American Institute of Architects
The American Institute of Architects is a professional organization for architects in the United States. Headquartered in Washington, D. C. the AIA offers education, government advocacy, community redevelopment, public outreach to support the architecture profession and improve its public image. The AIA works with other members of the design and construction team to help coordinate the building industry; the AIA is headed by Robert Ivy, FAIA as EVP/Chief Executive Officer and William J. Bates, FAIA as 2019 AIA President; the American Institute of Architects was founded in New York City in 1857 by a group of 13 architects to "promote the scientific and practical perfection of its members" and "elevate the standing of the profession." This initial group included Charles Babcock, Henry W. Cleaveland, Henry Dudley, Leopold Eidlitz, Edward Gardiner, Richard Morris Hunt, Fred A. Petersen, Jacob Wrey Mould, John Welch, Richard M. Upjohn and Joseph C. Wells, with Richard Upjohn serving as the first president.
They met on February 23, 1857, decided to invite 16 other prominent architects to join them, including Alexander Jackson Davis, Thomas U. Walter, Calvert Vaux. Prior to their establishment of the AIA, anyone could claim to be an architect, as there were no schools of architecture or architectural licensing laws in the United States, they drafted a constitution and bylaws by March 10, 1857, under the name New York Society of Architects. Thomas U. Walter, of Philadelphia suggested the name be changed to American Institute of Architects; the members signed the new constitution on April 15, 1857, having filed a certificate of incorporation two days earlier. The constitution was amended the following year with the mission "to promote the artistic and practical profession of its members. Architects in other cities were asking to join in the 1860s, by the 1880s chapters had been formed in Albany, Boston, Cincinnati, Philadelphia, Rhode Island, San Francisco, St. Louis, Washington, D. C; as of 2008, AIA had more than 300 chapters.
The AIA is headquartered at 1735 New York Avenue, NW in Washington, D. C. A design competition was held in the mid-1960s to select an architect for a new AIA headquarters in Washington. Mitchell/Giurgola won the design competition but failed to get approval of the design concept from the United States Commission of Fine Arts; the firm resigned the commission and helped select The Architects Collaborative to redesign the building. The design, led by TAC principals Norman Fletcher and Howard Elkus, was approved in 1970 and completed in 1973. In honor of the 150th anniversary of the organization, the building was formally renamed in 2007 the "American Center for Architecture" and is home to the American Institute of Architecture Students, the Association of Collegiate Schools of Architecture and the National Architectural Accrediting Board. More than 90,000 licensed architects and associated professionals are members. AIA members adhere to a code of ethics and professional conduct intended to assure clients, the public, colleagues of an architect's dedication to the highest standards in professional practice.
There are five levels of membership in the AIA: Architect members are licensed to practice architecture by a licensing authority in the United States. Associate members are not licensed to practice architecture but they are working under the supervision of an architect in a professional or technical capacity, have earned professional degrees in architecture, are faculty members in a university program in architecture, or are interns earning credit toward licensure. International associate members hold an architecture license or the equivalent from a licensing authority outside the United States. Emeritus members have been AIA members for 15 successive years and are at least 70 years of age or are incapacitated and unable to work in the architecture profession. Allied members are individuals whose professions are related to the building and design community, such as engineers, landscape architects, or planners. Allied membership is a partnership with the American Architectural Foundation. There is no National AIA membership category for students, but they can become members of the American Institute of Architecture Students and many local and state chapters of the AIA have student membership categories.
The AIA's most prestigious honor is the designation of a member as a Fellow of the American Institute of Architects. This membership is awarded to members who have made contributions of national significance to the profession. More than 2,600, or 2% of all members, have been elevated to the AIA College of Fellows. Foreign architects of prominence may be elected to the College as Honorary Fellows of the AIA; the AIA has a staff of more than 200 employees. Although the AIA functions as a national organization, its 217 local and state chapters provide members with programming and direct services to support them throughout their professional lives; the chapters cover the entirety of its territories. Components operate in the United Kingdom, Continental Europe, the Middle East, Hong Kong and Canada. By speaking with a united voice, AIA architects influence government practices that affect the practice of the profession and the quality of American life; the AIA monitors legislative and regulator
Richard Joseph Neutra was an Austrian-American architect. Living and building for the majority of his career in Southern California, he came to be considered among the most important modernist architects. Neutra was born in Leopoldstadt, the 2nd district of Vienna, Austria Hungary, on April 8, 1892 into a wealthy Jewish family, his Jewish-Hungarian father Samuel Neutra was a proprietor of a metal foundry, his mother, Elizabeth "Betty" Glaser Neutra was a member of the IKG Wien. Richard had two brothers who emigrated to the United States, a sister Pepi Weixlgärtner, an artist who emigrated to Sweden where her work can be seen at The Museum of Modern Art. Neutra attended the Sophiengymnasium in Vienna until 1910, he studied under Max Fabiani and Karl Mayreder at the Vienna University of Technology, attended the private architecture school of Adolf Loos. In 1912 he undertook a study trip to Italy and the Balkans with Ernst Ludwig Freud. In June 1914, Neutra's studies were interrupted, he took a leave in 1917 to return to the Technische Hochschule to take his final examinations.
After World War I Neutra went to Switzerland where he worked with the landscape architect Gustav Ammann. In 1921 he served as city architect in the German town of Luckenwalde, in the same year he joined the office of Erich Mendelsohn in Berlin. Neutra contributed to the firm's competition entry for a new commercial centre for Haifa, to the Zehlendorf housing project in Berlin, he married Dione Niedermann, the daughter of an architect, in 1922. They had three sons, Frank L, Dion an architect and his father's partner, Raymond Richard a physician and environmental epidemiologist. Neutra moved to the United States by 1923 and became a naturalized citizen in 1929. Neutra worked for Frank Lloyd Wright before accepting an invitation from his close friend and university companion Rudolf Schindler to work and live communally in Schindler's Kings Road House in California. Neutra’s first work in Los Angeles was in landscape architecture, where he provided the design for the garden of Schindler’s beach house, designed for Philip Lovell, Newport Beach, for a pergola and wading pool for Wright and Schindler’s complex for Aline Barnsdall on Olive Hill, Hollywood.
Schindler and Neutra collaborated on an entry for the League of Nations Competition of 1926–7. He subsequently developed his own practice and went on to design numerous buildings embodying the International Style, twelve of which are designated as Historic Cultural Monuments, including the Lovell Health House and the Richard and Dion Neutra VDL Research House. In California, he became celebrated for rigorously geometric but airy structures that symbolized a West Coast variation on the mid-century modern residence. Clients included Edgar J. Kaufmann, Galka Scheyer, Walter Conrad Arensberg. In the early 1930s, Neutra's Los Angeles practice trained several young architects who went on to independent success, including Gregory Ain, Harwell Hamilton Harris, Raphael Soriano. In 1932, he tried to move to the Soviet Union, to help design workers' housing that could be constructed, as a means of helping with the housing shortage. In 1932, Neutra was included in the seminal MoMA exhibition on modern architecture, curated by Philip Johnson and Henry-Russell Hitchcock.
In 1949 Neutra formed a partnership with Robert E. Alexander that lasted until 1958, which gave him the opportunity to design larger commercial and institutional buildings. In 1955, the United States Department of State commissioned Neutra to design a new embassy in Karachi. Neutra's appointment was part of an ambitious program of architectural commissions to renowned architects, which included embassies by Walter Gropius in Athens, Edward Durrell Stone in New Delhi, Marcel Breuer in The Hague, Josep Lluis Sert in Baghdad, Eero Saarinen in London. In 1965 Neutra formed a partnership with his son Dion Neutra. Between 1960 and 1970, Neutra created eight villas in Europe, four in Switzerland, three in Germany, one in France. Prominent clients in this period included Gerd Bucerius, publisher of Die Zeit, as well as figures from commerce and science. Richard Joseph Neutra died in Wuppertal, Germany, on April 16, 1970, at the age of 78, he was famous for the attention he gave to defining the real needs of his clients, regardless of the size of the project, in contrast to other architects eager to impose their artistic vision on a client.
Neutra sometimes used detailed questionnaires to discover his client's needs, much to their surprise. His domestic architecture was a blend of art and practical comfort. In a 1947 article for the Los Angeles Times, "The Changing House," Neutra emphasizes the "ready-for-anything" plan – stressing an open, multifunctional plan for living spaces that are flexible and modified for any type of life or event. Neutra had a sharp sense of irony. In his autobiography and Shape, he included a playful anecdote about an anonymous movie producer-client who electrified the moat around the house that Neutra designed for him and had his Persian butler fish out the bodies in the morning and dispose of them in a specially designed incinerator; this was a much-embellished account of an actual client, Josef von Sternberg, who indeed had a moated house but not an electrified one. The novelist/philosoph
Los Angeles County Superior Court
The Superior Court of Los Angeles County is the California superior court located in Los Angeles County. It is the largest single unified trial court in the United States; the Los Angeles County Superior Court operates 47 courthouses throughout the county. As of 2017, the Presiding Judge is Daniel Buckley. Sherri R. Carter is the Executive Officer/Clerk. With 5,400 employees and an annual budget of $850 million, the superior court operates nearly 600 courtrooms throughout the county; when California declared its statehood in 1849 and became a part of the United States, the first California Constitution authorized the legislature to establish municipal and such other courts as it deemed necessary. The 1851 California Judiciary Act divided the state into districts, placing Los Angeles, San Bernardino, San Diego counties into one district; each district had its own court, below which were county and justice of the peace courts. Judge Agustin Olvera of the Los Angeles County Court and Judge Jonathan R. Scott of the Los Angeles Justice of the Peace Court were the first judges of these lower courts.
The district court system was burdened by the vast expanse of the district. District judges were required to hold court proceedings; because of the distances district court judges had to travel to conduct trials and the sudden growth in population due to the California Gold Rush, the district court system became ineffective and non-responsive to the needs of its constituency. In 1879, California adopted a new constitution and with it a revised court system; the district courts became appeals courts below the State Supreme Court. To take over the district courts' original function, the county superior courts were created; the new Superior Court of Los Angeles County began with two judges: Ygnacio Sepulveda and Volney E. Howard. In 1905, juvenile delinquency and dependency hearings were put under the superior courts' jurisdiction, as were mental health hearing in 1914; the superior courts' jurisdiction came to include all civil, felony criminal, family law, juvenile delinquency and dependency, probate cases in its county.
Throughout its history, the superior court had had a close relationship with the county’s many municipal courts. By 1971, the superior court assumed responsibility for coordinating and scheduling court interpreters for all courts in the County and by 1973 the Court had implemented a countywide system to process the payment of court-appointed attorneys. By 1974, all jury services in the county had been consolidated. In 1986, county-wide uniform criminal Local Court rules and uniform exhibit processing procedures were adopted to ensure consistency in how criminal cases were handled through the court system. By 1988, the Municipal and Superior Courts began to cross-assign cases to ease the county’s judicial backlog. In 1993, the superior court adopted the municipal courts’ automated criminal case processing system. In 1993, the superior court was administratively unified with several of the municipal courts, and by 1999, seventeen more municipal courts had joined. On January 22, 2000, in accordance with Proposition 220 passed in 1998, the judges of the municipal and superior courts voted to merge into the Superior Court of California, County of Los Angeles.
On November 14, 2012, Lee Smalley Edmon, presiding judge of the L. A. County Superior Court, announced the closing of ten courthouses, including those in Beverly Hills, West Los Angeles, Huntington Park, Whittier and San Pedro due to budget cuts; the Los Angeles Superior Court mission statement is "The Los Angeles Superior Court is dedicated to serving our community by providing equal access to justice through the fair and efficient resolution of all cases" Alhambra Courthouse, First Street and Commonwealth Avenue 626 841 1944 c Roberts Airport Courthouse, 105 and 405 freeway intersection Catalina Courthouse, Catalina Island, one part-time courtroom Bellflower Courthouse Beverly Hills Courthouse Burbank Courthouse Chatsworth Courthouse Compton Courthouse Downey Courthouse East Los Angeles Courthouse El Monte Courthouse Glendale Courthouse Governor George Deukmejian Courthouse, Long Beach Hollywood Courthouse Huntington Park Courthouse Inglewood Courthouse Long Beach Courthouse Malibu Courthouse Metropolitan Courthouse, Los Angeles Michael D. Antonovich Antelope Valley Courthouse, Lancaster Norwalk Courthouse Pasadena Courthouse Pomona Courthouse North Pomona Courthouse South Redondo Beach Courthouse San Fernando Courthouse San Pedro Courthouse San Pedro Courthouse Annex Santa Clarita Courthouse Santa Monica Courthouse Stanley Mosk Courthouse, Downtown Los Angeles, 100 courtrooms, largest courthouse in the United States Torrance Courthouse Van Nuys Courthouse East Van Nuys Courthouse West West Covina Courthouse West Los Angeles Courthouse Whittier Courthouse Alfred J. McCourtney Juvenile Justice Center, Lancaster Central Arraignment Court Central Civil West Courthouse Clara Shortridge Foltz Criminal Justice Center David V. Kenyon Juvenile Justice Center Eastlake Juvenile Court Edmund D. Edelman Children's Court, Monterey Park Inglewood Juvenile Courthouse Los Padrinos Juvenile Courthouse, Downey Mental Health Courthouse Sylmar Juvenile Courthouse The court uses the California Court Case Management System v3, exposes services to the public such as the Criminal Defendant Index, Civil Party Name Search, Civil Case Document Images, Traffic Ticket Online Services, e-File Small Claims, Divorce Judgment Documents.
The difference between CCMS and these other services is similar to the difference between the federal CM/ECF and PACER sys
Whiteman Airport is a general aviation airport in the northeastern San Fernando Valley community of Pacoima, in the city of Los Angeles, California. The airport was founded as "Whiteman Air Park" in 1946 on a farm by pilot Marvin Whiteman Sr. as a non-tower controlled, private airport. Whiteman Manufacturing Co. was built on the airport's west side. In 1970 the airport was purchased by the County of Los Angeles. During the 1980s the name was changed to "Whiteman Airport", but it is still referred to as "Whiteman Airpark" by old-time local pilots to this day; the airport is open to general aviation aircraft 24-hours a day seven days a week. It is home to over 600 aircraft, a restaurant, numerous aviation-related businesses; the airport can handle small aircraft as well as medium turboprops and jets, although little jet traffic is seen on its rather narrow runway. The control tower is in operation daily; the single runway has runway end identifier lights, pilot controlled medium-intensity runway lighting and a precision approach path indicator.
Full and self-service fuel is available around the clock. The airport has an AWOS Automated Weather Observing System with data available continuously by radio and telephone. Runway 12/30: 4,120 x 75 ft Asphalt The Los Angeles County Fire Department Air Operations unit is based at Barton Heliport, adjacent to the northeast of this airport. Whiteman Airport is home to Senior Squadron 35, Cadet Squadron 137, Los Angeles County Group 1 of the Civil Air Patrol, as well as EAA Chapter 40 and a branch of the Young Eagles. List of airports in the Los Angeles area Whiteman Airport Association FAA Airport Diagram, effective March 28, 2019 Squadron 35 of the Civil Air Patrol Los Angeles County Group 1 of the Civil Air Patrol Resources for this airport: FAA airport information for WHP AirNav airport information for KWHP ASN accident history for WHP FlightAware airport information and live flight tracker NOAA/NWS latest weather observations SkyVector aeronautical chart, Terminal Procedures
Los Angeles County Board of Supervisors
The Los Angeles County Board of Supervisors is the five-member governing body of Los Angeles County, United States. The people of Los Angeles County on April 1, 1850 asserted their newly won right of self-government and elected a three-man Court of Sessions as their first governing body. A total of 377 votes were cast in this election. In 1852, the Legislature dissolved the Court of Sessions and created a five-member Board of Supervisors. In 1913 the citizens of Los Angeles County approved a charter recommended by a board of freeholders which gave the County greater freedom to govern itself within the framework of state law; as the population expanded throughout the twentieth century, Los Angeles County did not subdivide into separate counties or increase the number of supervisors as its population soared. As a result, the concentration of local administrative power in each county supervisor is high with the population of the county at ten million residents; each supervisor represents more than two million people.
A local nickname some use for the Board is the "five little kings." Supervisors are elected to four-year terms by a vote of Los Angeles County citizens who reside in the supervisorial district. Supervisors must be voters in the district they represent. Elections for the 1st and 3rd districts coincide with California's gubernatorial elections, while those for the 2nd, 4th and 5th districts coincide with the United States presidential election. Supervisorial terms begin the first Monday in December after the election. Unseating an incumbent supervisor is extraordinarily difficult, due to the prohibitive cost of mounting a successful challenge in districts of such enormous geographical and population size. To curb the powers of the five supervisors, Los Angeles County voters passed Measure B in March 2002 with a majority of 64%, to limit the supervisors to three consecutive four-year terms. If a supervisor fills a vacancy, the unexpired term counts towards the term limit if there are more than two years left to serve.
The provisions of the measure were not retroactive, meaning that the term limit clock for supervisors who were serving at the time the measure passed would start with the next election. Don Knabe, Mike Antonovich, Yvonne Brathwaite Burke could continue to serve until 2016, while Gloria Molina and Zev Yaroslavsky could continue to serve until 2014; the chair of the Board of Supervisors has the option of calling herself mayor. The title has drawn criticism. However, those who support the use of the title say that all five members of the Board of Supervisors act as "mayors" or chief executives for the millions of people who live in unincorporated areas. Only Mike Antonovich used the "mayor" title when chairing the Board to represent and promote Los Angeles County when dealing with international diplomacy and trade. Otherwise, all other chairs have used the title chair, chairman, or chairwoman, depending on their preference; until the chief executive officer was the appointed individual heading the county but had little power as supervisors retained the right to fire and hire department heads and directly admonished department heads in public.
Based on an ordinance authored by Supervisors Knabe and Yaroslavsky that took effect in April 2007, the CEO directly oversees departments on behalf of the supervisors, although the Los Angeles County Fire Department, Los Angeles County Sheriff's Department, District Attorney, Auditor-Controller, Executive Office of the Board of Supervisors continue to be under the direct purview of the Board of Supervisors. The change was made in response to several candidates either dropping out or declining to accept the position to replace former Chief Administrative Officer David Janssen. Antonovich was the lone supervisor to oppose the change, stating that such a move would lead to a more autocratic form of government and disenfranchise the 1.3 million who live in unincorporated areas. However, this was rescinded in 2015 and the CEO has returned to a facilitation and coordination role between departments. Departments continue to submit recommendations and agenda items to the Board to be adopted and ratified, the Board directly manages relations with the department heads instead of going through the CEO, as would be the case in a council-manager system prevalent in most of the county's cities.
In 2016, the CEO further recommended, the Board approved, transferring positions considered "transactional" and focusing the CEO on "strategic" initiatives and long-term, structural issues. The Board meets every Tuesday at 9:30 a.m. at the Board Hearing Room at the Kenneth Hahn Hall of Administration in Downtown Los Angeles. On Tuesdays following a Monday holiday, Board meetings begin after lunch, at 1:00 p.m. Board meetings are conducted in accordance with Robert's Rules of Order, the Brown Act, the Rules of the Board; the Chief Executive Officer, the County Counsel and the Executive Officer, or their deputies, attend each Board meeting. The regular agendas for the first, second and fifth Tuesdays of the month are a consent calendar, that is, all items are automatically approved without discussion, unless a Supervisor or member of the public requests discussion of a specific item; the fourth Tuesday of the month is reserved for the purpose of conducting required public hearings, Board of Supervisors motions and department items continued from a previous meeting, have time constraints, or are critical in nature.
Since Board meetings are considered Brown Act bodies, a Board agenda is published 72 hours before the Board meeting is convened
Kathryn Ann Barger-Leibrich is an American politician and a member of the Los Angeles County Board of Supervisors, representing the 5th District. Barger served as Chief Deputy Supervisor and Chief of Staff to her predecessor Michael D. Antonovich. Barger was raised in the 5th District, she is married to a retired Sheriff’s deputy and lives in the San Gabriel Valley. Barger began her career in government in 1988 when she interned in the office of Los Angeles County Supervisor Michael D. Antonovich. By 2001 she had risen up the ranks to Antonovich's chief of staff. In her role as a county supervisor, Barger has co-authored bills furthering the county’s support for veterans and foster children. Barger co-authored motions to address homelessness in LA County, which notably includes a bill passed by the California State Assembly in May 2018 amending the state’s definition of “gravely disabled”, allowing more state-sponsored medical care to be provided to those who may be suffering from a serious mental illness.
Barger coauthored a motion creating the Blue Ribbon Commission on Public Safety, intended to explore the impact that Assembly Bill 109, California Proposition 47, California Proposition 57, which were collectively aimed at converting many nonviolent drug offenses into misdemeanors and allowing for the early release of some inmates, has had inside of Los Angeles County. The formation of the commission was a reaction to the murder of police Officer Keith Boyer, passed on a 3-0 vote with abstentions; the commission membership at its inception was controversial, with critics citing that many of the 27 members drafted to the commission were directly affected by Proposition 47, coming from roles within the county’s judicial system. Other critics noted that linking the murder of Officer Boyer to the passage of criminal reform efforts was misguided because the error that led to the release of Officer Boyer’s murderer was committed at the county level. In 2017, Barger was the only opposition in a 4-1 vote to eliminate the "registration fee" that the Los Angeles County Public Defender's office and other court-appointed counsel charge defendants before providing them with legal services.
In 2017, Barger was the only opposition in a 4-1 vote to establish the Business Registration program, which would levy a fee on businesses to create a registry and connect them with county resources. The Fifth District is the largest Supervisorial district of Los Angeles County, spanning 2800 square miles, includes 22 cities and 70 unincorporated communities in the San Gabriel, San Fernando, Santa Clarita and Antelope Valleys
Red Line (Los Angeles Metro)
The Red Line is a heavy rail subway line running between Downtown Los Angeles and North Hollywood via the districts of Hollywood and Mid-Wilshire. In North Hollywood it connects with the Orange Line service for stations to the Warner Center in Woodland Hills and Chatsworth, it is operated by the Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority. The Red Line, one of six lines forming the Metro Rail rapid transit system, opened in stages between 1993 and 2000. Together with the Purple Line, these two heavy rail lines combine to form L. A. Metro Rail's busiest line; as of October 2013, the combined Red and Purple lines averaged 169,478 boardings per weekday. Beginning in 2019, the line will be renamed to the B Line while retaining its red coloring; the Red Line is a 16.4-mile line that begins at Union Station and travels southwest through Downtown Los Angeles, passing the Civic Center, Pershing Square and the Financial District. At 7th St/Metro Center, travelers can connect to Metro Expo Line.
From here, the train travels between 7th Street and Wilshire Boulevard west through Pico-Union and Westlake, arriving at Wilshire/Vermont in the city's Mid-Wilshire/Koreatown district. Up to this point, the track is shared with the Metro Purple Line: at Wilshire/Vermont, the two lines diverge. From here, the Red Line travels north along Vermont, west along Hollywood Boulevard, traveling through Koreatown and Hollywood; the line turns northwest and crosses into the San Fernando Valley, where it terminates in North Hollywood. This route matches a branch of the old Red Car system, dismantled during The Great American Streetcar Scandal. Trains run between 4:30 a.m. and 1:00 a.m. the following morning. On Friday and Saturday evenings, trains are extended until 2:00 a.m. of the following morning. First and last train times are as follows: To/From North Hollywood Eastbound First Train to Union Station: 4:32 a.m. Last Train to Union Station: 1:02 a.m. Westbound First Train to North Hollywood: 4:10 a.m.
Last Train to North Hollywood: 12:21 a.m. Trains on the Red Line operate every ten minutes during peak hours Monday through Friday, they operate every twelve minutes during the daytime weekdays and all day on the weekends after 10 a.m.. Night service is every 20 minutes; the current Red Line is the product of a long-term plan to connect Downtown Los Angeles to central and western portions of the city with a heavy rail subway system. Planned in the 1980s to travel west down Wilshire Boulevard to Fairfax Avenue and north to the San Fernando Valley, a methane explosion at a Ross Dress for Less clothing store near Fairfax in 1985, just as construction got underway, led to a legal prohibition on tunneling in a large part of Mid-Wilshire. Instead, after some wrangling, a new route was chosen up Vermont Avenue to Hollywood Boulevard; the line opened in three minimum operating segments: MOS-1, which consisted of the original five stations from Union Station to Westlake/MacArthur Park, opened on January 30, 1993.
MOS-2B, which consisted of five new stations from Wilshire/Vermont to Hollywood/Vine which opened in 1999. MOS-3, which added new stations and extended the Red Line from Hollywood/Vine to its final terminus at North Hollywood, opened in 2000; the route known as the Red Line was intended to continue beyond its eastern terminus at Union Station to East Los Angeles. At the north end of the route, the Red Line was to turn west from North Hollywood station toward Warner Center. Trouble during the Red Line's construction, including a 1995 sinkhole that led to the project switching to a new contractor, led to a 1998 ballot proposition that banned revenue from existing sales taxes being used to dig subway tunnels in Los Angeles County, which put an end to expansion of the Red Line for the foreseeable future; the route to Warner Center was turned into a bus rapid transitway service. In the early 21st century, new sales tax Measures R and M were approved voters to provide funds for subway development.
While the Red Line does not figure into active expansion plans, several concepts have been proposed that would build off of it. Former Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa has mentioned extending the Red Line from its current North Hollywood Station terminus along Lankershim Boulevard to the northeastern San Fernando Valley, with a terminus in Sylmar. One long-term possibility might be an underground extension of another mile or two to a future high-rise housing district, or to a multi-modal transportation hub station at Bob Hope Airport in Burbank, a distance of four miles, it would go under Oxnard Street, the NoHo West development, Laurel Canyon Blvd, Vanowen Street to the Burbank Airport. In 2006 a large number of housing units, including a high-rise tower was completed near the North Hollywood station. Planned high-rise housing developments further to the north, including the NoHo West development which broke ground in March 2017 and the possibility of establishing a direct connection to the planned California High-Speed Rail station at Burbank Airport have been suggested as additional justification for an extension of the line from its current terminus in North Hollywood.
In 2010, at the request of L. A. City Councilman Tom LaBonge, Metro staff studied the possibility of adding a station along the west bank of the Los Angeles River to 6th Street and Santa Fe Avenue; the study concluded that such an extension, completed at