Angeles. In 2014 the California Coastal Commission and the Los Angeles County Board of Supervisors approved the Santa Monica Mountains Local Coastal Program, a land-use plan that will distinguish between the private lands that need strict protection and property that could be developed in strict conformance with this detailed plan. Over twenty individual state and municipal parks are in the Santa Monica Mountains, including: Topanga State Park, Leo Carrillo State Park, Malibu Creek State Park, Point Mugu State Park, Will Rogers State Historic Park, Point Dume State Beach, Griffith Park, Marvin Braude Mulholland Gateway Park, Charmlee Wilderness Park, Franklin Canyon Park, Runyon Canyon Park, King Gillette Ranch Park, Paramount Ranch Park. At the eastern end of the Santa Monica Mountains are Griffith Park and lastly Elysian Park.
Griffith Park is separated from the rest of the Santa Monica Mountains to the west by the Cahuenga Pass, over which the 101 Freeway passes from the San Fernando Valley into Hollywood. Elysian Park is in the easternmost part of the mountains and is bordered
Vermont Avenue is one of the longest running north/south streets in City of Los Angeles and Los Angeles County, California. With a length of 23.3 miles, is the third longest of the north/south thoroughfares in the region. For most of its length between its southern end in San Pedro and south of Downtown Los Angeles, it runs parallel to the west of the Harbor Freeway. Vermont Avenue begins just north of San Pedro at a five-point intersection with Anaheim Street, Gaffey Street and Palos Verdes Drive. After a short distance, Normandie Avenue branches off due north while Vermont turns northeast towards its intersection with Pacific Coast Highway. Afterwards, it travels in a straight line north for 22 miles, parallel to the Harbor Freeway to the east. North of PCH, it passes through the unincorporated area of West Carson before crossing the San Diego Freeway. Between a point south of the intersection with Artesia Boulevard/western end of the Gardena Freeway, El Segundo Boulevard, Vermont marks the eastern boundary of the City of Gardena.
At 164th Street in Gardena, Vermont widens from a four-lane thoroughfare to a six-lane road with a wide median. From 164th Street, an abandoned railway runs through the median to a point just north of Redondo Beach Boulevard, afterwards the median becomes tree-lined. From 88th Street to Gage Avenue, Vermont Avenue includes adjacent frontage roads. Vermont Avenue passes at the western end of the University of Southern California and Exposition Park in South Los Angeles. In August 2012, the City of Los Angeles designated a portion of Vermont Avenue in Pico-Union as the "El Salvador Community Corridor."Between the Santa Monica Freeway and the Hollywood Freeway, Vermont Avenue crosses Wilshire Boulevard and passes through Koreatown. It forms the eastern boundary of the East Hollywood district of Hollywood as it passes through Little Armenia, it intersects Sunset Boulevard, next to the Children's Hospital Los Angeles, Hollywood Boulevard, to the east of the Barnsdall Art Park. At the intersection with Los Feliz Boulevard, it becomes a divided road with one lane in each direction as it heads to Griffith Park.
Entering the park, it becomes signed as Vermont Canyon Road before it passes by the Greek Theatre. The road ends at the intersection with Observatory Road, the main route to the Griffith Observatory. Vermont Avenue has the most Metro rail stations of any street in the Metro subway and light rail system, that include: Red Line: Vermont/Sunset station at Sunset Boulevard. Vermont/Santa Monica station Santa Monica Boulevard. Vermont/Beverly station at Beverly Boulevard. Wilshire/Vermont station at Wilshire Boulevard. Purple Line: Wilshire/Vermont station at Wilshire Boulevard. Expo Line: Vermont/Expo station at Exposition Boulevard. Green Line: Vermont/Athens station at the Century Freeway/Interstate 105. Metro is exploring an extension of the red line subway down Vermont Avenue at least as far as the neighborhood of Athens as a combination of both underground and elevated heavy rail. Implementation is expected as part of the Twenty-eight by'28 initiative, in anticipation of the 2028 Summer Olympics.
Operations were dubbed the R Line in 2018. Metro Local lines 204 and 205, Gardena Transit line 2, run along Vermont Avenue, as well as Metro Rapid line 754 and Metro Express line 550. Metro lines 204 and 754 run between Sunset Boulevard and Vermont Green Line Station Gardena line 2 between Interstate 105 and the Harbor Gateway Transit Center, Metro lines 205 and 550 to PCH. Metro lines 204 and 754 use 60-foot NABI buses Streets in Los Angeles County, California Public transportation in Los Angeles County, California
North Hollywood, Los Angeles
North Hollywood is a neighborhood located in the east San Fernando Valley region of the city of Los Angeles. It is home to the NoHo Arts District and the Academy of Television Arts & Sciences, it has seven public and eight private schools. There is a recreation center; the neighborhood is an important transportation center. North Hollywood was established by the Lankershim Ranch Land and Water Company in 1887, it was first named Toluca before being renamed Lankershim in 1896 and North Hollywood in 1927. The 2000 U. S. census counted 77,848 residents in the 5.87-square-mile North Hollywood neighborhood—or 13,264 people per square mile, about an average population density for the city but among the highest for the county. In 2008, the city estimated that the population had increased to 87,241. In 2000 the median age for residents was 30, considered an average age for city and county neighborhoods; the neighborhood was considered "moderately diverse" ethnically within Los Angeles. The breakdown was Latinos, 57.7%.
Mexico and El Salvador were the most common places of birth for the 46.4% of the residents who were born abroad—a high percentage for Los Angeles. The percentages of never-married men and never-married women were among the county's highest; the median yearly household income in 2008 dollars was $42,791, considered average for the city but low for the county. The percentages of households that earned $40,000 or less were high for the county. Renters occupied 75.4% of the housing stock, house- or apartment-owners held 24.6%. North Hollywood is bordered on the north on the northeast and east by Burbank. Toluca Lake borders North Hollywood on the southeast and south, Studio City abuts it on the southwest, it is flanked by Valley Glen on the west. It is not contiguous with Hollywood, being separated by other parts of the San Fernando Valley and the Hollywood Hills. North Hollywood displays a hot summer Mediterranean Climate North Hollywood was once part of the vast landholdings of the Mission San Fernando Rey de España, confiscated by the government during the Mexican period of rule.
A group of investors assembled as the San Fernando Farm Homestead Association purchased the southern half of the Rancho Ex-Mission San Fernando. The leading investor was Isaac Lankershim, a Northern California stockman and grain farmer, impressed by the Valley's wild oats and proposed to raise sheep on the property. In 1873, Isaac Lankershim's son and future son-in-law, James Boon Lankershim and Isaac Newton Van Nuys, moved to the San Ferndando Valley and took over management of the property. Van Nuys thought the property could profitably grow wheat using the dryland farming technique developed on the Great Plains and leased land from the Association to test his theories. In time, the Lankershim property, under its third name, the Los Angeles Farming and Milling Company, would become the world's largest wheat-growing empire. In October 1887, J. B. Lankershim and eight other developers organized the Lankershim Ranch Land and Water Company, purchasing 12,000 acres north of the Cahuenga Pass from the Lankershim Farming and Milling Company.
Lankershim established a townsite which the residents named Toluca along the old road from Cahuenga Pass to San Fernando. On April 1, 1888, they offered ready-made small farms for sale planted with deep-rooted deciduous fruit and nut trees—mostly peaches, pears and walnuts—that could survive the rainless summers of the Valley by relying on the high water table along the Tujunga Wash rather than surface irrigation; the land boom of the 1880s went bust by the 1890s, but despite another brutal drought cycle in the late 1890s, the fruit and nut farmers remained solvent. The Toluca Fruit Growers Association was formed in 1894; the next year the Southern Pacific opened a branch line slanting northwest across the Valley to Chatsworth. The Chatsworth Limited made one freight stop a day at Toluca, though the depot bore the new name of Lankershim. With the post office across the street being called Toluca, controversy over the town's name continued, the local ranchers used to quip, "Ship the merchandise to Lankershim, but bill it to Toluca."
In 1896, under pressure from Lankershim, the post office at Toluca was renamed "Lankershim" after his father, although the new name of the town would not be recognized until 1905. By 1903, the area was known as "The Home of the Peach". In 1912, the area's major employer, the Bonner Fruit Company, was canning over a million tons of peaches and other fruits; when the Los Angeles Aqueduct opened in 1913, Valley farmers offered to buy the surplus water, but the federal legislation that enabled the construction of the aqueduct prohibited Los Angeles from selling the water outside of the city limits. At first, resistance to the real-estate development and downtown business interests of Los Angeles remained strong enough to keep the small farmers unified in opposition to annexation. However, the fruit packing company interests were taken over by the Los Angeles interests; the two conspired to decrease prices and mitigate the farmers' profit margins, making their continued existence tenuous. When droughts hit the valley again, rather than face foreclosure, the most vulnerable farmers agreed to mortgage their holdings to the fruit packing company and banks in Los Angeles for the immediate future and vote on annexation.
West Lankershim agreed to be annexed to the City of Los Angeles in 1919, Lankershim proper in 1923. Much of the promised water delivery was withheld, many of the ranchers one