Colorado Aviation Historical Society
The Colorado Aviation Historical Society is located in Denver and was founded in 1966. CAHS home is at Wings Over the Rockies Space Museum; the Society acquires, restores and provides for public display and other objects, documents and things of present or historical interest or value in connection with the development and history of aviation in the State of Colorado. CAHS participates in many of Colorado's air shows and fly-ins; the Society publishes a quarterly history journal. The Society owns an Alexander Eaglerock Model 24 Long Wings, on loan and display at the Pueblo Weisbrod Aircraft Museum, Colorado; the CAHS honors the State's historic aviators and conducts the nomination process for induction into the Colorado Aviation Hall of Fame. The Hall of Fame is part of the Heritage Hall Exhibit Room located in the Wings Over the Rockies Air and Space Museum. Exhibits are rotated periodically and depict such history as the Colorado Air National Guard, general aviation, women in aviation, timeline of aviation history, Colorado civil and commercial aviation.
The induction ceremony is held during CAHS's annual banquet. CAHS' flagship program is the Aviation Archaeology Program; the Program was designed in 2005 and its inaugural class was held in 2006. The rudiments of aviation archaeology training subjects include preliminary project research of accident reports, federal/state laws, simple orienteering, site documentation and investigation. Graduate Field Agents visit aircraft crash sites, old missiles facilities, former aircraft manufacturing facilities, abandoned airfields and airstrips. There are over 800 military aircraft crash sites in Colorado. CAF Rocky Mountain Wing Museum, Grand Junction, CO Peterson Air and Space Museum Peterson AFB, Colorado Springs, CO Pueblo Historical Aircraft Society Pueblo Airport, Pueblo, CO Pueblo Weisbrod Aircraft Museum Pueblo Airport, Pueblo, CO Spirit of Flight Center Lafayette, CO Vintage Aero Flying Museum Platte Valley Aipark, Hudson, CO Wings Over the Rockies Air and Space Museum Old Lowry AFB Campus, Denver, CO List of aviation historical societies List of airports in Colorado
Tempe known as Hayden's Ferry during the territorial times of Arizona, is a city in Maricopa County, United States, with the Census Bureau reporting a 2017 population of 185,038. The city is named after the Vale of Tempe in Greece. Tempe is located in the East Valley section of metropolitan Phoenix. Tempe is the location of the main campus of Arizona State University; the Hohokam built canals to support their agriculture. They abandoned their settlements during the 15th century, with a few individuals and families remaining nearby. Fort McDowell was established 25 mi northeast of present downtown Tempe on the upper Salt River in 1865 allowing for new towns to be built farther down the Salt River. US military service members and Hispanic workers were hired to grow food and animal feed to supply the fort, less than a year had set up small camps near the river that were the first permanent communities in the Valley after the fall of the Hohokam; the two settlements were'Hayden's Ferry', named after a ferry service operated by Charles T. Hayden, and'San Pablo', were located west and east of Hayden Butte respectively.
The ferry became the key river crossing in the area. The Tempe Irrigating Canal Company was soon established by William Kirkland and James McKinney to provide water for alfalfa, barley and cotton. Pioneer Darrell Duppa is credited with suggesting Tempe's name, adopted in 1879, after comparing the Salt River valley near a 300-foot -tall butte, to the Vale of Tempe near Mount Olympus in Greece. From its founding in 1871 until the early 1960s, Tempe was a sundown town where African Americans were permitted to work but encouraged to live elsewhere. In 1885, the 13th Arizona Territorial Legislature chose Tempe for the site of the Territorial Normal School, which became Arizona Normal School, Arizona State Teachers College, Arizona State College and Arizona State University; the Maricopa and Phoenix Railroad, built in 1887, crossed the Salt River at Tempe, linking the town to the nation's growing transportation system. The Tempe Land and Improvement Company was formed to sell lots in the booming town.
Tempe became an economic hub for the surrounding agricultural area. The city incorporated in 1894; the completion of Roosevelt Dam in 1911 guaranteed enough water to meet the growing needs of Valley farmers. On his way to dedicate the dam, former President Theodore Roosevelt applauded the accomplishments of the people of central Arizona and predicted that their towns would be prosperous cities in the future. Less than a year Arizona was admitted as the 48th state, the Salt River Valley continued to develop. In the 20th and 21st centuries, Tempe has expanded as a suburb of Phoenix, as a center of education and commerce. Tempe is an inner suburb, located between the rest of the East Valley. Due to this as well as being the home of the main campus of Arizona State University, Tempe has a dense, urbanized development pattern in the northern part of the city with a growing skyline. Going south, development becomes less dense, consisting of single-family homes, strip malls and lower-density office parks.
Within Tempe are the Tempe Buttes. The Salt River runs west through the northern part of Tempe. According to the United States Census Bureau, the landlocked city has a total area of 40.2 square miles. The city of Tempe is bordered by Mesa to the east and the Salt River Pima–Maricopa Indian Community to the north and Guadalupe to the west, Chandler to the south. 40.1 square miles of it is land and 0.1 square miles of it is water. The total area is 0.32% water including Tempe Town Lake. Tempe is flat, except for Hayden Butte, located next to Sun Devil Stadium, Twin Buttes and Bell Butte on the western edge of Tempe, Papago Park northwest of Tempe, inside Phoenix. Elevation ranges from 1,140 feet at Tempe Town Lake to 1,495 feet atop Hayden Butte; as of the 2010 census, there were 161,719 people, 63,602 households, 33,645 families residing in the city. The population density was 3,959.4 people per square mile. There were 67,068 housing units at an average density of 1,674.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 77.51% White, 5.9% Black or African American, 2.9% Native American, 5.7% Asian, 0.4% Pacific Islander, 8.49% from other races, 3.9% from two or more races.
21.2% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 63,602 households out of which 24.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 38.4% were married couples living together, 9.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 47.1% were non-families. 28.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 4.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.41 and the average family size was 3.05. In the city, the population was spread out with 19.8% under the age of 18, 21.3% from 18 to 24, 33.2% from 25 to 44, 18.5% from 45 to 64, 7.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 29 years. For every 100 females, there were 106.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 107.1 males. The median income for a household in the city was $42,361, the median income for a family was $55,237. Males had a median income of $36,406
Denver the City and County of Denver, is the capital and most populous municipality of the U. S. state of Colorado. Denver is located in the South Platte River Valley on the western edge of the High Plains just east of the Front Range of the Rocky Mountains; the Denver downtown district is east of the confluence of Cherry Creek with the South Platte River 12 mi east of the foothills of the Rocky Mountains. Denver is named after James W. Denver, a governor of the Kansas Territory, it is nicknamed the Mile High City because its official elevation is one mile above sea level; the 105th meridian west of Greenwich, the longitudinal reference for the Mountain Time Zone, passes directly through Denver Union Station. Denver is ranked as a Beta world city by World Cities Research Network. With an estimated population of 704,621 in 2017, Denver is the 19th-most populous U. S. city, with a 17.41% increase since the 2010 United States Census, it has been one of the fastest-growing major cities in the United States.
The 10-county Denver-Aurora-Lakewood, CO Metropolitan Statistical Area had an estimated 2017 population of 2,888,227 and is the 19th most populous U. S. metropolitan statistical area. The 12-city Denver-Aurora, CO Combined Statistical Area had an estimated 2017 population of 3,515,374 and is the 15th most populous U. S. metropolitan area. Denver is the most populous city of the 18-county Front Range Urban Corridor, an oblong urban region stretching across two states with an estimated 2017 population of 4,895,589. Denver is the most populous city within a 500-mile radius and the second-most populous city in the Mountain West after Phoenix, Arizona. In 2016, Denver was named the best place to live in the United States by U. S. News & World Report. In the summer of 1858, during the Pike's Peak Gold Rush, a group of gold prospectors from Lawrence, Kansas established Montana City as a mining town on the banks of the South Platte River in what was western Kansas Territory; this was the first historical settlement in what was to become the city of Denver.
The site faded however, by the summer of 1859 it was abandoned in favor of Auraria and St. Charles City. On November 22, 1858, General William Larimer and Captain Jonathan Cox, both land speculators from eastern Kansas Territory, placed cottonwood logs to stake a claim on the bluff overlooking the confluence of the South Platte River and Cherry Creek, across the creek from the existing mining settlement of Auraria, on the site of the existing townsite of St. Charles. Larimer named the townsite Denver City to curry favor with Kansas Territorial Governor James W. Denver. Larimer hoped the town's name would help make it the county seat of Arapaho County but, unbeknownst to him, Governor Denver had resigned from office; the location was accessible to existing trails and was across the South Platte River from the site of seasonal encampments of the Cheyenne and Arapaho. The site of these first towns is now the site of Confluence Park near downtown Denver. Larimer, along with associates in the St. Charles City Land Company, sold parcels in the town to merchants and miners, with the intention of creating a major city that would cater to new immigrants.
Denver City was a frontier town, with an economy based on servicing local miners with gambling, saloons and goods trading. In the early years, land parcels were traded for grubstakes or gambled away by miners in Auraria. In May 1859, Denver City residents donated 53 lots to the Leavenworth & Pike's Peak Express in order to secure the region's first overland wagon route. Offering daily service for "passengers, mail and gold", the Express reached Denver on a trail that trimmed westward travel time from twelve days to six. In 1863, Western Union furthered Denver's dominance of the region by choosing the city for its regional terminus; the Colorado Territory was created on February 28, 1861, Arapahoe County was formed on November 1, 1861, Denver City was incorporated on November 7, 1861. Denver City served as the Arapahoe County Seat from 1861 until consolidation in 1902. In 1867, Denver City became the acting territorial capital, in 1881 was chosen as the permanent state capital in a statewide ballot.
With its newfound importance, Denver City shortened its name to Denver. On August 1, 1876, Colorado was admitted to the Union. Although by the close of the 1860s, Denver residents could look with pride at their success establishing a vibrant supply and service center, the decision to route the nation's first transcontinental railroad through Cheyenne, rather than Denver, threatened the prosperity of the young town. A daunting 100 miles away, citizens mobilized to build a railroad to connect Denver to the transcontinental railroad. Spearheaded by visionary leaders including Territorial Governor John Evans, David Moffat, Walter Cheesman, fundraising began. Within three days, $300,000 had been raised, citizens were optimistic. Fundraising stalled before enough was raised, forcing these visionary leaders to take control of the debt-ridden railroad. Despite challenges, on June 24, 1870, citizens cheered as the Denver Pacific completed the link to the transcontinental railroad, ushering in a new age of prosperity for Denver.
Linked to the rest of the nation by rail, Denver prospered as a service and supply center. The young city grew during these years, attracting millionaires with their mansions, as well as the poverty and crime of a growing city. Denver citizens were proud when the rich chose Denver and were thrilled when Horace Tabor, the Leadville mining millionaire, built an impressive business block at 16th and Larimer as well as the el
Arizona Historical Society
The Arizona Historical Society is a non-profit organization whose goal is to collect, preserve and disseminate the history of Arizona, the West, Northern Mexico as it pertains to Arizona. It does this through 4 regional divisions; each division has a representative museum. The statewide divisions are as follows: Southern Arizona Division in Tucson, the Central Arizona Division in Tempe, the Northern Arizona Division in Flagstaff, the Rio Colorado Division in Yuma, it was founded in 1884. The group was founded as the Society of Arizona Pioneers on January 31, 1884 by physician John C. Handy, his father-in-law William Fisher Scott, 58 other Tucson pioneers. With a new railroad being built and change on its way to Tucson, pioneers worried that their stories of battles with the desert heat and the Apaches would be lost forever; the society was founded to preserve these stories and provide charitable service work to the local community as a mutual aid society. Original Historical Society members were prominent members of the community, their tasks with the society included attending funerals and raising money to help out widows.
Over time, the Society evolved to provide storage for official state papers and collect the histories of many Arizona citizens. The society has faced several periods of financial difficulty, difficulty storing their collections safely. Collections expanded beyond the capacity of facilities several times, until a large, block-long basement was created to store records and documents at the current Main Museum; as of 2015, the Society maintained several museums in the state with the financial support of over 3000 members and dozens of volunteers. Arizona Historical Society Pioneer Museum - located in the historic Coconino County Hospital for the Indigent. Exhibits include local history, logging and pioneer life. Riordan Mansion State Historic Park - the Society manages the early 20th-century Arts and Crafts style mansion for the state. Arizona Historical Society Museum at Papago Park - Exhibits focus on the state's history in the 20th and 21st centuries, including World War II, the rise of desert cities, Arizona pop culture and the state’s geology.
Arizona History Museum - The largest AHS museum in the state, the Arizona History Museum rotates its exhibits on Arizona history. Permanent displays include southern Arizona history from Spanish colonial through territorial eras and transportation. Downtown Tucson Museum - Exhibits featuring early downtown Tucson, including artifacts from a barbershop and drugstore. Leisure activities are explored with exhibits that discuss music, dance halls and church in Tucson. Fort Lowell Museum - The Fort Lowell park is the site of what used to be Fort Lowell. Part of the medical wing of the fort still stands, as well as the trees planted to mark the road to the fort. A small museum is located at the park and it contains exhibits related to the fort history and military history in Tucson in general. Uniforms and photographs of military life show viewers. Sosa-Carrillo-Fremont House - 1870s adobe house, open by appointment Sanguinetti House Museum and Gardens - 1870s period adobe house The Arizona Historical Society houses a large collection of published and unpublished historical documents in its library and archives division.
The collections are divided among 4 locations in Arizona, with each location specializing in certain aspects of history. The Society lists its collection specialties as follows: "Tucson Collections Strengths: Territorial era, Southern Arizona and borderlands, genealogy, politics, military, non-profit and grass roots organizations, ephemera and maps. Tempe Collections Strengths: 20th Century, Maricopa County and Central Arizona, oral histories, architectural drawings, TV news reels, banking, business, non-profit organizations and culture, photographs and photographic studios. Yuma Collections Strengths: Territorial era to 1940s, Western Arizona, oral histories, genealogy, local organizations, church history, early transportation, business, Lower Colorado River, Yuma Prison, photographs. Flagstaff Collections Strengths: Territorial era to 1950s, Northern Arizona and Colorado Plateau, politics, lumber industry, genealogy, local organizations, Indian Pow Wow records, healthcare, oral histories and photographs."AHS libraries are staffed by knowledgeable librarians who can aid in professional research or answer general research questions at the research help desk.
The Historical Society publishes the quarterly Journal of Arizona History. The journal contains articles about Arizona history. Photo essays and reviews are included along with standard articles; the Historical Society additionally publishes books. Larcena Pennington Page Official website
Pueblo is a home rule municipality, the county seat and the most populous city of Pueblo County, United States. The population was 106,595 in 2010 census, making it the 267th most populous city in the United States and the 9th largest in Colorado. Pueblo is the heart of the Pueblo Metropolitan Statistical Area, totaling over 160,000 people and an important part of the Front Range Urban Corridor; as of 2014, Pueblo is the primary city of the Pueblo–Cañon City combined statistical area totaling 208,000 people, making it the 134th largest in the nation. Pueblo is situated at the confluence of the Arkansas River and Fountain Creek, 112 miles south of the Colorado State Capitol in Denver; the area is considered semi-arid desert land, with 12 inches of precipitation annually. With its location in the "Banana Belt", Pueblo tends to get less snow than the other major cities in Colorado. Pueblo is one of the largest steel-producing cities in the United States, for which reason Pueblo is referred to as the "Steel City".
The Historic Arkansas River Project is a river walk in the Union Avenue Historic Commercial District, shows the history of the devastating Pueblo Flood of 1921. Pueblo has the least expensive residential real estate of all major cities in Colorado; the median home price for homes on the market in Pueblo is $147,851 as of February 2013. It is the sixth most affordable place to live in America as measured by the 2014 Cost of Living Index. Costs of housing and services, transportation and health care are lower than the national average. Pueblo was listed by AARP in 2013 as one of the Best Places to Live in the USA. James Beckwourth, George Simpson, other trappers such as Mathew Kinkead, claimed to have helped construct the plaza that became known as El Pueblo around 1842. According to accounts of residents who traded at the plaza, the Fort Pueblo Massacre happened sometime between December 23 and December 25, 1854, by a war party of Utes and Jicarilla Apaches under the leadership of Tierra Blanca, a Ute chief.
They killed between fifteen and nineteen men, as well as captured two children and one woman. The trading post was abandoned after the raid, but it became important again between 1858 and 1859 during the Colorado Gold Rush of 1859; the current city of Pueblo represents the consolidation of four towns: Pueblo, South Pueblo, Central Pueblo, Bessemer. Pueblo, South Pueblo, Central Pueblo consolidated as the City of Pueblo between March 9 and April 6, 1886. Bessemer joined Pueblo in 1894; the consolidated city became a major economic and social center of Colorado, was home to important early Colorado families such as the Thatchers, the Ormans, the Adams. By the early 1870s the city was being hailed as a beacon of development, with newspapers like the Chicago Tribune boasting of how the region's lawless reputation was giving way to orderly agriculture with triumphalist rhetoric. One author crowed of Pueblo that "the necessity exists no longer for Sharp's revolvers; these have been supplied by the plow and the mowing-machine."Pueblo's development stretched beyond agriculture.
Steel emerged as a key industry early, in 1909 the city was considered the only steel town west of the Mississippi River. Until a series of major floods culminated in the Great Flood of 1921, Pueblo was considered the'Saddle-Making capital of the World'. One-third of Pueblo's downtown businesses were lost in this flood, along with a substantial number of buildings. Pueblo has had a resurgence in growth. Pueblo's orphanages were an influential part of the city; the transformations that have occurred throughout the three orphanages in the town of Pueblo, Colorado are important aspects of the city's history. Many people were influenced by the Orphanages of Pueblo and the homes are now all historical sites; the transformations have occurred architecturally and economically within the people from to now. The three orphanages in Pueblo were known as Sacred Heart, McClelland. Lincoln was the first black orphanage in Colorado, one of only seven in the country. Sacred Heart was run by the Catholic Welfare Bureau, while McClelland was run by the Lutheran Church.
Several children from Cuba were placed at Sacred Heart as part of "Operation Pedro Pan". Though the Orphanages in Pueblo are no longer in service, the buildings still exist and have transformed with the times. According to the Rocky Mountain News, in 1988 the Sacred Heart Orphanage was bought by the Pueblo Housing Authority and turned into 40 small-family housing units; the main industry in Pueblo for most of its history was the Colorado Fuel and Iron Steel Mill on the south side of town. For nearly a century the CF&I was the largest employer in the state of Colorado; the steel-market crash of 1982 led to the decline of the company. After several bankruptcies, the company was acquired by Oregon Steel Mills and changed its name to Rocky Mountain Steel Mills; the company was plagued with labor problems due to accusations of unfair labor practices. This culminated with a major strike in 1997. In September 2004, both United Steelworkers locals 2102 and 3267 won the strike and the unfair labor practice charges.
All of the striking steel workers returned to their jobs, the company paid them the back pay owed for the seven years they were on strike. In 2007, shortly after Oregon Steel made amends with the union and its workers, Evraz Group, one of Russia's biggest steel producers, agreed to buy the company for $2.3 bil
Utah is a state in the western United States. It became the 45th state admitted to the U. S. on January 4, 1896. Utah is the 13th-largest by area, 31st-most-populous, 10th-least-densely populated of the 50 United States. Utah has a population of more than 3 million according to the Census estimate for July 1, 2016. Urban development is concentrated in two areas: the Wasatch Front in the north-central part of the state, which contains 2.5 million people. Utah is bordered by Colorado to the east, Wyoming to the northeast, Idaho to the north, Arizona to the south, Nevada to the west, it touches a corner of New Mexico in the southeast. 62% of Utahns are reported to be members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, making Utah the only state with a majority population belonging to a single church. This influences Utahn culture and daily life; the LDS Church's world headquarters is located in Salt Lake City. The state is a center of transportation, information technology and research, government services, a major tourist destination for outdoor recreation.
In 2013, the U. S. Census Bureau estimated. St. George was the fastest-growing metropolitan area in the United States from 2000 to 2005. Utah has the 14th highest median average income and the least income inequality of any U. S. state. A 2012 Gallup national survey found Utah overall to be the "best state to live in" based on 13 forward-looking measurements including various economic and health-related outlook metrics. A common folk etymology is that the name "Utah" is derived from the name of the Ute tribe, purported to mean "people of the mountains" in the Ute language. However, the word for people in Ute is'núuchiu' while the word for mountain is'káav', offering no linguistic connection to the words'Ute' or'Utah'. According to other sources "Utah" is derived from the Apache name "yuttahih" which means "One, Higher up" or "Those that are higher up". In the Spanish language it was said as "Yuta", subsequently the English-speaking people adapted the word "Utah". Thousands of years before the arrival of European explorers, the Ancestral Puebloans and the Fremont people lived in what is now known as Utah, some of which spoke languages of the Uto-Aztecan group.
Ancestral Pueblo peoples built their homes through excavations in mountains, the Fremont people built houses of straw before disappearing from the region around the 15th century. Another group of Native Americans, the Navajo, settled in the region around the 18th century. In the mid-18th century, other Uto-Aztecan tribes, including the Goshute, the Paiute, the Shoshone, the Ute people settled in the region; these five groups were present. The southern Utah region was explored by the Spanish in 1540, led by Francisco Vásquez de Coronado, while looking for the legendary Cíbola. A group led by two Catholic priests—sometimes called the Dominguez-Escalante Expedition—left Santa Fe in 1776, hoping to find a route to the coast of California; the expedition encountered the native residents. The Spanish made further explorations in the region, but were not interested in colonizing the area because of its desert nature. In 1821, the year Mexico achieved its independence from Spain, the region became known as part of its territory of Alta California.
European trappers and fur traders explored some areas of Utah in the early 19th century from Canada and the United States. The city of Provo, Utah was named for one, Étienne Provost, who visited the area in 1825; the city of Ogden, Utah was named after Peter Skene Ogden, a Canadian explorer who traded furs in the Weber Valley. In late 1824, Jim Bridger became the first known English-speaking person to sight the Great Salt Lake. Due to the high salinity of its waters, He thought. After the discovery of the lake, hundreds of American and Canadian traders and trappers established trading posts in the region. In the 1830s, thousands of migrants traveling from the Eastern United States to the American West began to make stops in the region of the Great Salt Lake known as Lake Youta. Following the death of Joseph Smith in 1844, Brigham Young, as president of the Quorum of the Twelve, became the effective leader of the LDS Church in Nauvoo, Illinois. To address the growing conflicts between his people and their neighbors, Young agreed with Illinois Governor Thomas Ford in October 1845 that the Mormons would leave by the following year.
Young and the first band of Mormon pioneers reached the Salt Lake Valley on July 24, 1847. Over the next 22 years, more than 70,000 pioneers settled in Utah. For the first few years, Brigham Young and the thousands of early settlers of Salt Lake City struggled to survive; the arid desert land was deemed by the Mormons as desirable as a place where they could practice their religion without harassment. The Mormon settlements provided pioneers for other settlements in the West. Salt Lake City became the hub of a "far-flung commonwealth" of Mormon settlements. With new church converts coming from the East and around the world, Church leaders assigned groups of church members as missionaries to establish other settlements throughout the West, they developed irrigation to support large pioneer populations along Utah's Wasatch front. Throughout the remainder of the 19th century, Mormon pioneers established hundreds of other settlements in Utah, Id
Millennium Biltmore Hotel
The Millennium Biltmore Hotel named the Los Angeles Biltmore Hotel of the Biltmore Hotels group, is a luxury hotel located across the street from Pershing Square in Downtown Los Angeles, California, US. Upon its grand opening in 1923, the Los Angeles Biltmore was the largest hotel west of Chicago, Illinois in the United States. In 1969 the Biltmore Hotel was designated a Los Angeles Historic-Cultural Monument by the City of Los Angeles. Regal Hotels purchased the Biltmore in 1996, sold it in 1999 to Millennium & Copthorne Hotels; as of 2009, the Los Angeles Biltmore is operated as part of the Millennium & Copthorne Hotels chain as the Millennium Biltmore Hotel. The hotel has 70,000 square feet of banquet space. From its original 1500 guestrooms it now has 683, due to room reorganization; the architectural firm Schultze & Weaver designed the Biltmore's exterior in a synthesis of the Spanish-Italian Renaissance Revival, Mediterranean Revival, Beaux Arts styles, meant as an homage to the Castilian heritage of Los Angeles.
The "Biltmore Angel" is incorporated into the design—as a symbol of the city as well as the Biltmore itself. With a thick steel and concrete frame, the structure takes up half a city block and rises over 11 stories; the interiors of the Biltmore Hotel are decorated with: murals. Most notable are the frescoed mural ceilings in the main Galleria and the Crystal Ballroom, which were hand painted in 1922 by Italian artist Giovanni Smeraldi, known for his work in the Vatican and the White House. Smeraldi and his team famously painted the ballroom's colorful, seamless fresco over a period of seven months, decorating it with figures of Greek and Roman gods, angels and other mythological creatures, it was meticulously restored in the 1980s by Anthony Heinsbergen. The imported Austrian crystal chandeliers that adorn it are 12 feet in diameter; the Rendezvous Court, once the hotel's lobby but now used for afternoon tea, is decorated with a Moorish Revival styled plaster ceiling painted with 24 Carat Gold accents, two original imported Italian chandeliers from 1923, a grand Spanish Baroque Revival bronze doorway, whose astrological clock still keeps time today.
Two figures appear on the stairwell front—on the left is the Roman goddess of agriculture Ceres, while on the right is the Spanish explorer Vasco Núñez de Balboa. The current lobby at the hotel's Grand Avenue entrance still has its original travertine walls and oak paneling as well as the large artificial skylighted ceiling, reflected in the custom carpet below; each ballroom on the Galleria level is themed either after the room's original function or the hotel's overall California-heritage premise. The Emerald Room was once the hotel's main guest dining room; the Tiffany Room was an open corridor used as a drop-off point for Crystal Ballroom functions. Now enclosed, the elegant space centers around exploration, with relief sculptures and panels depicting Queen Isabella I of Castile, Christopher Columbus and other Spanish New World explorers; the split-level Gold Room, once a dining room for elite guests, features Prohibition-era hidden liquor compartments and panels along the ceiling for press photographers to take pictures of the event below.
It is decorated with a gold cast-plaster ceiling, hand-oiled wood paneling, nine mirrored windows along three sides. The South Galleria is painted with floral friezes inspired by the decor of ancient Roman Pompeii, features a vaulted ceiling, marble balustrades and heavy Roman piers. Gold-painted wrought iron gates open to a staircase leading down to the Biltmore Bowl. Of interest is the hotel's health club and indoor pool, modeled after the decks of 1920s luxury ocean liners. Solid brass trim on windows and railings, teakwood deck chairs and hand-laid Italian mosaic tile on the walls and in the pool are original. In 2015, four restaurants and bars serve the hotel, including Smeraldi's Restaurant, newly relaunched Bugis Street Brasserie, the Rendezvous Court, the Gallery Bar; the Los Angeles Biltmore is known for being an early home to the Academy Award Ceremony for the Oscars. The Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences was founded at a luncheon banquet in the Crystal Ballroom in May 1927, when guests such as Louis B. Mayer met to discuss plans for the new organization and presenting achievement awards to colleagues in their industry.
Legend has it that MGM art director Cedric Gibbons, in attendance grabbed a linen Biltmore napkin and sketched the design for the Oscar statue on it. Eight Oscar ceremonies were held in the Biltmore Bowl during the Academy's early years of 1931, 1935–39, 1941-42. In 1977 Bob Hope hosted the Academy's 50th Anniversary banquet in the same room; the Biltmore Theater was situated at the corner of 5th and Grand from 1924–1967, now the Biltmore Court & Tower location. Will Rogers emceed the opening of the theater in 1924, which ran plays starring luminaries such as Katharine Hepburn, Henry Fonda, Mae West until its closure in 1967. In 1929, Germany's Graf Zeppelin airship soared over the hotel on its round-the-world voyage, sponsored by newspaper magnate William Randolph Hearst. Crew and passengers were fed by Biltmore culinary staff, who replenished their on-board supplies. During World War II, the Biltmore served as a military rest and recreat