Los Angeles County Fire Department
The Los Angeles County Fire Department provides firefighting and emergency medical services for the unincorporated parts of Los Angeles County, California, as well as 59 cities, including the city of La Habra, located in Orange County and is the first city outside of Los Angeles County to contract with LACoFD. As of 2013 the department is responsible for just over 4 million residents spread out in over 1.2 million housing units across an area of 2,305 square miles. The department has an annual budget of $1.15 Billion. According to Firehouse magazine, the LACoFD is the 6th busiest department in the US, behind New York City Fire Department, Chicago Fire Department, Houston Fire Department, Los Angeles City Fire Department, Dallas Fire Department; the Department responded to 389,313 calls for service in 2015. The LACoFD has featured several times in popular culture, including the 1970s NBC TV series Emergency! The Los Angeles County Fire Department began in 1920, was known as the Los Angeles County Forestry Department and Los Angeles County Fire Protection Districts.
The Los Angeles County Board of Supervisors enlisted Stuart J. Flintham to lead the new department, directed him to establish a program for fire prevention and firefighting in the county, he succeeded in opening 30 Fire Protection Districts, which served, continue to serve and the unincorporated areas of Los Angeles County. Cities could choose to join the Fire Protection District by allocating property tax for this service. Cities formed as contract cities in the post-World War II period retained membership in the Fire Protection District. Following the passage of Proposition 13 in 1978, property taxes were capped at 1% and the Fire Department charged cities fees for services when annexation occurred. Properties within the district that are not covered under a fee for service arrangement pay a special fire tax as a result of Proposition E, passed in 1997. County vehicles assigned to the Los Angeles County Fire Department continue to list as registered owner the "Consolidated Fire Protection District of Los Angeles County" on California Department of Motor Vehicles paperwork.
The Los Angeles County Fire Department Emergency Operations are commanded by Chief Deputy David R. Richardson; the 4 Bureaus that the Chief Deputy oversees contain the bulk of the firefighting personnel and apparatus that the Fire Department provides, as well as the Technical Services Division. The 3 Operations Bureaus consist of the neighborhood fire stations and camps that are geographically based, while the fourth bureau has specialized teams that respond throughout the county; the 3 Operations Bureaus of LACoFD serve 59 cities and all unincorporated communities with 22 Battalions and 9 Divisions. Each Division is commanded by an assistant chief; the LACoFD has 10 fire camps with handcrews which are used for both fire prevention and wildland firefighting. In 2013, to help combat jail crowding as well as increase time served by serious criminal offenders, Los Angeles County sent more than 500 inmates to firefighting camps in mountain and foothill areas. Inmates assigned to the camps are nonviolent offenders who have completed physical and security screenings.
They are trained by county firefighters to help fight fires and assist with clearing brush and debris. The camps are run in conjunction with the California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation and the Los Angeles County Probation Department; the Los Angeles County Fire Department utilizes a wide array of firefighting apparatus, including Engines, Trucks, Light Forces and Water Tenders. Support apparatus include Rescue Squads, Hazardous Materials Squads, Urban Search & Rescue Squads. LACoFD apparatus are painted reddish-orange as opposed to LAFD apparatus red. While many modern fire departments have opted to go with trucks/quints that have rear-mounted ladders, the LACoFD has chosen to stay with tiller trucks because of their enhanced maneuverability in tight areas; the benefit of a quint is that it has a built in pump and water tank and can thus operate without an engine. The LA County Fire Department has 10 helicopters available for aerial firefighting. With the exception of Copter 10, used for command purposes, all copters are outfitted with water drop tanks for aerial firefighting.
The headquarters for the Air Operations Section is located at Barton Heliport, next to Whiteman Airport in Pacoima. Five Sikorsky S-70A/S-70i Firehawks Copter 15, Copter 16, Copter 19, Copter 21, Copter 22 are fitted with 1,000 US gallons tanks. One Bell 412 Copter 12 is fitted with a 360 US gallons tank. Two Bell 412EP Copter 11 and Copter 14 are outfitted with 360 US gallons tanks. Two Bell 412HP Copter 17 and Copter 18 are outfitted with 360 US gallons tanks; as of March 2019 The LACoFD is dispatched from the P. Michael Freeman Command And Control Facility at the county fire operations center in East Los Angeles; the Los Angeles County Fire Department has been featured in multiple different television series. Rescue 8 – The syndicated series of the late 1950s focused on Rescue Squad 8 and starred Jim Davis and Lang Jeffries. Emergency! – The NBC series of the 1970s dramatized a department paramedic rescue squad, popularly credited for encouraging the widespread adaptation of the medical service.
The exterior fire station scenes for the fictional station 51 in the series were shot at county fire station 127. It is now called the Robert A. Cinader Memorial Fire Station in honor of the television producer who made the station famous. In addition, the fire station in Universal City, where Universal Pictures is located, who
Kathryn Ann Barger-Leibrich is an American politician and a member of the Los Angeles County Board of Supervisors, representing the 5th District. Barger served as Chief Deputy Supervisor and Chief of Staff to her predecessor Michael D. Antonovich. Barger was raised in the 5th District, she is married to a retired Sheriff’s deputy and lives in the San Gabriel Valley. Barger began her career in government in 1988 when she interned in the office of Los Angeles County Supervisor Michael D. Antonovich. By 2001 she had risen up the ranks to Antonovich's chief of staff. In her role as a county supervisor, Barger has co-authored bills furthering the county’s support for veterans and foster children. Barger co-authored motions to address homelessness in LA County, which notably includes a bill passed by the California State Assembly in May 2018 amending the state’s definition of “gravely disabled”, allowing more state-sponsored medical care to be provided to those who may be suffering from a serious mental illness.
Barger coauthored a motion creating the Blue Ribbon Commission on Public Safety, intended to explore the impact that Assembly Bill 109, California Proposition 47, California Proposition 57, which were collectively aimed at converting many nonviolent drug offenses into misdemeanors and allowing for the early release of some inmates, has had inside of Los Angeles County. The formation of the commission was a reaction to the murder of police Officer Keith Boyer, passed on a 3-0 vote with abstentions; the commission membership at its inception was controversial, with critics citing that many of the 27 members drafted to the commission were directly affected by Proposition 47, coming from roles within the county’s judicial system. Other critics noted that linking the murder of Officer Boyer to the passage of criminal reform efforts was misguided because the error that led to the release of Officer Boyer’s murderer was committed at the county level. In 2017, Barger was the only opposition in a 4-1 vote to eliminate the "registration fee" that the Los Angeles County Public Defender's office and other court-appointed counsel charge defendants before providing them with legal services.
In 2017, Barger was the only opposition in a 4-1 vote to establish the Business Registration program, which would levy a fee on businesses to create a registry and connect them with county resources. The Fifth District is the largest Supervisorial district of Los Angeles County, spanning 2800 square miles, includes 22 cities and 70 unincorporated communities in the San Gabriel, San Fernando, Santa Clarita and Antelope Valleys
LA County Library
LA County Library is one of the largest public library systems in the United States which serves residents living in 49 of the 88 incorporated cities of Los Angeles County, California. United States and those living in unincorporated areas resulting in a service area extending over 3,000 square miles. "County Free Library Act" established and authorized the Los Angeles County Free Library to become the Los Angeles County Public Library system of branches. The library system, headquartered in Downey, California, is overseen by the Library Commission of 20 appointed members who report on administration and service to the County Board of Supervisors who operate County Library as a special fund department. Skye Patrick was appointed County Librarian on February 1, 2016; the library provides many resources, including literacy services and programs for families and children. The library system offers consumer health information under CHIPS. City Terrace Library Claremont Library Clifton M. Brakensiek Library Compton Library Cudahy Library Culver City Julian Dixon Library Diamond Bar Library Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
Library Duarte Library East Los Angeles Library East Rancho Dominguez Library El Camino Real Library El Monte Library Florence Library Gardena Mayme Dear Library George Nye Jr. Library Graham Library Hacienda Heights Library Hawaiian Gardens Library Hawthorne Library Hermosa Beach Library Hollydale Library Huntington Park Library La Cañada Flintridge Library La Crescenta Library La Mirada Library La Puente Library La Verne Library Lake Los Angeles Library Lancaster Library Lawndale Library Leland R. Weaver Library Lennox Library Littlerock Library Live Oak Library Lloyd Taber-Marina del Rey Library Lomita Library Los Nietos Library Lynwood Library Malibu Library Manhattan Beach Library Masao W. Satow Library Maywood César Chávez Library Montebello Library Norwalk Library Norwood Library Paramount Library Pico Rivera Library Quartz Hill Library Rivera Library Rosemead Library Rowland Heights Library San Dimas Library San Fernando Library San Gabriel Library Santa Clarita Valley Bookmobile Sorensen Library South El Monte Library South Whittier Library Stevenson Ranch Library Sunkist Library Temple City Library Topanga Library Urban Outreach Bookmobile View Park Library Walnut Library West Covina Library West Hollywood Library Westlake Village Library Willowbrook Library Wiseburn Library Woodcrest Library Woelfel, Roger H..
Diamond Jubilee: Seventy-Five Years of Public Service. Glendale, CA: Arthur C. Clark Company. ISBN 0-87062-181-5 County of Los Angeles Library system
Los Angeles County Sheriff's Department
With 18,000 employees, the Los Angeles County Sheriff's Department the County of Los Angeles Sheriff's Department, is the nation's largest sheriff's department. The department's three main responsibilities entail providing patrol services for 153 unincorporated communities of Los Angeles County, California and 42 cities, providing courthouse security for the Superior Court of Los Angeles County, the housing and transportation of inmates within the county jail system. In addition, the department contracts with the Los Angeles Metropolitan Transportation Authority and Metrolink, provides law enforcement services to ten community colleges, patrols over 177 county parks, golf courses, special event venues, two major lakes, 16 hospitals, over 300 county facilities; the Los Angeles County Sheriff's Department's transit division alone is the second largest transit police force in the world, aside from the New York City Police Department. This is through policing contracts of the Metro trains and buses of the Los Angeles Metro and Metrolink.
Furthermore, with policing contracts with nine campuses of the Los Angeles Community College and Lancaster Community College District, the LASD is the largest community policing agency in the United States. The Sheriff's Department's headquarters are located in downtown Los Angeles at the Los Angeles County Hall of Justice; the Los Angeles County Sheriff's Department is the largest sheriff's department and the fourth largest local policing agency in the United States. There are 17,926 employees. There are 791 reserve deputies and 400 explorers. On December 1, 2014, Jim McDonnell took the oath of office and was sworn in as the 32nd Los Angeles County Sheriff. LASD deputies provided law enforcement services to over three million residents in an area of 3,171 square miles of the 4,083 square miles on the county, both in the unincorporated County land and within the 42 contract cities; the following are the LASD Divisions: Sheriff's Headquarters Undersheriff Sheriff's Information Bureau Legal Advisory Unit Constitutional Policy Advisors Community Outreach Strategic Communications Chief of Staff Legislative Unit Audit and Accountability Bureau Professional Standards & Training Division Advocacy Unit Internal Affairs Bureau Internal Criminal Investigations Bureau Risk Management Bureau Training Bureau Administrative & Professional Standards - includes: Administrative Services Division - includes: Contract Law Enforcement Bureau Facilities Planning Bureau Facilities Services Bureau Financial Programs Fiscal Administration Personnel Command Personnel Administration Bureau Psychological Services Bureau Bureau of Labor Relations & Compliance Technology & Support Division Communications & Fleet Management Bureau Data Systems Bureau Records & Identification Bureau Scientific Services Bureau Custody Operations - includes.
This includes staffing bailiffs, operating courthouse lock-ups, serving and enforcing civil and criminal process. Court Services provides these services for 48 courthouse locations throughout Los Angeles County, which include the following: Civil Management Bureau Court Services Central Court Services East Court Services West Court Services Transportation Bureau Special Operations Division Aero Bureau Special Enforcement Bureau - Special Enforcement Detail, Canine Services Detail, Emergency Services Detail Emergency Operations Bureau which includes: Industrial Relations Detail - maintains liaison between the business and labor communities; the Detail trains patrol personnel in the handling of labor disputes and picket lines. Arson Explosives Detail Hazardous Material Detail Transit Services Bureau Los Angeles Metropolitan Transportation Authority MetroLink Patrol Operations are divided amongst as follows: North Patrol Division - Lancaster, Malibu/Lost Hills, Santa Clarita Valley, West Hollywood.
South Patrol Division - Carson, Lakewood, Lomita and Pico Rivera. East Patrol Division - Altadena, Crescenta Valley, San Dimas and Walnut/Diamond Bar. Central Patrol Division - Avalon, Compton, Marina Del Rey, South Los Angeles. Detective Division - Contains the following.
Los Angeles County Board of Supervisors
The Los Angeles County Board of Supervisors is the five-member governing body of Los Angeles County, United States. The people of Los Angeles County on April 1, 1850 asserted their newly won right of self-government and elected a three-man Court of Sessions as their first governing body. A total of 377 votes were cast in this election. In 1852, the Legislature dissolved the Court of Sessions and created a five-member Board of Supervisors. In 1913 the citizens of Los Angeles County approved a charter recommended by a board of freeholders which gave the County greater freedom to govern itself within the framework of state law; as the population expanded throughout the twentieth century, Los Angeles County did not subdivide into separate counties or increase the number of supervisors as its population soared. As a result, the concentration of local administrative power in each county supervisor is high with the population of the county at ten million residents; each supervisor represents more than two million people.
A local nickname some use for the Board is the "five little kings." Supervisors are elected to four-year terms by a vote of Los Angeles County citizens who reside in the supervisorial district. Supervisors must be voters in the district they represent. Elections for the 1st and 3rd districts coincide with California's gubernatorial elections, while those for the 2nd, 4th and 5th districts coincide with the United States presidential election. Supervisorial terms begin the first Monday in December after the election. Unseating an incumbent supervisor is extraordinarily difficult, due to the prohibitive cost of mounting a successful challenge in districts of such enormous geographical and population size. To curb the powers of the five supervisors, Los Angeles County voters passed Measure B in March 2002 with a majority of 64%, to limit the supervisors to three consecutive four-year terms. If a supervisor fills a vacancy, the unexpired term counts towards the term limit if there are more than two years left to serve.
The provisions of the measure were not retroactive, meaning that the term limit clock for supervisors who were serving at the time the measure passed would start with the next election. Don Knabe, Mike Antonovich, Yvonne Brathwaite Burke could continue to serve until 2016, while Gloria Molina and Zev Yaroslavsky could continue to serve until 2014; the chair of the Board of Supervisors has the option of calling herself mayor. The title has drawn criticism. However, those who support the use of the title say that all five members of the Board of Supervisors act as "mayors" or chief executives for the millions of people who live in unincorporated areas. Only Mike Antonovich used the "mayor" title when chairing the Board to represent and promote Los Angeles County when dealing with international diplomacy and trade. Otherwise, all other chairs have used the title chair, chairman, or chairwoman, depending on their preference; until the chief executive officer was the appointed individual heading the county but had little power as supervisors retained the right to fire and hire department heads and directly admonished department heads in public.
Based on an ordinance authored by Supervisors Knabe and Yaroslavsky that took effect in April 2007, the CEO directly oversees departments on behalf of the supervisors, although the Los Angeles County Fire Department, Los Angeles County Sheriff's Department, District Attorney, Auditor-Controller, Executive Office of the Board of Supervisors continue to be under the direct purview of the Board of Supervisors. The change was made in response to several candidates either dropping out or declining to accept the position to replace former Chief Administrative Officer David Janssen. Antonovich was the lone supervisor to oppose the change, stating that such a move would lead to a more autocratic form of government and disenfranchise the 1.3 million who live in unincorporated areas. However, this was rescinded in 2015 and the CEO has returned to a facilitation and coordination role between departments. Departments continue to submit recommendations and agenda items to the Board to be adopted and ratified, the Board directly manages relations with the department heads instead of going through the CEO, as would be the case in a council-manager system prevalent in most of the county's cities.
In 2016, the CEO further recommended, the Board approved, transferring positions considered "transactional" and focusing the CEO on "strategic" initiatives and long-term, structural issues. The Board meets every Tuesday at 9:30 a.m. at the Board Hearing Room at the Kenneth Hahn Hall of Administration in Downtown Los Angeles. On Tuesdays following a Monday holiday, Board meetings begin after lunch, at 1:00 p.m. Board meetings are conducted in accordance with Robert's Rules of Order, the Brown Act, the Rules of the Board; the Chief Executive Officer, the County Counsel and the Executive Officer, or their deputies, attend each Board meeting. The regular agendas for the first, second and fifth Tuesdays of the month are a consent calendar, that is, all items are automatically approved without discussion, unless a Supervisor or member of the public requests discussion of a specific item; the fourth Tuesday of the month is reserved for the purpose of conducting required public hearings, Board of Supervisors motions and department items continued from a previous meeting, have time constraints, or are critical in nature.
Since Board meetings are considered Brown Act bodies, a Board agenda is published 72 hours before the Board meeting is convened
Political corruption is the use of powers by government officials or their network contacts for illegitimate private gain. An illegal act by an officeholder constitutes political corruption only if the act is directly related to their official duties, is done under color of law or involves trading in influence. Forms of corruption vary, but include bribery, cronyism, parochialism, influence peddling and embezzlement. Corruption may facilitate criminal enterprise such as drug trafficking, money laundering, human trafficking, though is not restricted to these activities. Misuse of government power for other purposes, such as repression of political opponents and general police brutality, is considered political corruption. Masiulis case is a typical example of political corruption; the activities that constitute illegal corruption differ depending on the jurisdiction. For instance, some political funding practices that are legal in one place may be illegal in another. In some cases, government officials have broad or ill-defined powers, which make it difficult to distinguish between legal and illegal actions.
Worldwide, bribery alone is estimated to involve over 1 trillion US dollars annually. A state of unrestrained political corruption is known as a kleptocracy meaning "rule by thieves"; some forms of corruption – now called "institutional corruption" – are distinguished from bribery and other kinds of obvious personal gain. A similar problem of corruption arises in any institution that depends on financial support from people who have interests that may conflict with the primary purpose of the institution. Over time, corruption has been defined differently. For example, in a simple context, while performing work for a government or as a representative, it is unethical to accept a gift. Any free gift could be construed as a scheme to lure the recipient towards some biases. In most cases, the gift is seen as an intention to seek certain favors such as work promotion, tipping in order to win a contract, job or exemption from certain tasks in the case of junior employee giving the gift to a senior employee who can be key in winning the favor.
In politics, corruption undermines democracy and good governance by flouting or subverting formal processes. Corruption in elections and in the legislature reduces accountability and distorts representation in policymaking, it violates a basic principle of republicanism regarding the centrality of civic virtue. More corruption erodes the institutional capacity of government if procedures are disregarded, resources are siphoned off, public offices are bought and sold. Corruption undermines the legitimacy of government and such democratic values as trust and tolerance. Recent evidence suggests that variation in the levels of corruption amongst high-income democracies can vary depending on the level of accountability of decision-makers. Evidence from fragile states shows that corruption and bribery can adversely impact trust in institutions. Corruption can impact government’s provision of goods and services, it increases the costs of services which arise efficiency loss. In the absence of corruption, governmental projects might be cost-effective at their true costs, once corruption costs are included projects may not be cost-effective so they are not executed distorting the provision of goods and services.
In the private sector, corruption increases the cost of business through the price of illicit payments themselves, the management cost of negotiating with officials and the risk of breached agreements or detection. Although some claim corruption reduces costs by cutting bureaucracy, the availability of bribes can induce officials to contrive new rules and delays. Removing costly and lengthy regulations are better than covertly allowing them to be bypassed by using bribes. Where corruption inflates the cost of business, it distorts the field of inquiry and action, shielding firms with connections from competition and thereby sustaining inefficient firms. Corruption may have a direct impact on the firm's effective marginal tax rate. Bribing tax officials can reduce tax payments of the firm if the marginal bribe rate is below the official marginal tax rate. However, in Uganda, bribes have a higher negative impact on firms’ activity than taxation. Indeed, a one percentage point increase in bribes reduces firm’s annual growth by three percentage points, while an increase in 1 percentage point on taxes reduces firm’s growth by one percentage point.
Corruption generates economic distortion in the public sector by diverting public investment into capital projects where bribes and kickbacks are more plentiful. Officials may increase the technical complexity of public sector projects to conceal or pave the way for such dealings, thus further distorting investment. Corruption lowers compliance with construction, environmental, or other regulations, reduces the quality of government services and infrastructure, increases budgetary pressures on government. Economists argue that one of the factors behind the differing economic development in Africa and Asia is that in Africa, corruption has taken the form of rent extraction with the resulting financial capital moved overseas rather than invested at home. In Nigeria, for example, more than $400 billion was stolen from the treasury by Nigeria's leaders between 1960 and 1999. University of Massachusetts Amherst researchers estimated that from 1970 to 1996, capital flight from 30 Sub-Saharan countries total
DVD is a digital optical disc storage format invented and developed in 1995. The medium can store any kind of digital data and is used for software and other computer files as well as video programs watched using DVD players. DVDs offer higher storage capacity than compact discs. Prerecorded DVDs are mass-produced using molding machines that physically stamp data onto the DVD; such discs are a form of DVD-ROM because data can only be not written or erased. Blank recordable DVD discs can be recorded once using a DVD recorder and function as a DVD-ROM. Rewritable DVDs can be erased many times. DVDs are used in DVD-Video consumer digital video format and in DVD-Audio consumer digital audio format as well as for authoring DVD discs written in a special AVCHD format to hold high definition material. DVDs containing other types of information may be referred to as DVD data discs; the Oxford English Dictionary comments that, "In 1995 rival manufacturers of the product named digital video disc agreed that, in order to emphasize the flexibility of the format for multimedia applications, the preferred abbreviation DVD would be understood to denote digital versatile disc."
The OED states that in 1995, "The companies said the official name of the format will be DVD. Toshiba had been using the name ‘digital video disc’, but, switched to ‘digital versatile disc’ after computer companies complained that it left out their applications.""Digital versatile disc" is the explanation provided in a DVD Forum Primer from 2000 and in the DVD Forum's mission statement. There were several formats developed for recording video on optical discs before the DVD. Optical recording technology was invented by David Paul Gregg and James Russell in 1958 and first patented in 1961. A consumer optical disc data format known as LaserDisc was developed in the United States, first came to market in Atlanta, Georgia in 1978, it used much larger discs than the formats. Due to the high cost of players and discs, consumer adoption of LaserDisc was low in both North America and Europe, was not used anywhere outside Japan and the more affluent areas of Southeast Asia, such as Hong-Kong, Singapore and Taiwan.
CD Video released in 1987 used analog video encoding on optical discs matching the established standard 120 mm size of audio CDs. Video CD became one of the first formats for distributing digitally encoded films in this format, in 1993. In the same year, two new optical disc storage formats were being developed. One was the Multimedia Compact Disc, backed by Philips and Sony, the other was the Super Density disc, supported by Toshiba, Time Warner, Matsushita Electric, Mitsubishi Electric, Thomson, JVC. By the time of the press launches for both formats in January 1995, the MMCD nomenclature had been dropped, Philips and Sony were referring to their format as Digital Video Disc. Representatives from the SD camp asked IBM for advice on the file system to use for their disc, sought support for their format for storing computer data. Alan E. Bell, a researcher from IBM's Almaden Research Center, got that request, learned of the MMCD development project. Wary of being caught in a repeat of the costly videotape format war between VHS and Betamax in the 1980s, he convened a group of computer industry experts, including representatives from Apple, Sun Microsystems and many others.
This group was referred to as the Technical Working Group, or TWG. On August 14, 1995, an ad hoc group formed from five computer companies issued a press release stating that they would only accept a single format; the TWG voted to boycott both formats unless the two camps agreed on a converged standard. They recruited president of IBM, to pressure the executives of the warring factions. In one significant compromise, the MMCD and SD groups agreed to adopt proposal SD 9, which specified that both layers of the dual-layered disc be read from the same side—instead of proposal SD 10, which would have created a two-sided disc that users would have to turn over; as a result, the DVD specification provided a storage capacity of 4.7 GB for a single-layered, single-sided disc and 8.5 GB for a dual-layered, single-sided disc. The DVD specification ended up similar to Toshiba and Matsushita's Super Density Disc, except for the dual-layer option and EFMPlus modulation designed by Kees Schouhamer Immink.
Philips and Sony decided that it was in their best interests to end the format war, agreed to unify with companies backing the Super Density Disc to release a single format, with technologies from both. After other compromises between MMCD and SD, the computer companies through TWG won the day, a single format was agreed upon; the TWG collaborated with the Optical Storage Technology Association on the use of their implementation of the ISO-13346 file system for use on the new DVDs. Movie and home entertainment distributors adopted the DVD format to replace the ubiquitous VHS tape as the primary consumer digital video distribution format, they embraced DVD as it produced higher quality video and sound, provided superior data lifespan, could be interactive. Interactivity on LaserDiscs had proven desirable to consumers collectors; when LaserDisc prices dropped from $100 per