Arauca is a municipality and capital city of the Arauca Department of Colombia. Its full name is Villa de Santa Bárbara de Arauca, it is located at N 07° 05′ 25″ - W 70° 45′ 42″; the Municipality of Arauca has a total population of 82,149. The Arauca region was explored by the German conquistador Jorge de la Espira, aka Georg von Speyer, in 1536; these early Spanish did not stay. But they were followed by Jesuits and land-grantees who founded the first settlements. Arauca was founded on December 4, 1780, by Juan Isidro Daboín on the site of an indigenous hamlet of about ten families called Guahibo. Arauca was named after the Arauca River which now separates it from Venezuela, which river in turn was named for the indigenous people the Arauca; the area is subject to frequent flooding from the river. At one point it was the capital of the New Granada Province of Casanare, much larger than the current Department of Casanare. In addition, the Villa de Santa Bárbara de Arauca, has been: Capital of the Republic, under the revolutionary government, constituted July 16, 1816.
Since its founding, Arauca’s primary business has been the raising of cattle, this is still true. But since 1984 it is the exploitation of nearby petroleum that has provided the bulk of municipal income in recent years; the building of the bridge, Puente José Antonio Páez, connecting it with Venezuela stimulated the economy, as did completion of the highway to Bogotá, known as The Route of the Liberators. Arauca is now on the main surface route between Caracas and Bogotá. Santiago Perez Airport Official website of the Arauca municipality Arauca News Arauca llanera music
A wetland is a distinct ecosystem, inundated by water, either permanently or seasonally, where oxygen-free processes prevail. The primary factor that distinguishes wetlands from other land forms or water bodies is the characteristic vegetation of aquatic plants, adapted to the unique hydric soil. Wetlands play a number of functions, including water purification, water storage, processing of carbon and other nutrients, stabilization of shorelines, support of plants and animals. Wetlands are considered the most biologically diverse of all ecosystems, serving as home to a wide range of plant and animal life. Whether any individual wetland performs these functions, the degree to which it performs them, depends on characteristics of that wetland and the lands and waters near it. Methods for assessing these functions, wetland ecological health, general wetland condition have been developed in many regions and have contributed to wetland conservation by raising public awareness of the functions and the ecosystem services some wetlands provide.
Wetlands occur on every continent. The main wetland types are swamp, marsh and fen. Many peatlands are wetlands; the water in wetlands is either brackish, or saltwater. Wetlands can be non-tidal; the largest wetlands include the Amazon River basin, the West Siberian Plain, the Pantanal in South America, the Sundarbans in the Ganges-Brahmaputra delta. The UN Millennium Ecosystem Assessment determined that environmental degradation is more prominent within wetland systems than any other ecosystem on Earth. Constructed wetlands are used to treat municipal and industrial wastewater as well as stormwater runoff, they may play a role in water-sensitive urban design. A patch of land that develops pools of water after a rain storm would not be considered a "wetland" though the land is wet. Wetlands have unique characteristics: they are distinguished from other water bodies or landforms based on their water level and on the types of plants that live within them. Wetlands are characterized as having a water table that stands at or near the land surface for a long enough period each year to support aquatic plants.
A more concise definition is a community composed of hydric soil and hydrophytes. Wetlands have been described as ecotones, providing a transition between dry land and water bodies. Mitsch and Gosselink write that wetlands exist "...at the interface between terrestrial ecosystems and aquatic systems, making them inherently different from each other, yet dependent on both."In environmental decision-making, there are subsets of definitions that are agreed upon to make regulatory and policy decisions. A wetland is "an ecosystem that arises when inundation by water produces soils dominated by anaerobic and aerobic processes, which, in turn, forces the biota rooted plants, to adapt to flooding." There are four main kinds of wetlands – marsh, swamp and fen. Some experts recognize wet meadows and aquatic ecosystems as additional wetland types; the largest wetlands in the world include the swamp forests of the Amazon and the peatlands of Siberia. Under the Ramsar international wetland conservation treaty, wetlands are defined as follows: Article 1.1: "...wetlands are areas of marsh, peatland or water, whether natural or artificial, permanent or temporary, with water, static or flowing, brackish or salt, including areas of marine water the depth of which at low tide does not exceed six metres."
Article 2.1: " may incorporate riparian and coastal zones adjacent to the wetlands, islands or bodies of marine water deeper than six metres at low tide lying within the wetlands." Although the general definition given above applies around the world, each county and region tends to have its own definition for legal purposes. In the United States, wetlands are defined as "those areas that are inundated or saturated by surface or groundwater at a frequency and duration sufficient to support, that under normal circumstances do support, a prevalence of vegetation adapted for life in saturated soil conditions. Wetlands include swamps, marshes and similar areas"; this definition has been used in the enforcement of the Clean Water Act. Some US states, such as Massachusetts and New York, have separate definitions that may differ from the federal government's. In the United States Code, the term wetland is defined "as land that has a predominance of hydric soils, is inundated or saturated by surface or groundwater at a frequency and duration sufficient to support a prevalence of hydrophytic vegetation adapted for life in saturated soil conditions and under normal circumstances supports a prevalence of such vegetation."
Related to this legal definitions, the term "normal circumstances" are conditions expected to occur during the wet portion of the growing season under normal climatic conditions, in the absence of significant disturbance. It is not uncommon for a wetland to be dry for long portions of the growing season. Wetlands can be dry during the dry season and abnormally dry periods during the wet season, but under normal environmental conditions the soils in a wetland will be saturated to the surface or inundated such that the soils become anaerobic, those conditions will persist through the wet portion of the growing season; the most important factor producing wetlands is flooding. The duration of flooding or prolonged soil saturation by groundwater determines whether the resulting wetland has aquatic, marsh or swamp vegetation
The Andes or Andean Mountains are the longest continental mountain range in the world, forming a continuous highland along the western edge of South America. This range is about 7,000 km long, about 200 to 700 km wide, of an average height of about 4,000 m; the Andes extend from north to south through seven South American countries: Venezuela, Ecuador, Bolivia and Argentina. Along their length, the Andes are split into several ranges, separated by intermediate depressions; the Andes are the location of several high plateaus – some of which host major cities such as Quito, Bogotá, Medellín, Sucre, Mérida and La Paz. The Altiplano plateau is the world's second-highest after the Tibetan plateau; these ranges are in turn grouped into three major divisions based on climate: the Tropical Andes, the Dry Andes, the Wet Andes. The Andes Mountains are the world's highest mountain range outside Asia; the highest mountain outside Asia, Argentina's Mount Aconcagua, rises to an elevation of about 6,961 m above sea level.
The peak of Chimborazo in the Ecuadorian Andes is farther from the Earth's center than any other location on the Earth's surface, due to the equatorial bulge resulting from the Earth's rotation. The world's highest volcanoes are in the Andes, including Ojos del Salado on the Chile-Argentina border, which rises to 6,893 m; the Andes are part of the American Cordillera, a chain of mountain ranges that consists of an continuous sequence of mountain ranges that form the western "backbone" of North America, Central America, South America and Antarctica. The etymology of the word Andes has been debated; the majority consensus is that it derives from the Quechua word anti, which means "east" as in Antisuyu, one of the four regions of the Inca Empire. The Andes can be divided into three sections: The Southern Andes in Chile. In the northern part of the Andes, the isolated Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta range is considered to be part of the Andes; the term cordillera comes from the Spanish word "cordel", meaning "rope".
The Andes range is about 200 km wide throughout its length, except in the Bolivian flexure where it is about 640 kilometres wide. The Leeward Antilles islands Aruba and Curaçao, which lie in the Caribbean Sea off the coast of Venezuela, were thought to represent the submerged peaks of the extreme northern edge of the Andes range, but ongoing geological studies indicate that such a simplification does not do justice to the complex tectonic boundary between the South American and Caribbean plates; the Andes are a Mesozoic–Tertiary orogenic belt of mountains along the Pacific Ring of Fire, a zone of volcanic activity that encompasses the Pacific rim of the Americas as well as the Asia-Pacific region. The Andes are the result of tectonic plate processes, caused by the subduction of oceanic crust beneath the South American Plate, it is the result of a convergent plate boundary between the Nazca Plate and the South American Plate The main cause of the rise of the Andes is the compression of the western rim of the South American Plate due to the subduction of the Nazca Plate and the Antarctic Plate.
To the east, the Andes range is bounded by several sedimentary basins, such as Orinoco, Amazon Basin, Madre de Dios and Gran Chaco, that separate the Andes from the ancient cratons in eastern South America. In the south, the Andes share a long boundary with the former Patagonia Terrane. To the west, the Andes end at the Pacific Ocean, although the Peru-Chile trench can be considered their ultimate western limit. From a geographical approach, the Andes are considered to have their western boundaries marked by the appearance of coastal lowlands and a less rugged topography; the Andes Mountains contain large quantities of iron ore located in many mountains within the range. The Andean orogen has a series of oroclines; the Bolivian Orocline is a seaward concave bending in the coast of South America and the Andes Mountains at about 18° S. At this point, the orientation of the Andes turns from Northwest in Peru to South in Chile and Argentina; the Andean segment north and south of the orocline have been rotated 15° to 20° counter clockwise and clockwise respectively.
The Bolivian Orocline area overlaps with the area of maximum width of the Altiplano Plateau and according to Isacks the orocline is related to crustal shortening. The specific point at 18° S where the coastline bends is known as the "Arica Elbow". Further south lies the Maipo Orocline or Maipo Transition Zone located between 30° S and 38°S with a break in trend at 33° S. Near the southern tip of the Andes lies the Patagonian orocline; the western rim of the South American Plate has been the place of several pre-Andean orogenies since at least the late Proterozoic and early Paleozoic, when several terranes and microcontinents collided and amalgamated with the ancient cratons of eastern South America, by the South American part of Gondwana. The formation of the modern Andes began with the events of the Triassic when Pangaea began the break up that resulted in developing several rifts; the development continued through the Jurassic Period. It was during the Cretaceous Period that the Andes began to take their present form, by the uplifting and folding of sedimentary and metamorphic rocks of the ancient cratons to the east.
The rise of the Andes has not been constant, as different regions have had different degrees of tectonic stress and erosion. Tectonic forces above the subduction zone al
Villavicencio is a city and municipality in Colombia. Capital of Meta Department, it was founded on April 6, 1840; the city had an urban population of 495,200 inhabitants in 2016.1 The city is located at 4°08'N, 73°40'W, 75 km southeast of the Colombian capital city of Bogotá by the Guatiquía River. It is the most important commercial center in the Llanos Orientales, it has a warm and humid climate, with average temperatures of 28 °C and 30 °C.2 It is affectionately called "Villavo" la bella. Lying in a rural zone of tropical climate, Villavicencio is on the great Colombian-Venezuelan plain called Los Llanos, situated to the east of the Andes mountains. Villavicencio is called "La Puerta al Llano", or "The Gateway to the Plains", due to its location on the historical path from the Colombian interior to the vast savannas that lie between the Andes range and the Amazon rainforest. Villavicencio's proximity to huge mountains and great plains make the city an example of Colombia's geodiversity; because it is located in the foothills of the Andes, the morning and evening breezes cool the city, hot for most of the day.
The German Conquistador Nikolaus Federmann reached the altiplano of Bogotá in 1536 by approaching it from the plains of Venezuela, a large unsettled area, formed by the Orinoco basin. However, this vast area remained uncolonized for the next 300 years. Colombia was settled along the mountainous folds of the Magdalena and Cauca valleys, all of its commerce with the outside world was oriented towards the Caribbean Sea, because of its mountainous barriers, the extreme heat, inhospitable climate, the Llanos remained forgotten and unsettled; the Llaneros, the inhabitants of the plains, are fierce horsemen who first fought for the Spanish royalists and for the Venezuelan and Colombian rebels during the War of Independence. By crossing the Cordillera Oriental with Bolívar, they surprised the royalist army on the plains of Boyaca on the 6th of August, 1819, cleared the way for the taking of an abandoned Santa Fe de Bogotá one week later. In the 1840s, some farmers from Caqueza, a town on the eastern folds of Bogotá started the modest settlement of Gramalote, which became the parish of Villavicencio in 1855.
The parish was named for a patriot in the Colombian war of independence. Vaccines, a mule road, the availability of vast areas of free land, drove new colonizers to continue the settlement of Villavicencio; as the roads improved the access to the Llanos, the farmers could send their produce and cattle to the markets of Bogotá. After the assassination of Jorge Eliecer Gaitan, a popular Liberal politician in 1948, the large landowners saw a pretext to drive farmers out of their lands; the Llaneros resisted by driving the army out of population centers. The guerrillas never took Villavicencio, but they brought the fighting to the military base of Apiay; as the fighting between the government and the Llanero guerrillas was out of control, a military coup in June 1953, took Gustavo Rojas Pinilla to power who negotiated a cease fire and amnesty for the insurgents. Villavicencio has grown from a small settlement of no more than 20 people in the 1850s to a settlement of over 400,000 inhabitants in 2011.
A new road of bridges and tunnels has shortened the driving time to Bogotá from six or four hours, depending on the season of the year, to one and half hours to move the oil and agricultural products faster. The city is located in the Orinoquia Region. Most of the city's land is flat ground draining away from the Andes; the Guatiquia borders the city to the east. Caqueza and Chipaque are located northwest of Villavicencio. A true portal to the Llanos, the roads south of Villavo lead to Acacias and San Martin, the first historical town of the Llanos, an early Jesuit settlement. East of Villavo they point towards Apiay, Puerto Lopez and the fluvial port of Orocue on the Meta river, a strong affluent of the Orinoco. Villavicencio has aAf; the climate is hot and sometimes humid, though its proximity to the foothills of the Oriental Andes brings mild breezes to the city at nightfall. Average temperatures is 27 degrees Celsius. Cattle and the exportation of crude oil fuel the Villavicencio economy. Imports from the surrounding area include coffee and rice.
La Vanguardia Airport serves Villavicencio with flights to the rest of Colombia on four airlines, including Colombian major airlines Avianca and Latam Colombia. University of the Llanos is a public university located Villavicencio. Other higher education institutions include Cooperative University of Colombia, Saint Thomas Aquinas University, Saint Martin University, Uniminuto, UAN; the city has the Llaneros futbol club which plays in Colombia's second division. The Colombian Football Federation announced that Villavicencio will be one of the venue cities to host the 2016 FIFA Futsal World Cup. To the natural possibilities that its territory offers for the rest, the works of modernization of the highway are added that shortened in distance and time the passage with the capital of the Republic. In this way Villavicencio and other adjacent municipalities are offered as new tourist destinations. In preparation to meet this demand, tourism development plans and strategies are implemented by the departmental and municipal governments, as well as the Cotelco branch.
In relation to physical infrastructure, the city has an acceptable hotel inventory, as well as agro-tourism properties. Villavicencio shares the condition of land of immigrants with the region of th
Acacias is a town and municipality in the Meta Department, Colombia
A cowboy is an animal herder who tends cattle on ranches in North America, traditionally on horseback, performs a multitude of other ranch-related tasks. The historic American cowboy of the late 19th century arose from the vaquero traditions of northern Mexico and became a figure of special significance and legend. A subtype, called a wrangler tends the horses used to work cattle. In addition to ranch work, some cowboys participate in rodeos. Cowgirls, first defined as such in the late 19th century, had a less-well documented historical role, but in the modern world work at identical tasks and have obtained considerable respect for their achievements. Cattle handlers in many other parts of the world South America and Australia, perform work similar to the cowboy; the cowboy has deep historic roots tracing back to Spain and the earliest European settlers of the Americas. Over the centuries, differences in terrain and climate, the influence of cattle-handling traditions from multiple cultures, created several distinct styles of equipment and animal handling.
As the ever-practical cowboy adapted to the modern world, his equipment and techniques adapted, though many classic traditions are preserved. The English word cowboy has an origin from several earlier terms that referred to both age and to cattle or cattle-tending work; the English word cowboy was a direct English translation of vaquero, a Spanish word for an individual who managed cattle while mounted on horseback. It was derived from vaca, it was first used in print by Jonathan Swift in 1725. It was used in Britain from 1820 to 1850 to describe young boys who tended the family or community cows; the English word "cowherd" was used to describe a cattle herder, referred to a pre-adolescent or early adolescent boy, who worked on foot. This word is old in the English language, originating prior to the year 1000. By 1849 "cowboy" had developed its modern sense as an adult cattle handler of the American West. Variations on the word appeared later. "Cowhand" appeared in 1852, "cowpoke" in 1881 restricted to the individuals who prodded cattle with long poles to load them onto railroad cars for shipping.
Names for a cowboy in American English include buckaroo, cowpoke and cowpuncher. Another English word for a cowboy, buckaroo, is an anglicization of vaquero.. Today, "cowboy" is a term common throughout the west and in the Great Plains and Rocky Mountains, "buckaroo" is used in the Great Basin and California, "cowpuncher" in Texas and surrounding states. Equestrianism required skills and an investment in horses and equipment available to or entrusted to a child, though in some cultures boys rode a donkey while going to and from pasture. In antiquity, herding of sheep and goats was the job of minors, still is a task for young people in various third world cultures; because of the time and physical ability needed to develop necessary skills, both historic and modern cowboys began as an adolescent. Cowboys earned wages as soon as they developed sufficient skill to be hired. If not crippled by injury, cowboys may handle horses for a lifetime. In the United States, a few women took on the tasks of ranching and learned the necessary skills, though the "cowgirl" did not become recognized or acknowledged until the close of the 19th century.
On western ranches today, the working cowboy is an adult. Responsibility for herding cattle or other livestock is no longer considered suitable for children or early adolescents. However, both boys and girls growing up in a ranch environment learn to ride horses and perform basic ranch skills as soon as they are physically able under adult supervision; such youths, by their late teens, are given responsibilities for "cowboy" work on the ranch. "Cowboy" was used during the American Revolution to describe American fighters who opposed the movement for independence. Claudius Smith, an outlaw identified with the Loyalist cause, was called the "Cow-boy of the Ramapos" due to his penchant for stealing oxen and horses from colonists and giving them to the British. In the same period, a number of guerrilla bands operated in Westchester County, which marked the dividing line between the British and American forces; these groups were made up of local farmhands who would ambush convoys and carry out raids on both sides.
There were two separate groups: the "skinners" fought for the pro-independence side, while the "cowboys" supported the British. In the Tombstone, Arizona area during the 1880s, the term "cowboy" or "cow-boy" was used pejoratively to describe men, implicated in various crimes. One loosely organized band was dubbed "The Cowboys," and profited from smuggling cattle and tobacco across the U. S.–Mexico border. The San Francisco Examiner wrote in an editorial, "Cowboys the most reckless class of outlaws in that wild country... infinitely worse than the ordinary robber." It became an insult in the area to call someone a "cowboy", as it suggested he was a horse thief, robber, or outlaw. Cattlemen were called herders or ranchers; the Cowboys' activities were curtailed by the Gunfight at the O. K. Corral and the resulting Earp Vendetta Ride; the origins of the cowboy tradition come from Spain, beginning with the hacienda system of medieval Spain. This style of cattle ranching spread throughout much of the Iberian peninsula, was imported to the Americas.
Both regions possessed a dry climate with sp