Gronk is the pseudonym of Chicano painter and performance artist Glugio Nicandro. His work is collected by museums around the country including the Smithsonian American Art Museum. Gronk was born in Los Angeles to Mexican-American parents and was raised by his mother, he remembers that he was always making things and he felt, what he was best at. He remembers being influenced by popular culture on television. Another artistic influence on Gronk was his uncle, always drawing and Gronk wanted to be able to draw like him. Another influence on Gronk was foreign film which he watched in Santa Monica, he was fascinated with the larger world and concepts that many of these films from Russia and elsewhere brought to his imagination. At age fourteen, Gronk started writing his own plays. One of his earliest performance plays was Cockroaches Have No Friends, which led to him meeting Patssi Valdez, Harry Gamboa, Jr, Willie Herron and Sylvia Delgado, with the first three of them becoming members of Asco on.
Gronk worked with Mundo Meza and Cyclona on various performance pieces those that pertained to gender issues. Gronk took his education beyond, he was a big reader from a young age and liked to learn everything he could about a subject he was interested in. He did much of his research at the library, gaining a vast knowledge of European modern art and film. Gronk recalls that in high school that he did not fit into "the confines of compulsory heterosexuality." He states that he sat at the'queer table' at lunch but because he was an excellent artist, students at the school didn't consider him to be gay. Bored with High School and stimulated into political action by the anti-Vietnam War and the Chicano Blowouts at East Los Angeles schools and friends attended their final years in school, may not have graduated, he took some classes at East L. A. College; when Gronk performed Cockroaches Have No Friends at East L. A. College, it was a disaster, but afterwards, Gamboa contacted Gronk and invited him to work on a magazine project called Regeneracion with Valdez and Herron.
Working on the magazine, they drew together in Herron's mothers. This work on the magazine led to the creation of Asco. During the Vietnam War, Gronk was drafted and went to boot camp at Fort Ord for a period of around two weeks, he was unable to conform, according to the army and he was sent back home. Gronk was a founding member of Asco, a multi-media arts collective based in Los Angeles, active in the 1970s and 1980s. Influenced by European film and literature—especially the work of Albert Camus, Jean-Paul Sartre, Samuel Beckett. Gronk as a member of ASCO made "movies without film" and farcical "happenings" or street performances. In 1977, Gronk was one of the founders of Los Angeles Contemporary Exhibitions. Gronk's involvement with LACE involved his creation and execution of murals, many of which were considered controversial. Indeed, other artists criticized Gronk for being too nontraditional. Gronk clashed with founder of East LA's Self Help Graphics, Sister Karen Boccalero, who he called "the smoking nun."Gronk has not always sought to bring his art to just those who visit galleries: he has circulated fliers about his work at "bus stops, seeking workers and the people of the streets."
Gronk uses his "lowbrow" style to confront the viewer and ask them to rethink "visual paradigms," using humor and irony to make his statements. One of his most visible challenges to the status quo took place as a member of ASCO when he, co-members Harry Gamboa and Willie Herron, tagged their names on the Los Angeles County Museum of Art after being told that LACMA didn't collect Chicano art because it wasn't "fine art."After 1984, Gronk began a series of paintings that included one of his recurring figures, La Tormenta who functions like a guide through his art. This body of work was considered more "acceptable" to the mainstream world of art, he is best known including those at Estrada Courts in East Los Angeles. More his murals have been intentionally painted as temporary art works to be whitewashed later. Gronk's murals, paintings on canvas, collected screen prints, relate to the direct visual aesthetic contained in works by German Expressionist Max Beckmann and the cartoon-like paintings of American Phillip Guston, along with vernacular arts of early civilizations.
Gronk has collaborated with Tandem Press. His work is represented by Daniel Saxon of West Hollywood, California. Gronk is accessible to students and others seen walking in Downtown Los Angeles. Comfortable with the moniker "Chicano artist", Gronk's intense devotion to craft and multi-disciplinary pursuits are informed by a wide knowledge from a myriad of global and historic sources. Gronk has been involved with theater since his Asco days, in 1995 he was commissioned to design sets for the Los Angeles Opera and Santa Fe Opera, his scenic work has been featured onstage with Latino Theater Company and East West Players. In 1996, Gronk won a Los Angeles Dramalogue Award for Set design of the Theatrical play of "La Chunga", he has collaborated with composer Joseph Julian Gonzalez on “Tormenta Cantada,” a visual/musical piece performed in 1995, with Kronos Quartet at University of California, Los Angeles. In 2003, Gronk was in residency at University of New Mexico, as part of the Cultural Practice/Virtual Styles project.
In 2011, he was Artist-in-Residence at Fullerton College. That same year, his work was exhibited in the retrospective ASCO: Elite of th
Woodbury University is a private, non-profit, nonsectarian university located in Burbank with and a satellite campus in San Diego, both in Southern California. The school was founded in 1884 as Woodbury's Business College by its namesake, F. C. Woodbury a partner in Heald's Business College in San Francisco, thus making it the second oldest institution of higher learning in Los Angeles and one of the oldest business schools west of Chicago; that historic link between Woodbury and the world of business has been maintained throughout the years. Woodbury was coeducational from its founding, making it one of the earliest colleges West of the Mississippi to admit women; the original mission of Woodbury University was to educate Los Angeles residents in the practical areas of business: bookkeeping, commercial law, telegraphy. For a time, Woodbury could boast that 10% of Los Angeles' citizenry were attending the institution and its earliest alumni lists form a who's who of 19th century Los Angeles.
In 1931, the division of professional arts was established to focus on those fields of design that are allied to business: commercial art, interior design, fashion design. Woodbury became a college of business administration and design. In 1969, Woodbury introduced a graduate program leading to the Master of Business Administration degree. In 1974, Woodbury College became Woodbury University. In 1982, Computer Information Systems was added as a major, followed in 1984 by Architecture. In 1987, the Weekend College program for working adults was established with the aid of grants from The Fletcher Jones Foundation and The William Randolph Hearst Foundation. In 1994 the university formally organized its undergraduate and graduate programs into three schools: the School of Architecture and Design, the School of Arts and Sciences, the School of Business and Management; that year three majors in the School of Arts and Sciences came into being: Psychology, Politics & History and Liberal Arts & Business.
Additional undergraduate degree programs have been added in the areas of Marketing, Animation Arts and Leadership. For the first 103 years, the university followed the growth of the business community based in Central Los Angeles, it was at 226 South Spring Street in Downtown Los Angeles. By 1937, it moved to new facilities at 1027 Wilshire Boulevard in the Westlake district, just west of downtown. For 50 years this building served the university’s classrooms and administrative needs. In 1985, the university acquired a 22.4-acre suburban campus in Burbank, the site of the former Villa Cabrini Academy, a high school for girls run by the Missionary Sisters of the Sacred Heart, founded by Frances Xavier Cabrini. In 1987 the university moved to the new campus in the eastern San Fernando Valley. Since 2005, the Los Angeles campus has been home to the Julius Shulman Institute. In 1998 the institution opened a satellite campus in Downtown San Diego, Woodbury University San Diego, where it offers Bachelor of Architecture, Master of Architecture, Master of Interior Architecture degrees.
In Fall of 2008, It moved from Downtown San Diego to the Barrio Logan neighborhood. The new location's building features a computer laboratory, classrooms, a library; the university has a gallery in Hollywood, CA known as WUHO which houses experimental exhibitions and multi-disciplinary collaborations. Woodbury University comprises three schools and one college offering graduate and undergraduate programs: The School of Business, School of Architecture, School of Media, Culture & Design, the College of Liberal Arts. Woodbury undergraduate programs admit students on a rolling basis and the acceptance rate for all undergraduate majors is 56.6%. School of Business Accounting Management Fashion Marketing Marketing Master of Business Administration School of Architecture Architecture, San Diego Interior Architecture Master of Architecture Master of Landscape Architecture, San Diego. Master of Interior Architecture, San Diego. Master of Science in Architecture Master of Science in Architecture - Real Estate Development, San Diego Woodbury's BArch and MArch programs participate in the National Council of Architectural Registration Board’s Integrated Path to Architectural Licensure initiative.
NCARB has accepted 26 programs at 21 colleges to participate in the IPAL initiative. The program streamlines the professional licensure process, providing students the opportunity to complete requirements for licensure while earning their degree. School of Media, Culture & Design Design Foundation Filmmaking Game Art & Design Animation Media Technology Fashion Design Graphic Design Psychology Communication College of Liberal Arts Interdisciplinary Studies Politics & History Professional Writing Public Safety Administration Bachelor of Arts in Leadership Master of Arts in Leadership Woodbury University is accredited by the Senior Commission of the Western Association of Schools and Colleges and is approved by the Postsecondary Commission, California Department of Education; the Western Association of Schools and Colleges granted Woodbury its original regional accreditation in 1961. In 1994 the Architecture program was accredited by the National Architectural Accrediting Board. In 1991, the Interior Architecture Program was accredited by the Council for Interior Design Accreditation.
In 2008, the school received accreditation from the National Association of Schools of Art and Design. Woodbury is a member university of the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business; the School of Business received its accreditation from the Association of Collegiate Business Sch
Sharon Lockhart is an American artist whose work considers social subjects through motion film and still photography engaging with communities to create work as part of long-term projects. She received her BFA from the San Francisco Art Institute in 1991 and her MFA from Art Center College of Design in 1993, she has been a Radcliffe fellow, a Guggenheim fellow, a Rockefeller fellow. Her films and photographic work have been exhibited at international film festivals and in museums, cultural institutions, galleries around the world, she was an associate professor at the University of Southern California’s Roski School of Fine Arts, resigning from the school in August 2015 in response to the continued administrative turmoil at Roski to take a position at the California Institute for the Arts. Lockhart works in Los Angeles, California. For Goshogaoka Girls Basketball Team, a series of 12 photographs, Lockhart turned to images of a girls' basketball team at a school in the Tokyo suburb of Goshogaoka, mimicking the style of the professional athlete's publicity still.
The images were made in conjunction with the artist's first film, Goshogaoka, of the team executing elaborate practice drills. Whereas the camera in Goshogaoka remains fixed in one place the entire film, the viewpoint is changing in Goshogaoka Girls Basketball Team, creating visual movement around the gym as well as around the players. In Teatro Amazonas, an audience seated in the neoclassical opera house of the same name in Manaus, looks back at the camera and the viewer throughout the duration of the film. Photographed from a stationary camera positioned on the stage at the front of the theater, one unedited take shows the audience listening to a live performance by the Choral do Amazonas choir; the musical score, an original choral composition written by Californian composer Becky Allen, begins with a solid chordal mass which becomes silent over twenty-four minutes. As the sound of the choir diminishes, the audience sound rises. In 2003, Lockhart returned to Japan to create a series of works with local farmers.
Her film NŌ, created in conjunction with a movement coordinator, depicts two farmers as they cover a field in hay. Throughout the duration of the film, they move incrementally closer to the fixed-frame camera returning to the back of the now hay-covered farmland; this project includes the No-No Ikebana series of works. In these, the artist photographed the life cycles of plants arranged according to the Japanese art of ikebana over 31 days. In a monumental four-part photographic work of 2003, Lockhart pays homage to Duane Hanson’s monumental sculpture Lunch Break; the sculpture depicts three construction workers taking their lunch among the scaffolding and ladders from which they have descended, while the photographs depict two museum preparators installing the work. A large-scale diptych and Elodie, depicts a woman interacting with Hanson’s more intimate sculpture, Child with Puzzle; the sculpture represents a girl sitting on a rug making a jigsaw puzzle, which Lockhart photographs with the young woman sitting across from the sculpture.
Set in the backdrop of a rural village in California’s Sierra Nevada Mountains, the feature-length 16mm film Pine Flat and large-scale portraits focus on the community’s youth and the experience of American childhood. For the series of nineteen portrait photographs of Pine Flat’s youth, Lockhart set up a traditional studio in a nearby barn, where the children could sit in the historic method. In preparation for each photograph, Lockhart took Polaroids so that each of her subjects could have some say about the way he or she would be portrayed. Lockhart asked the Los Angeles architecture firm Escher GuneWardena to design her series of Pine Flat exhibitions. In the installation Lunch Break, designed in collaboration with architects Escher Gunewardena, a single tracking shot slides down a locker-filled corridor where ironworkers at a Maine shipyard eat their lunch; the soundtrack, designed in collaboration with composer Becky Allen and filmmaker James Benning, weaves the diegetic tones created by worker’s voices with industrial sounds and music.
In a series of accompanying photographs, Lockhart depicts the workers interacting with each other, including a series of independent business run by the ironworkers catering to their coworkers. Eighteen more formalized still-lives of the workers’ lunch boxes serve as portraits of their owners—in each case, the worker is both framed by and frames the work place. In 2009, Lockhart created Podwórka. Shot in the courtyards of Łódź, this film depicts children at play. In a series of filmic tableaux, Lockhart uses a fixed-frame camera to capture the improvisational, impromptu games that these children devise, shaping a visual testament to youthful resourcefulness. A series of Lockhart’s works from 2011 are based on the dances created by Israeli artist and dance theorist Noa Eshkol. Lockhart discovered Eshkol’s work as both a textile artist, dance composer, movement notation pioneer on a research trip sponsored by the Jewish Federation of Greater Los Angeles’s Tel Aviv-Los Angeles Partnership. For her films Five Dances and Nine Wall Carpets by Noa Eshkol and Four Exercises in Eshkol-Wachman Movement Notation, Lockhart collaborated with dancers from the Noa Eshkol Chamber Dance Group – a group of dancers, some of which worked with Eshkol herself – to document Eshkol's compositions on film.
This project consists of a series of works for which Lockhart photographed the spheres devised by Noa Eshkol and Israeli architect and professor Avraham Wachman to document and record
Atlanta College of Art
The Atlanta College of Art was a private four-year art college located in Atlanta, Georgia. Founded in 1905, it was the oldest art college in the Southeast until it was absorbed by Savannah College of Art and Design in 2006. In 1905, the Atlanta Art Association helped establish an art college and museum that would become the Atlanta College of Art and the High Museum of Art, respectively. In 1963, the college was incorporated into the Woodruff Arts Center on Peachtree Street in Midtown Atlanta, named for its primary benefactor, Robert W. Woodruff; the center opened in 1968, comprising ACA, the High Museum of Art, the Atlanta Symphony Orchestra and the Alliance Theatre. In August 2005, the boards of trustees of the Woodruff Arts Center and the Savannah College of Art and Design formally approved the merger of ACA and SCAD. In June 2006, the two institutions combined operations at SCAD's Atlanta location; the merger was contested by many ACA students and members of the Atlanta arts community. In 2002, the High Museum of Art announced an expansion plan for the museum that included a new dormitory for the college.
Italian architect Renzo Piano was hired for the project. SCAD acquired this dormitory in its merger with ACA and named it "ACA Residence Hall" in honor of the college; the college offered studies in the mediums of drawing, printmaking, sculpture, digital art and graphic design. The school offered programs through the Georgia Artists Registry, ACA Gallery shows, community education classes for adults, summer programs in the arts for children and teens. Notable alumni of the Atlanta College of Art include Courtney Adams, Radcliffe Bailey, Carolyn Carr, Roe Ethridge, Ty Pennington, Kara Walker
California Institute of the Arts
The California Institute of the Arts is a private university in Santa Clarita, California. It was incorporated in 1961 as the first degree-granting institution of higher learning in the United States created for students of both the visual and performing arts, it offers Bachelor of Fine Arts, Master of Fine Arts, Master of Arts, Doctor of Musical Arts degrees in six schools: Art, Critical Studies, Film/Video and Theater. The school was first envisioned by many benefactors in the early 1960s, staffed by a diverse array of professionals. CalArts students develop their own work, over which they retain control and copyright, in a workshop atmosphere. CalArts was formed in 1961, as a merger of the Chouinard Art Institute and the Los Angeles Conservatory of Music. Both of the existing institutions were going through financial difficulties around the same time, the founder of the Art Institute, Nelbert Chouinard, was mortally ill; the professional relationship between Madame Chouinard and Walt Disney began in 1929 when Disney had no money and Madame Chouinard agreed to train Disney's first animators on a pay-later basis.
It was through the vision of Disney, who discovered and trained many of his studio artists at Chouinard, that the merger of the two institutions was coordinated. Joining him were his brother Roy O. Disney, Lulu Von Hagen and Thornton Ladd, of the Los Angeles Conservatory of Music; the original board of trustess at CalArts included Harrison Price, Royal Clark, Robert W. Corrigan, Roy E. Disney, Roy O. Disney, film producer Z. Wayne Griffin, H. R. Haldeman, Ralph Hetzel, Chuck Jones, Ronald Miller, Millard Sheets, attorney Maynard Toll, attorney Luther Reese Marr, bank executive G. Robert Truex Jr. Jerry Wexler, Meredith Willson, Peter McBean and Scott Newhall. In 1965, the Alumni Association was founded as a nonprofit organization and was governed by a 12-member board of directors to serve the best interests of the institute and its programs. Members included leading professional artists and musicians, who contributed their knowledge and skill to strengthen the institute; the 12 founding board of directors members were Mary Costa, Edith Head, Gale Storm, Marc Davis, Tony Duquette, Harold Grieve, John Hench, Chuck Jones, Henry Mancini, Marty Paich, Nelson Riddle and Millard Sheets.
The ground-breaking for CalArts' current campus took place May 3, 1969. However, construction of the new campus was hampered by torrential rains, labor troubles and the earthquake in 1971. CalArts moved to its present campus in the Valencia section of the city of Santa Clarita, California in November 1971. From the beginning, CalArts was plagued by the tensions between its art and trade school functions as well as between the non-commercial aspirations of the students and faculty and the conservative interests of the Disney family and trustees; the founding board of trustees planned on creating CalArts as a school in an entertainment complex, a destination like Disneyland, a feeder school for the industry. Such a model is exemplified in the 1941 Disney film The Reluctant Dragon. In an ironic turn of fate, they appointed Robert W. Corrigan as the first president of the Institute. Corrigan, former dean of the School of Arts at New York University fired all the artists and teachers from Chouinard in his attempt to remake CalArts into his personal vision.
Herbert Blau was hired as the Institute's dean of the School of Theater and Dance. Subsequently, Blau was instrumental in hiring a number of professionals like Mel Powell, Paul Brach, Alexander Mackendrick, sociologist Maurice R. Stein, Richard Farson, as well as other influential program heads and teachers such as Stephan von Huene, Allan Kaprow, Bella Lewitzky, Michael Asher, Jules Engel, John Baldessari, Judy Chicago, Ravi Shankar, Max Kozloff, Miriam Shapiro, Douglas Huebler, Morton Subotnick, Norman M. Klein and Nam June Paik most of whom came from a counterculture and avant-garde side of the art world; the fundamental principles established at the Institute by Blau and Corrigan included ideas like “no technique in advance of need,” and that a curriculum should be cyclical rather than sequential, returning to root principles at regular intervals, that “we’re a community of artists here, some of us called faculty and some called students."Corrigan held his position until 1972, when he was replaced by William S. Lund, a Disney son-in-law.
Within a month of Lund's tenure as president, 55 of CalArts' 325 faculty and staff were fired. Structured schedules were introduced. Classes were trimmed back and, within a year, the Institute was operating on budget; some credit Lund with saving CalArts. Others see his tenure as the end of an idealistic experiment. In 1975, Robert J. Fitzpatrick was appointed new president of CalArts. Holding this position for 12 years, in 1987 Fitzpatrick resigned as president to head Euro Disney in Paris. Nicholas England, former dean of the School of Music, was appointed acting president. One year Steven Lavine, associate director for arts and humanities at the Rockefeller Foundation, was named new president. On June
Nike, Inc. is an American multinational corporation, engaged in the design, development and worldwide marketing and sales of footwear, equipment and services. The company is headquartered near Oregon, in the Portland metropolitan area, it is the world's largest supplier of athletic shoes and apparel and a major manufacturer of sports equipment, with revenue in excess of US$24.1 billion in its fiscal year 2012. As of 2012, it employed more than 44,000 people worldwide. In 2014 the brand alone was valued at $19 billion, making it the most valuable brand among sports businesses; as of 2017, the Nike brand is valued at $29.6 billion. Nike ranked No. 89 in the 2018 Fortune 500 list of the largest United States corporations by total revenue. The company was founded on January 25, 1964, as Blue Ribbon Sports, by Bill Bowerman and Phil Knight, became Nike, Inc. on May 30, 1971. The company takes its name from the Greek goddess of victory. Nike markets its products under its own brand, as well as Nike Golf, Nike Pro, Nike+, Air Jordan, Nike Blazers, Air Force 1, Nike Dunk, Air Max, Nike Skateboarding, Nike CR7, subsidiaries including Brand Jordan, Hurley International and Converse.
Nike owned Bauer Hockey from 1995 to 2008, owned Cole Haan and Umbro. In addition to manufacturing sportswear and equipment, the company operates retail stores under the Niketown name. Nike sponsors many high-profile athletes and sports teams around the world, with the recognized trademarks of "Just Do It" and the Swoosh logo. Nike known as Blue Ribbon Sports, was founded by University of Oregon track athlete Phil Knight and his coach, Bill Bowerman, on January 25, 1964; the company operated in Eugene as a distributor for Japanese shoe maker Onitsuka Tiger, making most sales at track meets out of Knight's automobile. According to Otis Davis, a student athlete whom Bowerman coached at the University of Oregon, who went on to win two gold medals at the 1960 Summer Olympics, Bowerman made the first pair of Nike shoes for him, contradicting a claim that they were made for Phil Knight. Says Davis, "I told Tom Brokaw that I was the first. I don't care. Bill Bowerman made the first pair of shoes for me.
People don't believe me. In fact, I didn't like the way. There was no support and they were too tight, but I saw Bowerman make them from the waffle iron, they were mine". In 1964, in its first year in business, BRS sold 1,300 pairs of Japanese running shoes grossing $8,000. By 1965 the fledgling company had acquired a full-time employee, sales had reached $20,000. In 1966, BRS opened its first retail store, located at 3107 Pico Boulevard in Santa Monica, California next to a beauty salon, so its employees no longer needed to sell inventory from the back of their cars. In 1967, due to increasing sales, BRS expanded retail and distribution operations on the East Coast, in Wellesley, Massachusetts. By 1971, the relationship between BRS and Onitsuka Tiger was nearing an end. BRS prepared to launch its own line of footwear, which would bear the Swoosh newly designed by Carolyn Davidson; the Swoosh was first used by Nike on June 18, 1971, was registered with the U. S. Patent and Trademark Office on January 22, 1974.
In 1976, the company hired John Brown and Partners, based in Seattle, as its first advertising agency. The following year, the agency created the first "brand ad" for Nike, called "There is no finish line", in which no Nike product was shown. By 1980, Nike had attained a 50% market share in the U. S. athletic shoe market, the company went public in December of that year. Together and Wieden+Kennedy have created many print and television advertisements, Wieden+Kennedy remains Nike's primary ad agency, it was agency co-founder Dan Wieden who coined the now-famous slogan "Just Do It" for a 1988 Nike ad campaign, chosen by Advertising Age as one of the top five ad slogans of the 20th century and enshrined in the Smithsonian Institution. Walt Stack was featured in Nike's first "Just Do It" advertisement, which debuted on July 1, 1988. Wieden credits the inspiration for the slogan to "Let's do it", the last words spoken by Gary Gilmore before he was executed. Throughout the 1980s, Nike expanded its product line to encompass many sports and regions throughout the world.
In 1990, Nike moved into its eight-building World Headquarters campus in Oregon. The first Nike retail store, dubbed Niketown, opened in downtown Portland in November of that year. Phil Knight announced in mid-2015 that he would step down as chairman of Nike in 2016, he stepped down from all duties with the company on June 30, 2016. In a company public announcement on March 15, 2018, Parker said Trevor Edwards, a top Nike executive, seen as a potential successor to the chief executive, was relinquishing his position as Nike's brand president and would retire in August. Nike has acquired several apparel and footwear companies over the course of its history, some of which have since been sold, its first acquisition was the upscale footwear company Cole Haan in 1988, followed by the purchase of Bauer Hockey in 1994. In 2002, Nike bought surf apparel company Hurley International from founder Bob Hurley. In 2003, Nike paid US$309 million to acquire Converse, makers of the Chuck Taylor All-Stars line of sneakers.
The company acquired Starter in 2004 and Umbro, known as the manufacturers of the England national football team's kit, in 2008. In order to refocus on its core business lines, Nike began divesting of some of its subsidiaries in the 2000s, it sold Starter in 2007 and Bauer Hockey in 2008. The company sold Umbro in 2012 and Cole Haan in 2013. As
John Anthony Baldessari is an American conceptual artist known for his work featuring found photography and appropriated images. He works in Santa Monica and Venice, California. A painter, Baldessari began to incorporate texts and photography into his canvases in the mid-1960s. In 1970 he began working in printmaking, video, installation and photography, he has created thousands of works that demonstrate—and, in many cases, combine—the narrative potential of images and the associative power of language within the boundaries of the work of art. His art has been featured in more than 200 solo exhibitions in the U. S. and Europe. His work influenced Cindy Sherman, David Salle, Annette Lemieux, Barbara Kruger among others. 1949-53 B. A. San Diego State College, California. 1954-55 University of California, Berkeley. 1955 University of California, Los Angeles. 1955-57 M. A. San Diego State College, California. 1957-59 Otis Art Institute, Los Angeles. Chouinard Art Institute, Los Angeles. Baldessari was born in National City, California to Hedvig Jensen, a Danish nurse, Antonio Baldessari, an Italian salvage dealer.
Baldessari and his elder sister were raised in Southern California. He attended San Diego State College. Between 1960 and 1984, he was married to Montessorian teacher Carol Ann Wixom. In 1959, Baldessari began teaching art in the San Diego school system, he kept teaching for nearly three decades, in schools and junior colleges and community colleges, at the university level. When the University of California decided to open up a campus in San Diego, the new head of the Visual Art Department, Paul Brach, asked Baldessari to be part of the originating faculty in 1968. At UCSD he shared an office with David Antin. In 1970, Baldessari moved to Santa Monica, where he met many artists and writers, began teaching at CalArts, his first classes included David Salle, Jack Goldstein, Mike Kelley, Ken Feingold, Tony Oursler, James Welling, Barbara Bloom, Matt Mullican, Troy Brauntuch. While at CalArts, Baldessari taught "the infamous Post Studio class", which he intended to "indicate people not daubing away at canvases or chipping away at stone, that there might be some other kind of class situation."
The class, which operated outside of medium-specificity, was influential in informing the context for addressing a student's art practice at CalArts, established a tradition of conceptual critique at CalArts, carried on by artists such as Michael Asher. He quit teaching at CalArts in 1986, moving on to teach at UCLA, which he continued until 2008. At UCLA, his students included Analia Saban. By 1966, Baldessari was using photographs and text, or text, on canvas, his early major works were canvas paintings that were empty but for painted statements derived from contemporary art theory. An early attempt of Baldessari's included the hand-painted phrase "Suppose it is true after all? WHAT THEN?" on a worked painted surface. However, this proved disappointing because the form and method conflicted with the objective use of language that he preferred to employ. Baldessari decided the solution was to remove his own hand from the construction of the image and to employ a commercial, lifeless style so that the text would impact the viewer without distractions.
The words were physically lettered by sign painters, in an unornamented black font. The first of this series presented the ironic statement "A TWO-DIMENSIONAL SURFACE WITHOUT ANY ARTICULATION IS A DEAD EXPERIENCE". Another work, Painting for Kubler presented the viewer theoretical instructions on how to view it and on the importance of context and continuity with previous works; this work referenced art historian George Kubler's seminal book, The Shape of Time: Remarks on the History of Things. The legitimate art concerns were intended by Baldessari to become hollow and ridiculous when presented in such a purely self-referential manner. In 1970, Baldessari and five friends burnt all of the paintings he had created between 1953 and 1966 as part of a new piece, titled The Cremation Project; the ashes from these paintings were baked into cookies and placed into an urn, the resulting art installation consists of a bronze commemorative plaque with the destroyed paintings' birth and death dates, as well as the recipe for making the cookies.
Through the ritual of cremation Baldessari draws a connection between artistic practice and the human life cycle. Thus the act of disavowal becomes generative as with the work of auto-destructive artist Jean Tinguely. Baldessari is best known for works that blend photographic materials, take them out of their original context and rearrange their form including the addition of words or sentences. Related to his early text paintings were his Wrong series, which paired photographic images with lines of text from an amateur photography book, aiming at the violation of a set of basic "rules" on snapshot composition. In one of the works, Baldessari had himself photographed in front of a palm so that it would appear that the tree were growing out of his head, his photographic California Map Project created physical forms that resembled the letters in "California" geographically near to the spots on the map that they were printed. In the Binary Code Series, Baldessari used images as information holders by alternating photographs to stand in for the on-off state of binary code.
Another of Baldessari's series juxtaposed an image of an object such as a glass, or a block of wood, the phrase "A glass is a glass" or "Wood