Gerardo Miguel Bravo Benavides is a Peruvian retired footballer. Bravo moved with his family from his native Peru to the United States as a teenager, settling in Sylmar, California, he played college soccer at Los Angeles Mission College from 2006 to 2009. He played with the San Fernando Valley Quakes in the USL Premier Development League in 2007. After playing and coaching for several years in various Los Angeles-area amateur leagues, Bravo turned professional when he signed with the expansion Los Angeles Blues of the new USL Professional League in February 2010, he made his professional debut - and scored his first professional goal - on April 15, 2011 in a 3-0 victory over Sevilla Puerto Rico Gerardo's brother, Jhonny Bravo, is a professional soccer player
Miguel González (pitcher)
Miguel Ángel González Martín known by his nickname El Mariachi, is a Mexican professional baseball pitcher, a free agent. He has played in Major League Baseball for the Baltimore Orioles from 2012 to 2015, the White Sox from 2016 through 2017, the Texas Rangers in 2017 and the Chicago White Sox in 2018, he played college baseball at Los Angeles Mission College. González was moved with his family to San Fernando, California at four years old, he grew up a fan of the Los Angeles Dodgers. González attended Los Angeles Mission College. González was signed by the Los Angeles Angels of Anaheim as an amateur free agent in 2005; the following two years, he earned a number of honors with the Arkansas Travelers. He was selected by Boston in the 2008 Rule 5 draft. Out during the regular season while recovering from a knee injury, he made a comeback with the Venados de Mazatlán of the Mexican Pacific League. In 2009, González missed the entire season, he was outrighted to Pawtucket in November 2009. After two seasons in the Red Sox minor league system, González signed a minor league deal with the Orioles in March 2012.
He would start at Triple-A. He said that he signed to play with fellow Mexican players Dennys Reyes, Luis Ayala and Óscar Villarreal, as well as the fact that the Orioles gave him the opportunity to improve his skills. Gonzalez made his first major league start on July 6, 2012, against the Los Angeles Angels and earned the win, limiting the Angels to one run and three hits over seven innings; the Orioles won the game 3–2. In the game, González honored his former teammate Nick Adenhart, who died in 2009, by wearing a glove given to him by Adenhart when they were teammates in 2007 with the Arkansas Travelers. For the 2012 regular season he went 9–4 with a 3.25 ERA in 14 starts. González started Game 3 of the 2012 American League Division Series against the New York Yankees, departing the game with a 2-1 lead but no-decisioned when the Yankees tied the game in the ninth inning and won it in the twelfth. On May 9, 2013, González was placed on the 15-day disabled list with an unhealed blister on his throwing thumb.
González pitched in 30 games in 2013. He pitched to a 3.78 ERA in 171 1⁄3 innings. He earned a record of 11-8 on the year. On September 3, 2014, González pitched the first complete game and shutout of his career against the Cincinnati Reds, he finished the season with a 10-9 record in 27 games, pitching to an ERA 3.23 and WHIP of 1.30. He struck out 111 batters and pitched to a 122 ERA+. González made one start in the ALCS against the Royals, he took the loss in game 4 ending the Orioles season. González struck out a career-high 10 batters on April 14, 2015. González struggled with injuries throughout 2015, finished with the worst year of his career, he went 9-12 in 26 starts and finished with a 4.91 ERA. On March 30, 2016, González received his unconditional release by the Orioles, who opted to cut him rather than send him to the minor leagues at the beginning of the 2016 season. In April 2016, González signed a minor league deal with the Chicago White Sox. González appeared in 24 games, 23 starts for the White Sox posting an ERA of 3.73.
He finished with a record of 5-8. González began the 2017 season in the White Sox starting rotation, he spent a few weeks on the disabled list. On August 31, 2017, the White Sox traded González to the Texas Rangers for infielder Ti'Quan Forbes. In 5 starts for the Rangers, González was 1-3 with a 6.45 ERA. González signed a one-year, $4.75 million contract with the White Sox on January 11, 2018. He appeared in 3 starts only before being lost for the season due to rotator cuff inflammation which required season-ending surgery. González throws five pitches: a four seam fastball at 92-93 MPH, a sinker at 91 mph, a curveball at 77-80, a slider at 84-86 and a splitter at 82-85 for his out pitch. González's wife, Lucía, gave birth to their first child, a daughter named Leah, in June 2013 in Southern California, their second child, a son named Mateo, was born in August 2017. Rule 5 draft results Career statistics and player information from MLB, or ESPN, or Baseball-Reference, or Fangraphs, or The Baseball Cube, or Baseball-Reference
California State Polytechnic University, Pomona
California State Polytechnic University, Pomona is a public polytechnic university in Pomona, California in the Los Angeles metropolitan area. It is one of two polytechnics in the California State University system. Cal Poly Pomona began as the southern campus of the California Polytechnic School in 1938 when a equipped school and farm in the city of San Dimas were donated by Charles Voorhis and his son Jerry Voorhis; the southern campus grew further in 1949 when a horse ranch in the neighboring city of Pomona, which had belonged to Will Keith Kellogg, was acquired from the University of California. Cal Poly Pomona known as Cal Poly Kellogg-Voorhis, Cal Poly San Luis Obispo continued operations under a unified administrative control until they became independent from one another in 1966. Cal Poly Pomona offers bachelor's degrees in 94 majors, 39 master's degrees, 13 teaching credentials and a doctorate across 9 distinct academic colleges; the university is one among a small group of polytechnic universities in the United States which tend to be devoted to the instruction of technical arts and applied sciences.
Its sports teams are known as the Cal Poly Pomona Broncos and play in the NCAA Division II as part of the California Collegiate Athletic Association. The Broncos have won 14 NCAA national championships. Current and former Cal Poly Pomona athletes have won 7 Olympic medals. Events leading to the foundation of present-day Cal Poly at Pomona began with the demise of the Voorhis School for Boys in San Dimas and its acquisition by the San Luis Obispo-based California Polytechnic School in 1938; the California Polytechnic School was founded as a vocational high school when California Governor Henry Gage signed the Polytechnic School Bill on March 8, 1901 after its drafting by school founder Myron Angel. Voorhis School, on the other hand, had been established in 1928 as a private vocational school which provided elementary schooling for underprivileged boys and operated under the Christian religious principle, "education coupled with the Kingdom of God", its founder Charles B. Voorhis and headmaster Jerry Voorhis maintained the school opened throughout the worst years of the Great Depression but persistent economic pressures forced them to transfer control to Cal Poly San Luis Obispo in 1938.
Hence, Voorhis School became the Cal Poly-Voorhis Unit and its educational offerings were raised to the same level as Cal Poly San Luis Obispo's a two-year college. The horticulture program was moved to the new satellite campus and the two units operated as one institution spanning two locations under the leadership of president Julian McPhee. During World War II most of the student body was called to active military duty, enrollment declined and the campus closed in 1943. Reopening after the war, Cal Poly-Voorhis Unit operated in San Dimas until 1956 when it moved to Will Keith Kellogg’s former horse ranch in the neighboring city of Pomona, California. Acknowledging its Kellogg legacy, Cal Poly-Voorhis Unit changed its name to Cal Poly Kellogg-Voorhis Unit and offered six programs in agriculture; the inaugural class of 1957 at the new campus consisted of 57 students graduating with bachelor’s degrees in a ceremony held at the Rose Garden in Pomona and religious services at Voorhis Chapel in San Dimas.
In 1957, Cal Poly Kellogg-Voorhis introduced the College of Engineering, the second academic unit after the College of Agriculture. The California Master Plan for Higher Education added the two Cal Poly campuses to the new California State College system in 1961 and Cal Poly Kellogg-Voorhis Unit opened its doors for the first time to 329 female students. President McPhee retired in 1966, Cal Poly split into two different and independent universities; the partnership between the two campuses remains with their involvement in the annual Cal Poly Universities Rose Float. To better reflect its new ties to the California State College system, Cal Poly Kellogg-Voorhis changed its name to “California State Polytechnic College, Kellogg-Voorhis” in 1966 and became the 16th campus to join the CSC system. Robert C. Kramer assumed presidency of the independent campus in 1966 and California State Polytechnic College, Kellogg-Voorhis adopted its present-day name California State Polytechnic University, Pomona on June 1, 1972.
In 1998, Cal Poly Pomona received criticism when it planned to grant an honorary degree to Robert Mugabe. Mugabe's negative humanitarian record as president of Zimbabwe lead to protests from staff and students forcing the university to rescind the award. Cal Poly Pomona underwent further growth in the late 20th and early 21st centuries, with the construction of the CLA Building, academic facilities, expansion to the Cal Poly Pomona University Library and the addition of programs such as the Lyle Center for Regenerative Studies, the I-Poly High School and the U. R. Bronco undergraduate research program. Under then-president J. Michael Ortiz, Cal Poly Pomona launched its first comprehensive capital campaign in fall of 2008 to increase its permanent endowment; the negative economic effects caused by the late-2000s recession has increased student fees, reduced enrollment availability, eliminated two athletic programs and introduced a mandatory furlough calendar for most of its 47,000 employees. The campus' office of public affairs recognizes two official names for the university: "California State Polytechnic University, Pomona" and "Cal Poly Pomona".
However, "Cal Poly" has been used to refer to Cal Poly at Pomona, as both its
Sylmar, Los Angeles
Sylmar is a neighborhood in the San Fernando Valley region of Los Angeles, California. Known for its profusion of olive orchards, Sylmar can trace its past to the 18th century and the founding of the San Fernando Mission. In 1890 olive production was begun in a systematic manner; the Sylmar climate was considered healthy, so a sanitarium was established, the first in a series of hospitals in the neighborhood. There are fourteen public and eight private schools within Sylmar; the population of the Sylmar area was 3,500 in 1940, 10,000 in 1950, 31,000 in 1962, 40,000 in 1972, 41,922 in 1980 and 53,392 in 1986. By 2000, a "wave of immigrants and working poor" had enveloped Sylmar, Pacoima and Sun Valley, resulting in a housing shortage for lower-income people; the 2000 U. S. census counted 69,499 residents in the 12.46-square-mile Sylmar neighborhood—or 5,579 people per square mile, among the lowest population densities for the city. In 2008, the city estimated that the population had increased to 79,614.
In 2009, the Sylmar Chamber of Commerce estimated that the population was 90,000 residents. In 1980 Sylmar was predominantly white, 36 % Latino. Twenty years in 2000, the neighborhood was considered "moderately diverse" ethnically within Los Angeles, with a high percentage of Latinos; the breakdown in 2000 was Latinos, 69.8%. Mexico and El Salvador were the most common places of birth for the 36.7% of the residents who were born abroad—an average figure for Los Angeles. In 2000 the median age for residents was 28, considered young for county neighborhoods. In 2000, renters occupied 29.2% of the housing stock, house- or apartment-owners held 70.8%. The average household size of 3.6 people was considered high for Los Angeles. The percentage of married women was among the county's highest. There were 3,607 veterans, or 7.7% of the population, average for the city of Los Angeles and the county. A study by four graduate students from the University of Southern California in 2005 stated that: Sylmar in the 1970s and 1980s was a rural, predominantly white, non-Hispanic community, whose residents focused on creating a place centered around equestrian activities.
Today, the dramatic influx of residents has serious consequences for a community that has too little housing stock, too few employment opportunities, overburdened public facilities and decaying public infrastructure systems. The median yearly household income in 2008 dollars was $65,783, considered average for the city. San Fernando became a city in 1874, leading to the naming of the unincorporated land surrounding San Fernando as Morningside. In 1893 the area was named a fusion of the Latin words for Sea of Trees. Around 2000, some local residents proposed a plan to rename the northwest portion of the district as Rancho Cascades; the name change was approved in 2018. Sylmar has been nicknamed "The Top of Los Angeles." The foothills of the San Gabriel Mountains at the north slope of the San Fernando Valley were seen as "an unattractive and worthless waste" before 2,000 acres of them were transformed in the late 1890s by the Los Angeles Olive Growers Association. One observer recalled that the land had been "a mass of ill-looking chapparal and chemisal" before it was planted with olives.
In 1893, a group of Illinois businessmen purchased from the trustees of the Maclay ranch either 1,000 or 2,000 acres east of the railroad tracks on San Fernando Road just south of Roxford Street and in 1894 began planting olives trees on up to 1,700 acres. Experts were brought from France to supervise the work. Calling themselves the Los Angeles Olive Growers Association, they built a packing plant and sold olives under the Tyler Olives label changing to the Sylmar Packing label. Sylmar's olives became noted throughout the state for purity. Chinese pickers were hired to harvest the crops, up to 800 U. S. gallons of olive oil a day were produced. The pickling plant was located on the corner of San Fernando Road. By March 1898 about 200,000 trees had been planted, by 1906 the property had become the largest olive grove in the world. One source stated in 1981 that it was the "Fusano family" who built a headquarters building for the olive association on Roxford and San Fernando in 1902 and that the first packing plant was built in 1909.
The trees began bearing fruit in 1912. The first groves were planted with Nevadillo Blanco and Manzanillo olives; some Sevillano and Ascolano varieties were planted for extra-large fruit. During the picking season in the early 1900s, an extra force of 300 Japanese was employed and housed in a village of tents. In 1927 the packing plant, built in 1910, employed some five hundred workers during its busiest season, November through January; the oil was pressed from the fruit, allowed to separate from the fruit's water content drawn into 12,000-gallon concrete tanks lined with glass and set deep into the ground to avoid a change in temperature. Over time, the plant expanded its activities, bringing in figs and watermelon rind from the San Joaquin Valley for processing. In 1904 the Sylmar brand olive oil won first place at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, St, Missouri, in 1906 at the Lewis and Clark Centennial Exposition, Oregon, in 1915 at the Panama–Pacific International Exposition in San Francisco.
In 1922, the controlling interest in the Los Angeles Olive Growers' Association, held by the estate of F. D. Butterfield, was bought by Charle
University of California
The University of California is a public university system in the U. S. state of California. Under the California Master Plan for Higher Education, the University of California is a part of the state's three-system public higher education plan, which includes the California State University system and the California Community Colleges System; the University of California was founded on March 23, 1868, operated temporarily in Oakland before moving to its new campus in Berkeley in 1873. In March 1951, the University of California began to reorganize itself into something distinct from its first campus at Berkeley, with Robert Gordon Sproul remaining in place as the first systemwide President and Clark Kerr becoming the first Chancellor of UC Berkeley. However, the 1951 reorganization was stalled by resistance from Sproul and his allies, it was not until Kerr succeeded Sproul as President that UC was able to evolve into a true university system from 1957 to 1960. In the 21st century, the University of California has 10 campuses, a combined student body of 251,700 students, 21,200 faculty members, 144,000 staff members and over 1.86 million living alumni, as governed by a semi-autonomous Board of Regents.
Its tenth and newest campus in Merced opened in fall 2005. Nine campuses enroll graduate students. In addition, the UC Hastings College of Law, located in San Francisco, is affiliated with UC, but other than sharing its name is autonomous from the rest of the system; the University of California manages or co-manages three national laboratories for the U. S. Department of Energy: Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory. Collectively, the colleges and alumni of the University of California make it the most comprehensive and advanced postsecondary educational system in the world, responsible for nearly $50 billion per year of economic impact. UC campuses have large numbers of distinguished faculty in every academic discipline, with UC faculty and researchers having won at least 62 Nobel Prizes as of 2017. In 1849, the state of California ratified its first constitution, which contained the express objective of creating a complete educational system including a state university.
Taking advantage of the Morrill Land-Grant Acts, the California Legislature established an Agricultural and Mechanical Arts College in 1866. However, it existed only as a placeholder to secure federal land-grant funds. Meanwhile, Congregational minister Henry Durant, an alumnus of Yale, had established the private Contra Costa Academy, on June 20, 1853, in Oakland, California; the initial site was bounded by Twelfth and Fourteenth Streets and Harrison and Franklin Streets in downtown Oakland. In turn, the Academy's trustees were granted a charter in 1855 for a College of California, though the College continued to operate as a college preparatory school until it added college-level courses in 1860; the College's trustees and supporters believed in the importance of a liberal arts education, but ran into a lack of interest in liberal arts colleges on the American frontier. In November 1857, the College's trustees began to acquire various parcels of land facing the Golden Gate in what is now Berkeley for a future planned campus outside of Oakland.
But first, they needed to secure the College's water rights by buying a large farm to the east. In 1864, they organized the College Homestead Association, which borrowed $35,000 to purchase the land, plus another $33,000 to purchase 160 acres of land to the south of the future campus; the Association subdivided the latter parcel and started selling lots with the hope it could raise enough money to repay its lenders and create a new college town. But sales of new homesteads fell short. Governor Frederick Low favored the establishment of a state university based upon the University of Michigan plan, thus in one sense may be regarded as the founder of the University of California. At the College of California's 1867 commencement exercises, where Low was present, Benjamin Silliman, Jr. criticized Californians for creating a state polytechnic school instead of a real university. That same day, Low first suggested a merger of the already-functional College of California with the nonfunctional state college, went on to participate in the ensuing negotiations.
On October 9, 1867, the College's trustees reluctantly agreed to join forces with the state college to their mutual advantage, but under one condition—that there not be an "Agricultural and Mechanical Arts College", but a complete university, within which the assets of the College of California would be used to create a College of Letters. Accordingly, the Organic Act, establishing the University of California, was introduced as a bill by Assemblyman John W. Dwinelle on March 5, 1868, after it was duly passed by both houses of the state legislature, it was signed into state law by Governor Henry H. Haight on March 23, 1868. However, as constituted, the new University was not an actual merger of the two colleges, but was an new institution which inherited certain objectives and assets from each of them; the University
The AFI Conservatory is a private not-for-profit graduate film school in the Hollywood Hills district of Los Angeles. Students learn from the masters in a collaborative, hands-on production environment with an emphasis on storytelling; the Conservatory is a program of the American Film Institute founded in 1969. The Center for Advanced Film Studies opened its doors at Greystone Mansion on September 23, 1969. Harold Lloyd screened his film The Freshman and spoke with AFI Fellows on the school's first day; the first class included Caleb Deschanel and Paul Schrader. In 1975, filmmaker Ján Kadár, director of the Oscar-winning film The Shop on Main Street, became the Conservatory's first filmmaker-in-residence. In 2013, Emmy and Oscar-winning director and screenwriter James L. Brooks joined the AFI Conservatory as Artistic Director, where he provides leadership for the film program. Brooks' artistic role at the AFI Conservatory has a rich legacy that includes Daniel Petrie, Jr. Robert Wise and Frank Pierson.
Award-winning director Robert Mandel served as Dean of the AFI Conservatory for nine years. Jan Schuette took over as Dean in 2014 and served until 2017. Film Producer Richard Gladstein became Dean in May 2017. Michael Chung & Tom Engfer became Co-Interim Deans in November 2018. Among those AFI has bestowed Honorary Degrees upon during its annual Commencement ceremony are Maya Angelou, John Williams, Ken Burns, Sherry Lansing, Sydney Pollack, Clint Eastwood, Jeffrey Katzenberg, Kathleen Kennedy, Spike Lee, Rita Moreno and Quentin Tarantino. Thirteen AFI Conservatory thesis films have been nominated for Academy Awards. In 2011, The Hollywood Reporter ranked it the #1 film school in the world, it is ranked in the top five graduate film programs along with USC, UCLA, NYU and California Institute of the Arts by the Princeton Review and US News and World Report AFI Conservatory is a five-term Master of Fine Arts program in six disciplines: Cinematography, Editing, Production Design, Screenwriting.
Traditionally, the Conservatory accepts 28 Fellows per year for most disciplines and 14 for the Production Design and Editing disciplines. Each discipline's program runs two years in length. First Year - Fellows from all disciplines work on at least three digital video or high definition short films, referred to as'cycle projects'; each of these first-year projects are accomplished by Fellows with a minimum of oversight from the senior faculty. The purported goal being to stimulate a flexible and creative approach to filmmaking within imposed budgetary constraints and without the crutch of seasoned oversight. These'cycle projects' make up the core curriculum of the first year experience and amount to a'boot camp" of filmmaking that challenges and invigorates the Fellows involved. Second Year - Most Fellows work on at least one thesis short film, shot on digital video, high definition, 35mm film, or 16mm film, develop portfolio materials. Screenwriting Fellows have the option of writing two feature-length screenplays instead of participating in a thesis film.
They are responsible for raising the bulk of their own financing for these projects, must adhere to standard industry regulations, such as SAG charter rules, during filming. The senior faculty of the conservatory oversee the development of the'second year' projects and monitor their development in a manner similar to what might be expected of an Executive Producer. Cinematography - Encompassing training from pre-visualization to advanced image manipulation and control, Cinematography Fellows develop their storytelling skills using formats ranging from digital video to 16mm and 35mm film cameras to the most cutting-edge cameras on the market. Directing - With a focus on narrative filmmaking, Directing Fellows learn diverse directing styles and strategies as they gain a thorough understanding of the production process, script to screen. Editing - Editing Fellows master the skills to be editors, assistant editors and post-production producers while learning the technical and collaborative aspects of post-production with a primary focus on storytelling.
Producing - Producing Fellows study all aspects of creative, entrepreneurial production while developing and producing a minimum of three short films in their first year and a thesis film in their second year. Production Design - Attracting artists from architecture, interior design, theater design and other related fields, the Production Design curriculum focuses on the creative process of visually and physically developing cinematic environments. Screenwriting - Screenwriting Fellows conceive and write multiple projects in features, short films and short-form TV drama and comedy as well as webisodes and other Internet innovations. Fellows learn to collaborate with Directing and Producing classmates to bring their stories to the screen; the AFI Conservatory has an esteemed faculty of working professionals including Todd Cherniawsky, Stan Chervin, Destin Daniel Cretton, (director, Short Term 12, David Cook, Joe Garrity, Michael Jablow, Susan Littenberg, Stephen Lighthill, Elvis Mitchell, Michele Mulroney, Martin Nicholson, Lauren Polizzi, Louis Provost, Patricia Riggen, Russell Sc
Los Angeles the City of Los Angeles and known by its initials L. A. is the most populous city in California, the second most populous city in the United States, after New York City, the third most populous city in North America. With an estimated population of four million, Los Angeles is the cultural and commercial center of Southern California; the city is known for its Mediterranean climate, ethnic diversity and the entertainment industry, its sprawling metropolis. Los Angeles is the largest city on the West Coast of North America. Los Angeles is in a large basin bounded by the Pacific Ocean on one side and by mountains as high as 10,000 feet on the other; the city proper, which covers about 469 square miles, is the seat of Los Angeles County, the most populated county in the country. Los Angeles is the principal city of the Los Angeles metropolitan area, the second largest in the United States after that of New York City, with a population of 13.1 million. It is part of the Los Angeles-Long Beach combined statistical area the nation's second most populous area with a 2015 estimated population of 18.7 million.
Los Angeles is one of the most substantial economic engines within the United States, with a diverse economy in a broad range of professional and cultural fields. Los Angeles is famous as the home of Hollywood, a major center of the world entertainment industry. A global city, it has been ranked 6th in the Global Cities Index and 9th in the Global Economic Power Index; the Los Angeles metropolitan area has a gross metropolitan product of $1.044 trillion, making it the third-largest in the world, after the Tokyo and New York metropolitan areas. Los Angeles hosted the 1932 and 1984 Summer Olympics and will host the event for a third time in 2028; the city hosted the Miss Universe pageant twice, in 1990 and 2006, was one of 9 American cities to host the 1994 FIFA men's soccer World Cup and one of 8 to host the 1999 FIFA women's soccer World Cup, hosting the final match for both tournaments. Home to the Chumash and Tongva, Los Angeles was claimed by Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo for Spain in 1542 along with the rest of what would become Alta California.
The city was founded on September 4, 1781, by Spanish governor Felipe de Neve. It became a part of Mexico in 1821 following the Mexican War of Independence. In 1848, at the end of the Mexican–American War, Los Angeles and the rest of California were purchased as part of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, becoming part of the United States. Los Angeles was incorporated as a municipality on April 4, 1850, five months before California achieved statehood; the discovery of oil in the 1890s brought rapid growth to the city. The completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, delivering water from Eastern California assured the city's continued rapid growth; the Los Angeles coastal area was settled by the Chumash tribes. A Gabrieleño settlement in the area was called iyáangẚ, meaning "poison oak place". Maritime explorer Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo claimed the area of southern California for the Spanish Empire in 1542 while on an official military exploring expedition moving north along the Pacific coast from earlier colonizing bases of New Spain in Central and South America.
Gaspar de Portolà and Franciscan missionary Juan Crespí, reached the present site of Los Angeles on August 2, 1769. In 1771, Franciscan friar Junípero Serra directed the building of the Mission San Gabriel Arcángel, the first mission in the area. On September 4, 1781, a group of forty-four settlers known as "Los Pobladores" founded the pueblo they called El Pueblo de Nuestra Señora la Reina de los Ángeles,'The Town of Our Lady the Queen of the Angels'; the present-day city has the largest Roman Catholic Archdiocese in the United States. Two-thirds of the Mexican or settlers were mestizo or mulatto, a mixture of African and European ancestry; the settlement remained a small ranch town for decades, but by 1820, the population had increased to about 650 residents. Today, the pueblo is commemorated in the historic district of Los Angeles Pueblo Plaza and Olvera Street, the oldest part of Los Angeles. New Spain achieved its independence from the Spanish Empire in 1821, the pueblo continued as a part of Mexico.
During Mexican rule, Governor Pío Pico made Los Angeles Alta California's regional capital. Mexican rule ended during the Mexican–American War: Americans took control from the Californios after a series of battles, culminating with the signing of the Treaty of Cahuenga on January 13, 1847. Railroads arrived with the completion of the transcontinental Southern Pacific line to Los Angeles in 1876 and the Santa Fe Railroad in 1885. Petroleum was discovered in the city and surrounding area in 1892, by 1923, the discoveries had helped California become the country's largest oil producer, accounting for about one-quarter of the world's petroleum output. By 1900, the population had grown to more than 102,000; the completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, under the supervision of William Mulholland, assured the continued growth of the city. Due to clauses in the city's charter that prevented the City of Los Angeles from selling or providing water from the aqueduct to any area outside its borders, many adjacent city and communities became compelled to annex themselves into Los Angeles.
Los Angeles created the first municipal zoning ordinance in the United States. On September 14, 1908, the Los Angeles City Council promulgated residential and industrial land use zones; the new ordinance established three residential zones of a single type, where industrial uses were