Antelope Valley is located in northern Los Angeles County and the southeast portion of Kern County and constitutes the western tip of the Mojave Desert. It is situated between the San Gabriel Mountains; the valley was named for the pronghorns that roamed there until they were all but eliminated in the 1880s by hunting, or resettled in other areas. The principal cities in the Antelope Valley are Lancaster; the Antelope Valley comprises the western tip of the Mojave Desert, opening up to the Victor Valley and the Great Basin to the east. Lying north of the San Gabriel Mountains and southeast of the Tehachapis, this desert ecosystem spans 2,200 square miles. Precipitation in the surrounding mountain ranges contributes to groundwater recharge; the Antelope Valley is home to a wide range of animals. This includes hundreds of plants such as the California Juniper, Joshua tree, California Scrub Oak and wildflowers, notably the California poppy. Winter brings much-needed rain which penetrates the area's dry ground, bringing up native grasses and wildflowers.
Poppy season depends on the precipitation, but a good bloom can be killed off by the unusual weather in the late winter and early spring months. The Antelope Valley gets its name from its history of pronghorn grazing in large numbers. In 1882-85, the valley lost 30,000 head of antelope half of the species for which it was named. Unusually heavy snows in both the mountains and the valley floor drove the antelope toward their normal feeding grounds in the eastern part of the valley. Since they would not cross the railroad tracks, many of them starved to death; the remainder of these pronghorn were hunted for their fur by settlers. Once abundant, they migrated into the Central Valley. A drought in the early 1900s caused a scarcity in their main food source. Now the sighting of a pronghorn is rare, although there are still a small number in the western portion of the valley. Human water use in the Antelope Valley depends on pumping of groundwater from the valley's aquifers and on importing additional water from the California Aqueduct.
Long-term groundwater pumping has lowered the water table, thereby increasing pumping lifts, reducing well efficiency, causing land subsidence. While aqueducts supply additional water that meets increasing human demand for agricultural and domestic uses, diversion of water from the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta in northern California has caused and causes adverse environmental and social effects in the delta: "Over decades, competing uses for water supply and habitat have jeopardized the Delta’s ability to meet either need. All stakeholders agree the estuary is in trouble and requires long-term solutions to ensure reliable, quality water supplies and a healthy ecosystem." The Antelope Valley's population growth and development place considerable stress on the local and regional water systems. According to David Leighton of the United States Geological Survey: "A deliberate management effort will be required to meet future water demand in the Antelope Valley without incurring significant economic and environmental costs associated with overuse of the ground-water resource."
The first peoples of the Antelope Valley include the Kawaiisu, Kitanemuk and Tataviam. Europeans first entered during the colonization of North America. Father Francisco Garces, a Spanish Franciscan friar, is believed to have traveled the west end of the valley in 1776; the Spanish established El Camino Viejo through the western part of the valley between Los Angeles and the missions of the San Francisco Bay in the 1780s. By 1808, the Spanish had moved the native people out into missions. Jedediah Smith came through in 1827, John C. Fremont made a scientific observation of the valley in 1844. After Fremont's visit the 49ers crossed the valley via the Old Tejon Pass into the San Joaquin Valley on their way to the gold fields. A better wagon road, the Stockton – Los Angeles Road route to Tejon Pass, followed in 1854. Stagecoach lines across the southern foothills came through the valley along this wagon road, were the preferred method for travelers before the coming of the Southern Pacific Railroad in 1876.
The rail service linking the valley to the Central Valley and Los Angeles started its first large influx of white settlers, farms and towns soon sprouted on the valley floor. The aircraft industry took hold in the valley at Plant 42 in 1952. Edwards AFB called Muroc Army Air Field, was established in 1933. In recent decades the valley has become a bedroom community to the Greater Los Angeles area. Major housing tract development and population growth took off beginning in 1983, which has increased the population of Palmdale around 12 times its former size as of 2006. Neighboring Lancaster has increased its population since the early 1980s to around three times its former level. Major retail has followed the population influx, centered on Palmdale's Antelope Valley Mall; the Antelope Valley is home to over 475,000 people. Non-Hispanic whites make up 48% of the population of the Antelope Valley and form a majority or plurality in most of its cities and towns. Hispanics are the next largest group, followed by Asian Americans.
Some long-term residents living far out in the desert have been cited by Los Angeles County's nuisance abatement teams for code violations, forcing residents to either make improvements or move. One of the properties is a church building, used as a filming location for Kill Bill; the code enforcers have arrived on some of their visits in SWAT team formats. Edwards Air Force Base lie
Terminals of Los Angeles International Airport
Los Angeles International Airport has nine passenger terminals with a total of 128 gates arranged in the shape of the letter U or a horseshoe. Passengers may move between terminals via a shuttle bus, or through various inter-terminal pedestrian connections. In addition to these terminals, there are 2,000,000 square feet of cargo facilities at LAX, a heliport operated by Bravo Aviation. Qantas has a maintenance facility at LAX though it is not a hub; the Tom Bradley International Terminal and Terminals 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 are all connected airside via an overground passage between Terminal 4 and the Tom Bradley International Terminal, an underground tunnel between Terminals 4, 5 and 6 and above-ground walkways between Terminals 6, 7, 8. An additional airside shuttle bus operates between Terminals 4, 5, the American Eagle remote terminal. There are no physical airside connections between any of the other terminals. Inter-terminal connections between terminals 1, 2, 3, between them and the other terminals, require passengers to exit security walk or use a shuttle-bus to get to the other terminal re-clear security.
Terminals 4-8, which comprise the south terminal complex, provide airside connections, which allow connecting passengers to access other terminals without having to re-clear security. The following airside connections are possible: Terminals TBIT, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 have an airside connection. Terminals 4, 5, 6 are connected via an airside underground walkway. At Terminal 6 passengers can transfer from the above ground terminal walkway to the underground walkway to access Terminals 4, 5, 6. Terminals 6, 7, 8 are all connected airside via walking corridors at the same level as the terminal, allowing passengers a seamless connection. Beginning February 25, 2016, an additional airside corridor became available from Terminal 4 to the Tom Bradley International Terminal; this connector allowed airside connections from Terminals 8, 7, 6, 5, 4 to the Tom Bradley International Terminal. An additional security checkpoint will be available in this connector to allow passengers to enter Terminal 4 after arriving on an international arrival in the Tom Bradley Terminal, avoiding the main Terminal 4 security screening area and allowing easier connections to Terminal 5, 6, 7, 8.
As part of the Landside Access Modernization Program, Los Angeles World Airports is planning to construct LAX Train, an automated people mover which consists of 2.25 miles of elevated guideway and six stations. Headways are expected to be as low as 2 minutes between trains. Construction of LAX Train is scheduled to start in the third quarter of 2017, is anticipated to be completed by 2023; the three westernmost stations will be centrally located near the parking structures, connect to their respective terminals via pedestrian bridges: West Station, serving Terminals 3, 4, the Tom Bradley International Terminal Center Station, serving Terminals 2, 5, 6 East Station, serving Terminals 1, 7, 8East of East Station, LAX Train will continue on to: Intermodal Transportation Facility West Station, allowing access to LAX Train for private vehicles and commercial shuttles, bus transit. Metro/ITF East Station, connecting to the Los Angeles Metro Rail at the Aviation/96th Street station, scheduled to open in 2021.
Consolidated Rent-A-Car Station, the eastern terminus at a new consolidated rental car facility. Terminal 1 has 13 gates: Gates 9, 10, 11A-11B, 12A-12B, 13-15, 16, 17A-17B, 18A-18B, houses Southwest Airlines. Terminal 1, with main tenant PSA, was built in 1984. Terminal 1 completed an extensive renovation financed by Southwest Airlines; this renovation was completed in late 2018 and provides updates to the security screening area, curbside dropoff, terminal areas and baggage handling. Former tenants of the terminal include AirTran Airways, America West Airlines, US Airways. Terminal 2 has 12 gates: Gates 21–21B, 22–22A, 23-23A, 24–24A, 25–28 and is used by Delta Air Lines, it hosts several foreign carriers, including Aer Lingus, Aeroméxico, Virgin Atlantic, WestJet. Virgin Australia and Volaris use Terminal 2 for check-in of passengers. Terminal 2 was built in 1962, was the original international terminal, it was torn down and rebuilt in stages between 1984 and 1988 at a cost of 94 million dollars.
The rebuilt terminal was designed by Leo A Daly. Terminal 2 has CBP facilities to process arriving international passengers but arriving WestJet and Aer Lingus passengers use the same arrival facilities as domestic passengers since they have cleared CBP inspections at their departure airports. Former tenants of the terminal include Pan American World Airways. Terminal 3 has 12 gates: Gates 30, 31A–31B, 32, 33A–33B, 34–36, 37A–37B, 38 and is used by Delta Air Lines. Terminal 3 was Trans World Airlines' terminal; the terminal was expanded in 1970 to accommodate widebody operations and between 1980 and 1987, which included a new passenger connector building and baggage system connected to the original satellite. It housed some American Airlines flights after that airline acquired Reno Air and TWA in 1999 and 2001, respectively. All American flights were moved to Terminal 4; as of May 2017, Copa Airlines and Interjet use Terminal 3 for check-in of passengers. Terminal 4 has 16 gates: Gates 40–41, 42A–42B, 43-45, 46A–4
The Great Recession was a period of general economic decline observed in world markets during the late 2000s and early 2010s. The scale and timing of the recession varied from country to country; the International Monetary Fund concluded that the overall impact was the most severe since the Great Depression of the 1930s. The Great Recession stemmed from the collapse of the United States real-estate market in relation to the global financial crisis of 2007 to 2008 and the U. S. subprime mortgage crisis of 2007 to 2009. According to the nonprofit National Bureau of Economic Research, the recession in the U. S. ended in June 2009, thus extending over 19 months. The Great Recession resulted in a scarcity of valuable assets in the market economy and the collapse of the financial sector in the world economy. S. federal government. The recession was not felt around the world. Two senses of the word "recession" exist: one sense referring broadly to "a period of reduced economic activity" and ongoing hardship.
Under the academic definition, the recession ended in the United States in June or July 2009. Robert Kuttner argues, “’The Great Recession,’ is a misnomer. We should stop using it. Recessions are mild dips in the business cycle that are either self-correcting or soon cured by modest fiscal or monetary stimulus; because of the continuing deflationary trap, it would be more accurate to call this decade's stagnant economy The Lesser Depression or The Great Deflation." The Great Recession met the IMF criteria for being a global recession only in the single calendar year 2009. That IMF definition requires a decline in annual real world GDP per‑capita. Despite the fact that quarterly data are being used as recession definition criteria by all G20 members, representing 85% of the world GDP, the International Monetary Fund has decided—in the absence of a complete data set—not to declare/measure global recessions according to quarterly GDP data; the seasonally adjusted PPP‑weighted real GDP for the G20‑zone, however, is a good indicator for the world GDP, it was measured to have suffered a direct quarter on quarter decline during the three quarters from Q3‑2008 until Q1‑2009, which more mark when the recession took place at the global level.
According to the U. S. National Bureau of Economic Research the recession began in December 2007 and ended in June 2009, thus extended over eighteen months; the years leading up to the crisis were characterized by an exorbitant rise in asset prices and associated boom in economic demand. Further, the U. S. shadow banking system had grown to rival the depository system yet was not subject to the same regulatory oversight, making it vulnerable to a bank run. US mortgage-backed securities, which had risks that were hard to assess, were marketed around the world, as they offered higher yields than U. S. government bonds. Many of these securities were backed by subprime mortgages, which collapsed in value when the U. S. housing bubble burst during 2006 and homeowners began to default on their mortgage payments in large numbers starting in 2007. The emergence of sub-prime loan losses in 2007 began the crisis and exposed other risky loans and over-inflated asset prices. With loan losses mounting and the fall of Lehman Brothers on September 15, 2008, a major panic broke out on the inter-bank loan market.
There was the equivalent of a bank run on the shadow banking system, resulting in many large and well established investment and commercial banks in the United States and Europe suffering huge losses and facing bankruptcy, resulting in massive public financial assistance. The global recession that followed resulted in a sharp drop in international trade, rising unemployment and slumping commodity prices. Several economists predicted that recovery might not appear until 2011 and that the recession would be the worst since the Great Depression of the 1930s. Economist Paul Krugman once commented on this as the beginning of "a second Great Depression". Governments and central banks responded with fiscal and monetary policies to stimulate national economies and reduce financial system risks; the recession has renewed interest in Keynesian economic ideas on how to combat recessionary conditions. Economists advise that the stimulus should be withdrawn as soon as the economies recover enough to "chart a path to sustainable growth".
The distribution of household incomes in the United States has become more unequal during the post-2008 economic recovery. Income inequality in the United States has grown from 2005 to 2012 in more than 2 out of 3 metropolitan areas. Median household wealth fell 35% in the US, from $106,591 to $68,839 between 2005 and 2011; the majority report provided by U. S. Financial Crisis Inquiry Commission, composed of six Democratic and four Republican appointees, reported its findings in January 2011, it concluded that "the crisis was avoidable and was caused by: Widespread failures in financial regulation, including the Federal Reserve's failure to stem the tide of toxic mortgages.
Ontario International Airport
Ontario International Airport is a public airport two miles east of downtown Ontario, in San Bernardino County, about 38 miles east of Downtown Los Angeles and 23 miles west of Downtown San Bernardino. It is owned and operated under a joint powers agreement with the city of Ontario and San Bernardino County; the year 2007 saw the peak in passenger traffic with 7.2 million passengers. In 2015, 4.2 million passengers used the airport higher than in 2014 with 4.1 million passengers. Most the airport handled 5.1 million passengers, breaking the 5 million mark for the first time since 2008. In 2015 Southwest Airlines carried 59% of departing passengers. In 1923 a landing field was established east of Central Avenue on land leased from the Union Pacific Railroad; the airfield was named Latimer Field after an orange-packing company next to the airstrip. An airport was built there by one of the first flying clubs in southern California, the Friends of Ontario Airport. In 1929, the city of Ontario purchased 30 acres, now in the southwest corner of the airport, for $12,000, established the Ontario Municipal Airport.
In 1941 the city bought 470 acres around the airport and approved construction of new runways, which were completed by 1942, with funds from the Works Progress Administration. The 6,200-foot east/west runway and the 4,700-foot northeast/southwest runway cost $350,000. On 27 February 1942, an Army Air Corps plane made the first landing at the new airport. By 1943, the airport was an Army Air Corps Lockheed P-38 Lightning training base and North American P-51 Mustang operating base. After the war the Reconstruction Finance Corporation established five large storage and scrapping centers for Army Air Forces aircraft; these were located at: Albuquerque AAF, New Mexico, Altus AAF, Kingman AAF, Ontario AAF and Walnut Ridge AAF, Arkansas. A sixth facility for storing and scrapping Navy and Marine aircraft was located at Clinton, Oklahoma. In 1946 Ontario Municipal Airport was renamed "Ontario International Airport" because of the transpacific cargo flights originating there. On 17 May 1946, two Army surplus steel hangars arrived at the airport, which the Ontario city council had authorized the $50,000 purchase of just the previous week.
City officials were pleased to have secured a bargain. Thought to be the only pair available in the U. S. City Manager Harold J. Martin observed that if they could be acquired at a date, the cost would be several times that afforded by prompt action. A Pacific Overseas Airlines flight from Shanghai arrived at Ontario on 18 May 1946, "which inaugurated regular round-trip air passenger air service between the United States and the orient." In 1949 Western Airlines began scheduled flights. Western and Bonanza nonstops did not reach beyond Las Vegas. In 1962 Western began nonstop flights to San Francisco. In 1967 Bonanza began nonstop F27 flights to Phoenix. Ontario and Los Angeles entered into a joint powers agreement, making Ontario International Airport part of the Los Angeles regional airports system. In 1968 the airport saw its first scheduled jet flights. In 1969 Continental Airlines started 720B nonstops to Chicago. In 1970 United Airlines started a nonstop to American started flights to Dallas.
In September 1986, Ontario hosted the Concorde supersonic airliner during a promotional round-the-world flight. In 1981 a second east–west runway, 26L/8R, was built, necessitating the removal of the old NE-SW runway 4/22. Remnants of the 4/22 runway are visible in the present-day taxiways. With the completion of the new runway, the existing runway 25/7 became 26R/8L. In 1985, the city of Los Angeles acquired Ontario International Airport outright from the city of Ontario. In 1987, Runway 26R/8L was extended to the east to bring the two runway thresholds side by side, so aircraft would be higher over neighborhoods. 26R/8L became 26L/8R the main arrival runway. For a number of years, the airport operated alongside Ontario Air National Guard Station, closed as a result of the 1995 Base Realignment and Closure Commission. In 1998 the new and larger airport terminal opened. Two older terminals, west of the current terminal, the main terminal and a small terminal were discontinued when the new Terminal 2 and Terminal 4 facilities were opened.
The old terminals house the administration and the USO. In 2005 and 2006, Runway 26R/8L was repaved and received storm drains and better runway lighting, additional improvements to taxiway intersections were made. In 2006, Ontario International Airport became "LA/Ontario International Airport." The "LA" portion was added to remind fliers of Los Angeles and to avoid confusion with the province of Ontario in Canada. The airport's traffic peaked in 2005 with 7.2 million passengers, remained steady through 2007. Around the time of the 2008 financial crisis, JetBlue suspended service to ONT, major legacy carriers decreased their passenger volume at the airport. Southwest Airlines transferred a significant portion of its Ontario capacity to Los Angeles International Airport, making LAX fares more competitive with ONT while being coupled with more attractive frequencies and a wider range of destinations; the surrounding Inland Empire region was hit hard by the financial crisis, with the nearby city of San Bernardi
Van Nuys Airport
For the United States Air Force use of the airport, see Van Nuys Air National Guard BaseVan Nuys Airport is a public airport in Van Nuys in the San Fernando Valley section of the City of Los Angeles, California. No major airlines fly into this airport, owned and operated by Los Angeles World Airports. Van Nuys Airport is one of the busiest general aviation airports in the world. With two parallel runways, Van Nuys Airport averages over 230,000 landings annually; the airport is home to the Van Nuys FlyAway Bus service, which runs nonstop buses to Los Angeles International Airport for travelers who park their cars at Van Nuys. Many news, medical transport, tour helicopters from the Los Angeles area are based at Van Nuys Airport; the Los Angeles City Fire Department operates its Air Operations Unit at Van Nuys Airport. The City of Los Angeles has its maintenance hub at the airport, used for staging and maintaining LAPD and LADWP helicopters. Van Nuys Airport covers 725 acres and has two runways: 16R/34L: 8,001 ft × 150 ft Asphalt 16L/34R: 4,013 ft × 75 ft Asphalt In 2001 a KTTV news helicopter "Sky Fox 2", a secondary helicopter, owned by KTLA, crashed at Van Nuys airport after experiencing problems while covering the Academy Awards.
A Cessna 525 Citation CJ1 twin-engine jet departing for Long Beach Airport crashed 0.5 miles north of the airport on January 12, 2007, killing two people on board. One was reported to be the owner of the company. On November 25, 2008, a Cessna 310 carrying 2 people experienced landing gear problems. After burning off fuel, it was able to land on the runway without incident, although its front gear collapsed upon landing. On January 9, 2015, a Lancair aircraft crashed after takeoff just south of the airport at the intersection of Vanowen Street and Hayvenhurst Avenue; the pilot, an experienced flight instructor and Jet Propulsion Laboratory robotics engineer, was killed. FBOs: Signature Flight Support Clay Lacy Aviation Castle and Cooke Aviation Jet Aviation Airport businesses Mather Aviation Thorton Aircraft Company HeliNet Van Nuys Airport has been the location of many film and music video shoots. Parts of the climatic scene of the 1942 film Casablanca were filmed at Van Nuys Airport, at the time known as Metropolitan Airport.
The dramatic ending of the 1950 film noir Armored Car Robbery takes place at what was Los Angeles Metropolitan Airport. Antagonist William Talman and his burlesque queen girlfriend Adele Jergens are attempting to escape by chartered airplane, are cornered by Detective Charles McGraw. Talman runs, is killed on the runway by a landing airplane. In 2005, One Six Right, a film documenting the history of Van Nuys Airport was released, it was named after the most favored runway at the airport. Many television shows have filmed at the airport, including an episode of the TV show Alias, several episodes of Season 5 of 24. A major part of the science fiction classic Silent Running was filmed at the Van Nuys Airport in March 1971; the Domes from the spacecraft that contained the last surviving forests were filmed there. The forest environments were intended to be filmed in the Mitchell Park Domes in Milwaukee, but the production budget forced the sequences to be shot in a newly completed aircraft hangar in Van Nuys.
The 1980s action-espionage series Airwolf used the Van Nuys Airport hangars as the site of "Santini Air", the charter air service company owned and operated by Ernest Borgnine's character in the series. In the last episode of Season 1 of the HBO series Entourage, the final scene takes place at Van Nuys Airport, where Vincent Chase and company take off for New York City, it was used in the fourth season when Kanye West offers the group a plane ride on a Marquis Jet to Cannes. In Season 5 episode 7, Chase and Ari Gold run into each other in a hangar as each are about to depart on separate flights to Geneva and Hawaii, respectively; the last episode of season 6, episode 12, is used as a location where Chase and his crew run into Matt Damon on the way to Italy for a film shoot. Britney Spears's music video for "Stronger" Metallica's music video for "The Memory Remains" Blink-182's music video for "All The Small Things" Kiss's music video for "God Gave Rock and Roll To You 2" This article incorporates public domain material from the Air Force Historical Research Agency website http://www.afhra.af.mil/.
FAA Airport Master Record for VNY Official website openNav: VNY / KVNY charts FAA Airport Diagram, effective March 28, 2019 Resources for this airport: AirNav airport information for KVNY ASN accident history for VNY FlightAware airport information and live flight tracker NOAA/NWS latest weather observations SkyVector aeronautical chart for KVNY FAA current VNY delay information Facebook: Van Nuys Airport Twitter: @VanNuysAirport
Westchester, Los Angeles
Westchester is a neighborhood in Los Angeles and the Westside Region of Los Angeles County, California. It is home to Los Angeles International Airport, Loyola Marymount University, Otis College of Art and Design, Westchester Enriched Sciences Magnet Schools; the main part of Westchester is flanked by Playa Vista and Culver City on the north and Lennox on the east, Hawthorne on the southeast, Del Aire and El Segundo on the south and Playa del Rey on the west. It includes all of the Los Angeles International Airport. There is a two-block-wide shoestring district that runs from the intersection of Centinela Avenue and La Cienega Boulevard north to 63rd Street and east to Overhill Avenue, where it links with the Hyde Park neighborhood; the main neighborhood's boundary lines are on the east: north-south on La Cienega Boulevard or the Inglewood city line. Westchester began the 20th century as an agricultural area, growing a wide variety of crops in the dry, farming-friendly climate; the rapid development of the aerospace industry near Mines Field, the move of Loyola University to the area in 1928, population growth in Los Angeles as a whole, created a demand for housing in the area.
Westchester hosted the cross country part of the eventing equestrian event for the 1932 Summer Olympics in Los Angeles. In the late 1930s, real estate magnate Fritz Burns and his partner Fred W. Marlow developed a tract of inexpensive prefabricated single-family homes on the site of a former hog farm at the intersection of Manchester and Sepulveda Boulevards; this community, dubbed "Westchester", grew by leaps and bounds as the aerospace industry boomed in World War II and afterward. A Los Angeles Times article in 1989 described the development as "a raw suburb", "created willy-nilly in the 1940s"; the area was predominantly residential. When the area had 30,000 residents, it was still lacking a police station, fire station, or hospital, it lacked a barber shop by 1949. The 1960s saw the introduction of airliners that could make trans-Pacific flights without refueling, causing a massive increase in air traffic at LAX; when the North Airfield Complex was constructed the increase in noise from jet takeoffs decreased the desirability of the residential areas adjoining LAX.
In response, the city of Los Angeles began a program of purchasing and condemning houses from noise-weary homeowners. In all, Westchester lost 14,000 residents; the 18-hole Westchester golf course became a 15-hole course. In 2007 Los Angeles World Airport proposed another move of the North runway into Westchester, local opposition to LAX expansion rose to fever pitch. In February 2010, a NASA panel should stay as it is; that same month, LAWA broke ground on a $1.5 billion expansion of the Bradley International Terminal. Home prices rose 25 percent in 2013-14 while most southern California communities were recovering much more slowly. A major factor has been the influx of technology companies in Playa Vista as the Silicon Beach phenomena in west Los Angeles has spread; the community experienced a boom in home additions or complete rehabilitation of traditional postwar Ranch-style house into larger two-story homes. The Howard Hughes Center was a significant addition to the neighborhood in 2001 next to the San Diego Freeway.
Development continued till by 2015 the complex had 1.3 million square feet of office space in high-rise buildings, 3,200 apartments, an updated, renovated shopping mall. A total of 39,480 people lived in Westchester's 10.81 square miles, according to the 2010 U. S. census, that figure included the uninhabited acreage of the Los Angeles International Airport—resulting in a density of 3,652 people per square mile, among the lowest population densities in the city of Los Angeles but about average for the county. The median age was 35.6, about average for Los Angeles city. The percentage of people from age 19 through 34 was among the county's highest. In 2010 whites made up 61.1% of the population, blacks were at 14.2%, Asians at 12.0%, Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander 0.3%, others at 11.9%. Those who identified themselves as Hispanic or Latino were 18.2%. In 2010, the mean family income for the area was $135,026 and the median family income was $106,302, both numbers high for the city.
The percentages of families that earned more than $100,000 a year was 53.5%. Renters occupied 48.2% of the housing units, homeowners occupied the rest. The average household size was 2.3 people, considered low for the county. The percentages of divorced men and divorced women were among the county's highest; the 2000 census counted 3,055 military veterans, 9.2% of the population, considered a high percentage for the city of Los Angeles but about average for the county. Los Angeles Fire Department Station 5 is in Westchester. Los Angeles Police Department operates the Pacific Community Police Station at 12312 Culver Boulevard, 90066, serving the neighborhood. Los Angeles Public Library operates the Westchester-Loyola Village Library, at 7114 W. Manchester Avenue, 90045, is a community library offering free online access, programming & information for all ages. Los Angeles World Airports has its headquart
Los Angeles Airport Police
The Los Angeles Airport Police Division is the largest police agency in the United States dedicated to 24-hour airport activities. LAXPD is the fourth largest law enforcement agency in Los Angeles County, with more than 1,100 law enforcement and staff, it has the largest civilian Airport security force in the nation. LAX Police is a division of Los Angeles Department of Airports, Los Angeles World Airports, the city department that owns and operates two airports in Southern California: Los Angeles International, Van Nuys. Although working closely with the Los Angeles Police Department, the Los Angeles Airport Police Department is a separate entity due to the Airport Police having specialized training and funding resources; the Los Angeles Airport Police traces its beginnings to 1946, when the Los Angeles Airport was transferred from the War Department to the City of Los Angeles. Six armed "Airport Guards" and one supervisor were hired to provide physical security over City properties; the number expanded to nine in 1949, the same year that the officers were re-classified as "Special Officers" of the City of Los Angeles.
The Special Officers were armed and worked for the Operations Bureau under the direction of the on-duty Superintendent of Operations. In 1959, the number increased to 12, led by the first "Chief of Security," George Dorian, with the organization being known as the "Security Division" of the "Operations Bureau." The organization was responsible for patrolling airport areas. In 1961, with the opening of the new "Jet Age" passenger terminal, a detachment of officers from the Los Angeles Police Department were permanently assigned to LAX, working with the airport Special Officers. In 1968, Special Officers of the Department of Airports were granted peace officer status by the California legislature. Slow growth occurred over the years, until 1973, when 70 officers and sergeants were assigned. A single lieutenant position was added in the early 1970s. 30 unarmed, non-sworn Security Officers were first employed in 1975, staffing airfield access control posts. They remain in service today, numbering 275, with their own supervisory ranks to the second level.
Their duties have been expanded to include traffic control, parking enforcement, vehicle inspection screening, crowd control and assisting travelers with information. In 1973, in response to worldwide aircraft hijacking concerns, a separate organization of peace officers was created, with responsibility to provide armed presence at passenger screening stations; this organization, the "Boarding Services Bureau, had 75 members, including one Director, one lieutenant, five sergeants. In 1981, the Security Division and the Boarding Services Bureau were merged, becoming the "Airport Security Bureau". In 1984, the Airport Security Bureau was renamed the "Los Angeles Airport Police." At various times, it has organizationally been a Bureau of LAWA or a Division of LAWA, depending on LAWA organizational structures. Other names include LAX Police, LAWA Police, LAX PD, LAXPD, LAWA PD and LAWAPD, in addition to "Los Angeles Airport Police.". In 2004, the City of Los Angeles Personnel Department changed their job classification from "Special Officer" to "Airport Police Officer".
The original issued uniform from 1946 to 1966 was slate gray, sometimes referred to by officers as "Confederate Gray." The gray uniforms were sometimes augmented by a blue-gray uniform when gray uniforms were not available. The uniform changed in 1966 to forest green trousers and caps, with tan shirts; the Boarding Services Bureau uniform consisted of midnight navy trousers and cap, white shirts. Supervisors wore gold colored accessories, such as nameplates etc.. In 1981, along with the merger of the Security Division and the Boarding Services Bureau, the uniform was standardized with dark navy trousers, shirts, a black jacket. All accessories were made in gold color for all ranks; the unarmed non-sworn Security Officers wore the same uniform as the sworn officers until 1999, when they reverted to the Sheriff style green/tan combination as an identification measure during emergency situations. Black NOMEX uniforms are worn by officers assigned to K-9 duties. Additionally, blue BDUs are issued to all sworn officers and are worn as a work/utility uniform as well as an Emergency Services uniform.
As is the case with most uniformed law enforcement agencies, the Los Angeles Airport Police has a paramilitary organizational structure. The rank structure has changed over the years. For example, Assistant Chief and Deputy Chief ranks were used from 1980 to 1986, but were dormant from 1986 to 2007; the rank of Commander is not currentlyin use. A four-stripe rank Sergeant, was used from 1980 until 1986 to differentiate active sergeants from other sergeants who had served in Boarding Service Bureau at a lower paygrade. Field Training Officers, Detectives and K9 officers receive a 5.5% bonus for those duties. Security Officers have their own rank struct