Stephen M. White
Stephen Mallory White was an American politician and U. S. Senator from California. Born in San Francisco, Stephen White attended Santa Clara College and read law in the office of Charles Bruce Younger Sr. in Santa Cruz and was admitted to the bar in 1874. He came to Los Angeles to practice and served as the Los Angeles County District Attorney from 1882 to 1884. Before becoming district attorney in 1882, White was a charter member of the first Los Angeles County Bar Association, he was a member of the California State Senate from 1887 to 1891, where he served as president pro tempore both sessions, as Acting Lieutenant Governor, represented California for one term in the United States Senate from 1893 to 1899. He was California's first U. S. Senator to be born in the state, he married a native of North Carolina. Her father, a native of France, descendant from an aristocratic family, immigrated to the United States, with his parents when only three years of age, he was educated at Delaware. Her mother was a native of Ireland, came to the United States when five years of age.
She was educated at Wilmington. Her death occurred in March, 1895; when Sacriste was fourteen years of age her parents moved to California. Here she attended school, afterwards graduating from Philadelphia, her marriage to Stephen M. White occurred at Sacramento in 1885, they had 4 children — William, Estelle and Gerald Griffin, named for Senator White's paternal great-uncle, the noted Irish poet and novelist. He undertook and won the Free Harbor Fight, a seven-year struggle to secure a deep-water harbor at San Pedro–forerunner to today's Port of Los Angeles, he is remembered as a criminal defense attorney. When he died in 1901 he was acclaimed in San Francisco and Los Angeles as the state's "most brilliant genius," as "perhaps the most eminent of the State's native sons." He was the first past-president of Native Sons of the Golden West, Ramona Parlor No. 109
Hilda Lucia Solis is an American politician and a member of the Los Angeles County Board of Supervisors for the 1st district. Solis served as the 25th United States Secretary of Labor from 2009 to 2013, as part of the administration of President Barack Obama, she is a member of the Democratic Party and served in the United States House of Representatives from 2001 to 2009, representing the 31st and 32nd congressional districts of California that include East Los Angeles and the San Gabriel Valley. Solis was raised in California, by immigrant parents from Nicaragua and Mexico, she earned degrees from the California State Polytechnic University and the University of Southern California and worked for two federal agencies in Washington, D. C. Returning to her native state, she was elected to the Rio Hondo Community College Board of Trustees in 1985, the California State Assembly in 1992, the California State Senate in 1994, she was the first Hispanic woman to serve in the State Senate, was reelected there in 1998.
Solis sought to pass environmental justice legislation. She was the first female recipient of the John F. Kennedy Profile in Courage Award in 2000. Solis defeated a long-time Democratic incumbent as part of getting elected to the U. S. House of Representatives in 2000, where she focused on labor causes and environmental work, she was reelected to four subsequent terms. In December 2008, President-elect Barack Obama announced his intention to nominate Solis as the next U. S. Secretary of Labor, she took office after being confirmed by the United States Senate in February 2009, becoming the first Latina to serve in the U. S. Cabinet. There she focused on workplace safety issues and on strengthening compliance with wage and hour laws. In January 2013, Solis stepped down from her post as Labor Secretary. Returning to the area of her upbringing, in April 2014, Solis formally announced a campaign for a seat on the non-partisan Los Angeles County Board of Supervisors. Solis won the seat outright in a June 3 election and was sworn in on December 1.
As Supervisor, Solis lobbied the state to allocate funds for the Exide battery plant cleanup. One of her areas of responsibility was Downtown Los Angeles, where her main priority was dealing with gentrification and the lack of affordable housing, she was unopposed for re-election as Supervisor, which took place on June 5, 2018. Solis was born in Los Angeles, California, as the daughter of immigrant parents who had met in citizenship class and married in 1953: Juana Sequeira and Raúl Solís, her father was a Teamsters shop steward in Mexico and, after coming to the United States, worked at the Quemetco battery recycling plant in the City of Industry in the San Gabriel Valley. There he again organized for the Teamsters, to gain better health care benefits for workers, but contracted lead poisoning, her mother worked for over 20 years on the assembly line of Mattel once her children were all of school age, belonged to the United Rubber Workers, was outspoken about working conditions. She was a devout Roman Catholic.
Hilda Solis is the third oldest of seven siblings and grew up in a tract home in La Puente, California. She had to help raise her youngest siblings, said of her childhood: "It wasn't what you would call the all-American life for a young girl growing up. We had to mature quickly." She graduated from La Puente High School, where she saw a lack of support for those wishing to continue their education, including a guidance counselor who told her mother that "Your daughter is not college material. Maybe she should follow the career of her older sister and become a secretary." However, another counselor did encourage her to attend college, went to her house to help her fill out an application. She took her younger sisters to the library to get them to follow her lead, she was the first of her family to go to college, being accepted into the Educational Opportunity Program at California State Polytechnic University and paying for it with the help of government grants and part-time jobs. She graduated in 1979 with a Bachelor of Arts in political science.
She earned a Master of Public Administration degree at the University of Southern California in 1981. Solis served near the end of the Carter administration in the White House Office of Hispanic Affairs, where she was editor-in-chief of a newsletter during a 1980–1981 Washington semester internship as part of her master's program. At the start of the Reagan administration in 1981, she became a management analyst at the civil rights division of the Office of Management and Budget, but her dislike for Ronald Reagan's policies motivated her to leave that year. In Washington, she met Sam H. Sayyad, he owns an automobile repair center in California. The couple lives in a modest house in El Monte, not far from where she grew up. Returning to California, Solis became Director of the California Student Opportunity and Access Program in 1982, to help disadvantaged youth gain necessary preparation for college. In particular, she worked with the Whittier Union High School District. Friends urged her to try for elective office, so in 1985, she ran for the Board of Trustees of the Rio Hondo Community College District.
She campaigned hard and overtook an incumbent and one other better established candidate to become the top placer. She was reelected in 1989. During her time on the board, she worked towards improved vocational job training at the college and sought to increase the number of tenured faculty positions held by mino
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
In ordinary language, a crime is an unlawful act punishable by a state or other authority. The term "crime" does not, in modern criminal law, have any simple and universally accepted definition, though statutory definitions have been provided for certain purposes; the most popular view is. One proposed definition is that a crime or offence is an act harmful not only to some individual but to a community, society or the state; such acts are punishable by law. The notion that acts such as murder and theft are to be prohibited exists worldwide. What is a criminal offence is defined by criminal law of each country. While many have a catalogue of crimes called the criminal code, in some common law countries no such comprehensive statute exists; the state has the power to restrict one's liberty for committing a crime. In modern societies, there are procedures to which trials must adhere. If found guilty, an offender may be sentenced to a form of reparation such as a community sentence, or, depending on the nature of their offence, to undergo imprisonment, life imprisonment or, in some jurisdictions, execution.
To be classified as a crime, the "act of doing something criminal" must – with certain exceptions – be accompanied by the "intention to do something criminal". While every crime violates the law, not every violation of the law counts as a crime. Breaches of private law are not automatically punished by the state, but can be enforced through civil procedure; when informal relationships prove insufficient to establish and maintain a desired social order, a government or a state may impose more formalized or stricter systems of social control. With institutional and legal machinery at their disposal, agents of the State can compel populations to conform to codes and can opt to punish or attempt to reform those who do not conform. Authorities employ various mechanisms to regulate certain behaviors in general. Governing or administering agencies may for example codify rules into laws, police citizens and visitors to ensure that they comply with those laws, implement other policies and practices that legislators or administrators have prescribed with the aim of discouraging or preventing crime.
In addition, authorities provide remedies and sanctions, collectively these constitute a criminal justice system. Legal sanctions vary in their severity; some jurisdictions have penal codes written to inflict permanent harsh punishments: legal mutilation, capital punishment or life without parole. A natural person perpetrates a crime, but legal persons may commit crimes. Conversely, at least under U. S. law, nonpersons such as animals cannot commit crimes. The sociologist Richard Quinney has written about the relationship between crime; when Quinney states "crime is a social phenomenon" he envisages both how individuals conceive crime and how populations perceive it, based on societal norms. The word crime is derived from the Latin root cernō, meaning "I decide, I give judgment"; the Latin word crīmen meant "charge" or "cry of distress." The Ancient Greek word krima, from which the Latin cognate derives referred to an intellectual mistake or an offense against the community, rather than a private or moral wrong.
In 13th century English crime meant "sinfulness", according to etymonline.com. It was brought to England as Old French crimne, from Latin crimen. In Latin, crimen could have signified any one of the following: "charge, accusation; the word may derive from the Latin cernere – "to decide, to sift". But Ernest Klein rejects this and suggests *cri-men, which would have meant "cry of distress". Thomas G. Tucker suggests a root in "cry" words and refers to English plaint, so on; the meaning "offense punishable by law" dates from the late 14th century. The Latin word is glossed in Old English by facen "deceit, treachery". Crime wave is first attested in 1893 in American English. Whether a given act or omission constitutes a crime does not depend on the nature of that act or omission, it depends on the nature of the legal consequences. An act or omission is a crime if it is capable of being followed by what are called criminal proceedings. History The following definition of "crime" was provided by the Prevention of Crimes Act 1871, applied for the purposes of section 10 of the Prevention of Crime Act 1908: The expression "crime" means, in England and Ireland, any felony or the offence of uttering false or counterfeit coin, or of possessing counterfeit gold or silver coin, or the offence of obtaining goods or money by false pretences, or the offence of conspiracy to defraud, or any misdemeanour under the fifty-eighth section of the Larceny Act, 1861.
For the purpose of section 243 of the Trade Union and Labour Relations Act 1992, a crime means an offence punishable on indictment, or an offence punishable on summary conviction, for the commission of which the offender is liable under the statute making the offence punishable to be imprisoned either or at the discretion of the court as an alternative for some other punishment. A normative definition views crime as deviant behavior that violates prevailing norms – cult
Los Angeles County Fire Department
The Los Angeles County Fire Department provides firefighting and emergency medical services for the unincorporated parts of Los Angeles County, California, as well as 59 cities, including the city of La Habra, located in Orange County and is the first city outside of Los Angeles County to contract with LACoFD. As of 2013 the department is responsible for just over 4 million residents spread out in over 1.2 million housing units across an area of 2,305 square miles. The department has an annual budget of $1.15 Billion. According to Firehouse magazine, the LACoFD is the 6th busiest department in the US, behind New York City Fire Department, Chicago Fire Department, Houston Fire Department, Los Angeles City Fire Department, Dallas Fire Department; the Department responded to 389,313 calls for service in 2015. The LACoFD has featured several times in popular culture, including the 1970s NBC TV series Emergency! The Los Angeles County Fire Department began in 1920, was known as the Los Angeles County Forestry Department and Los Angeles County Fire Protection Districts.
The Los Angeles County Board of Supervisors enlisted Stuart J. Flintham to lead the new department, directed him to establish a program for fire prevention and firefighting in the county, he succeeded in opening 30 Fire Protection Districts, which served, continue to serve and the unincorporated areas of Los Angeles County. Cities could choose to join the Fire Protection District by allocating property tax for this service. Cities formed as contract cities in the post-World War II period retained membership in the Fire Protection District. Following the passage of Proposition 13 in 1978, property taxes were capped at 1% and the Fire Department charged cities fees for services when annexation occurred. Properties within the district that are not covered under a fee for service arrangement pay a special fire tax as a result of Proposition E, passed in 1997. County vehicles assigned to the Los Angeles County Fire Department continue to list as registered owner the "Consolidated Fire Protection District of Los Angeles County" on California Department of Motor Vehicles paperwork.
The Los Angeles County Fire Department Emergency Operations are commanded by Chief Deputy David R. Richardson; the 4 Bureaus that the Chief Deputy oversees contain the bulk of the firefighting personnel and apparatus that the Fire Department provides, as well as the Technical Services Division. The 3 Operations Bureaus consist of the neighborhood fire stations and camps that are geographically based, while the fourth bureau has specialized teams that respond throughout the county; the 3 Operations Bureaus of LACoFD serve 59 cities and all unincorporated communities with 22 Battalions and 9 Divisions. Each Division is commanded by an assistant chief; the LACoFD has 10 fire camps with handcrews which are used for both fire prevention and wildland firefighting. In 2013, to help combat jail crowding as well as increase time served by serious criminal offenders, Los Angeles County sent more than 500 inmates to firefighting camps in mountain and foothill areas. Inmates assigned to the camps are nonviolent offenders who have completed physical and security screenings.
They are trained by county firefighters to help fight fires and assist with clearing brush and debris. The camps are run in conjunction with the California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation and the Los Angeles County Probation Department; the Los Angeles County Fire Department utilizes a wide array of firefighting apparatus, including Engines, Trucks, Light Forces and Water Tenders. Support apparatus include Rescue Squads, Hazardous Materials Squads, Urban Search & Rescue Squads. LACoFD apparatus are painted reddish-orange as opposed to LAFD apparatus red. While many modern fire departments have opted to go with trucks/quints that have rear-mounted ladders, the LACoFD has chosen to stay with tiller trucks because of their enhanced maneuverability in tight areas; the benefit of a quint is that it has a built in pump and water tank and can thus operate without an engine. The LA County Fire Department has 10 helicopters available for aerial firefighting. With the exception of Copter 10, used for command purposes, all copters are outfitted with water drop tanks for aerial firefighting.
The headquarters for the Air Operations Section is located at Barton Heliport, next to Whiteman Airport in Pacoima. Five Sikorsky S-70A/S-70i Firehawks Copter 15, Copter 16, Copter 19, Copter 21, Copter 22 are fitted with 1,000 US gallons tanks. One Bell 412 Copter 12 is fitted with a 360 US gallons tank. Two Bell 412EP Copter 11 and Copter 14 are outfitted with 360 US gallons tanks. Two Bell 412HP Copter 17 and Copter 18 are outfitted with 360 US gallons tanks; as of March 2019 The LACoFD is dispatched from the P. Michael Freeman Command And Control Facility at the county fire operations center in East Los Angeles; the Los Angeles County Fire Department has been featured in multiple different television series. Rescue 8 – The syndicated series of the late 1950s focused on Rescue Squad 8 and starred Jim Davis and Lang Jeffries. Emergency! – The NBC series of the 1970s dramatized a department paramedic rescue squad, popularly credited for encouraging the widespread adaptation of the medical service.
The exterior fire station scenes for the fictional station 51 in the series were shot at county fire station 127. It is now called the Robert A. Cinader Memorial Fire Station in honor of the television producer who made the station famous. In addition, the fire station in Universal City, where Universal Pictures is located, who
Kathryn Ann Barger-Leibrich is an American politician and a member of the Los Angeles County Board of Supervisors, representing the 5th District. Barger served as Chief Deputy Supervisor and Chief of Staff to her predecessor Michael D. Antonovich. Barger was raised in the 5th District, she is married to a retired Sheriff’s deputy and lives in the San Gabriel Valley. Barger began her career in government in 1988 when she interned in the office of Los Angeles County Supervisor Michael D. Antonovich. By 2001 she had risen up the ranks to Antonovich's chief of staff. In her role as a county supervisor, Barger has co-authored bills furthering the county’s support for veterans and foster children. Barger co-authored motions to address homelessness in LA County, which notably includes a bill passed by the California State Assembly in May 2018 amending the state’s definition of “gravely disabled”, allowing more state-sponsored medical care to be provided to those who may be suffering from a serious mental illness.
Barger coauthored a motion creating the Blue Ribbon Commission on Public Safety, intended to explore the impact that Assembly Bill 109, California Proposition 47, California Proposition 57, which were collectively aimed at converting many nonviolent drug offenses into misdemeanors and allowing for the early release of some inmates, has had inside of Los Angeles County. The formation of the commission was a reaction to the murder of police Officer Keith Boyer, passed on a 3-0 vote with abstentions; the commission membership at its inception was controversial, with critics citing that many of the 27 members drafted to the commission were directly affected by Proposition 47, coming from roles within the county’s judicial system. Other critics noted that linking the murder of Officer Boyer to the passage of criminal reform efforts was misguided because the error that led to the release of Officer Boyer’s murderer was committed at the county level. In 2017, Barger was the only opposition in a 4-1 vote to eliminate the "registration fee" that the Los Angeles County Public Defender's office and other court-appointed counsel charge defendants before providing them with legal services.
In 2017, Barger was the only opposition in a 4-1 vote to establish the Business Registration program, which would levy a fee on businesses to create a registry and connect them with county resources. The Fifth District is the largest Supervisorial district of Los Angeles County, spanning 2800 square miles, includes 22 cities and 70 unincorporated communities in the San Gabriel, San Fernando, Santa Clarita and Antelope Valleys
Long Beach, California
Long Beach is a city on the Pacific Coast of the United States, within the Los Angeles metropolitan area of Southern California. As of 2010, its population was 462,257, it is the 7th most populous in California. Long Beach is the second-largest city in the Los Angeles metropolitan area and the third largest in Southern California behind Los Angeles and San Diego. Long Beach is a charter city; the Port of Long Beach is the second busiest container port in the United States and is among the world's largest shipping ports. The city maintains a progressively declining oil industry with minor wells located both directly beneath the city as well as offshore. Manufacturing sectors include those in aircraft, automotive parts, electronic equipment, audiovisual equipment, precision metals and home furnishings. Long Beach lies in the southeastern corner of borders Orange County. Downtown Long Beach is 22 miles south of downtown Los Angeles, though the two cities share an official border for several miles.
Indigenous people have lived in coastal Southern California for over 10,000 years, several successive cultures have inhabited the present-day area of Long Beach. By the 16th-century arrival of Spanish explorers, the dominant group was the Tongva people, they had at least three major settlements within the present-day city. Tevaaxa'anga was an inland settlement near the Los Angeles River, while Ahwaanga and Povuu'nga were coastal villages. Along with other Tongva villages, they were forced to relocate in the mid-19th century due to missionization, political change, a drastic drop in population from exposure to European diseases. In 1784 the Spanish Empire's King Carlos III granted Rancho Los Nietos to Spanish soldier Manuel Nieto; the Rancho Los Cerritos and Rancho Los Alamitos were divided from this territory. The boundary between the two ranchos ran through the center of Signal Hill on a southwest to northeast diagonal. A portion of western Long Beach was part of the Rancho San Pedro, its boundaries were in dispute for years, due to flooding changing the Los Angeles River boundary, between the ranchos of Juan Jose Dominguez and Manuel Nieto.
In 1843 Jonathan Temple bought Rancho Los Cerritos, having arrived in California in 1827 from New England. He built what is now known as the "Los Cerritos Ranch House", a still-standing adobe, a National Historic Landmark. Temple created a thriving cattle ranch and prospered, becoming the wealthiest man in Los Angeles County. Both Temple and his ranch house played important local roles in the Mexican–American War. On an island in the San Pedro Bay, Mormon pioneers made an abortive attempt to establish a colony. In 1866 Temple sold Rancho Los Cerritos for $20,000 to the Northern California sheep-raising firm of Flint, Bixby & Co, which consisted of brothers Thomas and Benjamin Flint and their cousin Lewellyn Bixby. Two years previous Flint, Bixby & Co had purchased along with Northern California associate James Irvine, three ranchos which would become the city that bears Irvine's name. To manage Rancho Los Cerritos, the company selected Lewellyn's brother Jotham Bixby, the "Father of Long Beach".
Three years Bixby bought into the property and would form the Bixby Land Company. In the 1870s as many as 30,000 sheep were kept at the ranch and sheared twice yearly to provide wool for trade. In 1880, Bixby sold 4,000 acres of the Rancho Los Cerritos to William E. Willmore, who subdivided it in hopes of creating a farm community, Willmore City, he failed and was bought out by a Los Angeles syndicate that called itself the "Long Beach Land and Water Company." They changed the name of the community at that time. The City of Long Beach was incorporated in 1897. Another Bixby cousin, John W. Bixby, was influential in the city. After first working for his cousins at Los Cerritos, J. W. Bixby leased land at Rancho Los Alamitos, he put together a group: banker I. W. Hellman and Jotham Bixby, him, to purchase the rancho. In addition to bringing innovative farming methods to the Alamitos, J. W. Bixby began the development of the oceanfront property near the city's picturesque bluffs. Under the name Alamitos Land Company, J.
W. Bixby laid out the parks of his new city; this area would include Belmont Shore and Naples. J. W. Bixby died in 1888 of apparent appendicitis; the Rancho Los Alamitos property was split up, with Hellman getting the southern third and Lewellyn, the northern third, J. W. Bixby's widow and heirs keeping the central third; the Alamitos townsite was kept as a separate entity, but at first, it was run by Lewellyn and Jotham Bixby, although I. W, Hellman had a significant veto power, an influence made stronger as the J. W. Bixby heirs began to side with Hellman more; when Jotham Bixby died in 1916, the remaining 3,500 acres of Rancho Los Cerritos was subdivided into the neighborhoods of Bixby Knolls, California Heights, North Long Beach and part of the city of Signal Hill. The town grew as a seaside resort with light agricultural uses; the Pike was the most famous beachside amusement zone on the West Coast from 1902 until 1969. The oil industry, Navy shipyard and facilities and port became the mainstays of the city.
In the 1950s it was referred to as "Iowa