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Los Planetas

Los Planetas is a Spanish indie rock group from the city of Granada which started out in the second half of the 1990s and continue now through the 2000s. The group's first hit was "Qué puedo hacer" from their album "Super 8", although they had had some success with various demos on a contest run by Spanish national public radio station Radio 3. After "Super 8" the group produced albums which caught on in the Spanish indie scene, including "Pop", "Una semana en el motor de un autobús", "Unidad de Desplazamiento", "Encuentro con entidades" and "Los Planetas contra la ley la gravedad", they have released two compilation albums: one including all of their singles and EPs in 1999, "Canciones para una orquesta química", a greatest hits album in 2009, "Principios básicos de astronomía". Los Planetas are influenced by English-language rock bands such as Joy Division and early-period Mercury Rev and are considered to be a key reference point in the world of Spanish indie. A notable influence from flamenco music is being shown in their 2007 work ("La leyenda del espacio", influence still shown in their latest albums "Una ópera egipcia" and ""Zona temporalmente autónoma".

Juan Ramón Rodríguez Cervilla / J Rodríguez / J / Jota: vocals and guitar Florentino Muñoz Lozano / Florent Muñoz / Florent: guitar Ernesto Jiménez Linares / Eric Jiménez / Erik / Eric: drums Esteban Fraile Maldonado / Banin Fraile / Banin: keyboards, guitars Julián Méndez Podadera / Julián Méndez / Julián: bass Super 8 Pop Una Semana en el Motor de un Autobús Canciones para una orquesta química Unidad de desplazamiento Encuentros con entidades Los Planetas contra la la ley de la gravedad La leyenda del espacio Principios básicos de astronomía Una ópera egipcia Zona temporalmente autónoma Medusa EP Qué puedo hacer Brigitte Nuevas sensaciones EP Himno Generacional No. 83 David y Claudia Punk Segundo premio Cumpleaños total La playa ¡Dios existe! El rollo mesiánico de Los Planetas EP Vas a verme por la tele Un buen día Santos que yo te pinte Maniobra de evasión Corrientes circulares en el tiempo Pesadilla en el parque de atracciones El espíritu de la Navidad El artista madridista Los Planetas se disuelven EP Y además es imposible No ardieras Alegrías del incendio Soy un pobre granaíno Cuatro palos EP No sé cómo te atreves Dobles fatigas Espíritu olímpico Screamin' & Shoutin' 2.

A Live Compilation: "Where's Bill Grundy Now?" Navidades Furiosas: "Canción de Navidad" Gimme More of That Sound: "Where's Bill Grundy Now?" A Tribute To Felt: "Apple Boutique" Warsaw: Un Homenaje a Joy Division: "Disorder" Maraworld 1.0: "Doctor Osmond" 21 Inéditos y Exclusivos: "Todos los Periódicos Mienten" Un Soplo En El Corazón. Homenaje A Family: "El Mapa" Bambino, Por Ti y Por Nosotros: "Podría Volver" Medusa Nuevas sensaciones Himno generacional No. 83 David y Claudia Punk Su mapamundi, gracias Cuatro palos EP Dobles fatigas Espíritu olímpico Islamabad Hierro y níquel 18 Ijtihad Santos que yo te pinte

Shape extension

In the X Window System, the X Nonrectangular Window Shape Extension allows windows to be given arbitrary, non-rectangular shapes. Two well-known applets that use the shape extension are oclock, a simple round analog clock, xeyes, which shows two googly eyes that follow the cursor on the screen as if they were watching it. Most X systems have the other in their standard installations. In addition, some window managers use the shape extension to draw non-rectangular icons. Applications can only create rectangular windows, but can change their shape to be an arbitrary part of the original rectangle; the remaining area of the rectangle is not only transparent. For example, if a window is shaped with a hole in the middle, not only the hole shows what is below the window, but a click in the hole is considered to be a click in what is below the window. Applications create windows as usual, but can change the shape of a window to be a subset of the original area. By sending the X display server either a list of rectangles or a pixmap of color depth one.

More a client can request the rectangles or the pixmap to be set as the new shape, but to be combined in various ways with the old shape. A third way for changing the shape of a window is by using the current shape of a window or a part of it; the extension allows defining the shape of two separate regions: the clipping and the bounding regions. These two areas are defined for windows not using the shape extension: the clipping region is the area that can be used for drawing, the bounding region is the total area covered by the window; the shape extension allows defining two independent shapes for these two regions. Both the clipping and bounding are associated, in the shape extension, two areas: a default rectangular region and a non-rectangular client region and changed by the client as specified above; the effective region, the actual shape of the window, is the intersection of these two areas. This intersection is performed every time either region is changed: for example, if the client regions contains parts that are outside the default region but the default region is enlarged, the effective region will include these parts.

X Window System core protocol X Nonrectangular Window Shape Extension Library X Nonrectangular Window Shape Extension Protocol

Luhn mod N algorithm

The Luhn mod N algorithm is an extension to the Luhn algorithm that allows it to work with sequences of non-numeric characters. This can be useful when a check digit is required to validate an identification string composed of letters, a combination of letters and digits or any arbitrary set of characters; the Luhn mod N algorithm generates a check digit within the same range of valid characters as the input string. For example, if the algorithm is applied to a string of lower-case letters, the check character will be a lower-case letter. Apart from this distinction, it resembles closely the original algorithm; the main idea behind the extension is that the full set of valid input characters is mapped to a list of code-points. The algorithm processes the input string by converting each character to its associated code-point and performing the computations in mod N. Finally, the resulting check code-point is mapped back to obtain its corresponding check character. A mapping between valid input characters and code-points must be created.

For example, consider that the valid characters are the lower-case letters from a to f. Therefore, a suitable mapping would be: Note that the order of the characters is irrelevant; this other mapping would be acceptable: It is possible to intermix letters and digits. For example, this mapping would be appropriate for lower-case hexadecimal digits: Assuming the following functions are defined: The function to generate a check character is: And the function to validate a string is: Assuming the following functions are defined: The function to generate a check character is: And the function to validate a string is: Consider the above set of valid input characters and the example input string abcdef. To generate the check character, start with the last character in the string and move left doubling every other code-point; the "digits" of the code-points as written in base 6 should be summed up: The total sum of digits is 14. The number that must be added to obtain the next multiple of 6 is 4; this is the resulting check code-point.

The associated check character is e. The resulting string abcdefe can be validated by using a similar procedure: The total sum of digits is 18. Since it is divisible by 6, the check character is valid; the mapping of characters to code-points and back can be implemented in a number of ways. The simplest approach is to use ASCII code arithmetic. For example, given an input set of 0 to 9, the code-point can be calculated by subtracting the ASCII code for'0' from the ASCII code of the desired character; the reverse operation will provide the reverse mapping. Additional ranges of characters can be dealt with by using conditional statements. Non-sequential sets can be mapped both ways using a hard-coded switch/case statement. A more flexible approach is to use something similar to an associative array. For this to work, a pair of arrays is required to provide the two-way mapping. An additional possibility is to use an array of characters where the array indexes are the code-points associated with each character.

The mapping from character to code-point can be performed with a linear or binary search. In this case, the reverse mapping is just a simple array lookup; this extension shares the same weakness as the original algorithm, namely, it cannot detect the transposition of the sequence <first-valid-character><last-valid-character> to <last-valid-character><first-valid-character>. This is equivalent to the transposition of 09 to 90. On a positive note, the larger the set of valid input characters, the smaller the impact of the weakness. International Securities Identification Number

Pietro Perna

Pietro Perna was an Italian printer, the leading printer of Late Renaissance Basel, the Erasmian crossroads between Italian Renaissance humanism and the Protestant Reformation. His books promoted the Italian heretical thinkers at the origins of Socinianism and the theory of Tolerance, he was a major publisher of Protestant historians like Flacius Illyricus and David Chytraeus and promoted the ars historica treatises of the period, notably the 18 authores de historia in Artis Historicae Penus. A native of Lucca and a Dominican, he arrived in Basel in 1544 as a disciple of the reformer Pietro Martire Vermigli and with the help of Pietro Carnesecchi; as a printer he started as an assistant to the renowned Johannes Oporinus and set up a press of his own in 1558. As a bookseller and apprentice printer he established a network of Italian connections that helped him act as a go between and publisher of Italian reformed thinkers and writers, such as Vermigli, Pier Paolo Vergerio, Jacopo Aconcio, Bernardino Ochino, Lelio Sozzini, Sebastian Castellio, Celio Secondo Curione, etc.

He published the editio princeps of the original Greek text of the Enneads of Plotinus. He produced important editions of Machiavelli and Bodin and Lodovico Castelvetro, he published works of Paracelsus and various Paracelsians but served as the chief printer of Paracelsus's leading critic Thomas Erastus. In 1570 Perna sent the artist Tobias Stimmer to Como to copy the famous collection of historical portraits in the Giovio Collection. Stimmer's distinctive woodcuts decorate numerous editions of Paolo Giovio, brought out by Perna and Heinrich Petri; the Basel doctor and polymath Theodor Zwinger was his close collaborator. Perna was buried in St. Peter's Church. Peter G. Bietenholz, Der italienische Humanismus und die Blutezeit des Buchdrucks in Basel. Die Basler Drucke italianischer Autoren von 1530 bis zum Ende des 16. Jahrhunderts, Basel-Stuttgart, Helbig & Lichtenhahn. Antonio Rotondò, Pietro Perna e la vita culturale e religiosa di Basilea fra il 1570 e il 1580, in Studi e ricerche di storia ereticale italiana del Cinquecento, Giappichelli.

Perini, Leandro, La vita e i tempi di Pietro Perna, Edizioni di storia, provides a numbered catalogue of the 430 editions printed by Perna between 1549 and 1582. Oxford Companion to the Book, sub voce. Griechischer Geist aus Basler Pressen

Potential predictability

The term potential predictability is used in the context of weather forecasting to describe the extent that the future weather can be predicted in principle, i.e. it describes the proportion of variance in the weather that arises from systematic factors rather than random noise. Denote by σ the standard deviation in weather outcomes, so that σ 2 is the variance in weather outcomes. Of this, denote by σ ν 2 the internally generated variance component and by σ ε 2 the unpredictable noise component. We have: σ 2 = σ ν 2 + σ ε 2 The potential predictability variance fraction is defined as: p = σ ν 2 σ 2 = σ ν 2 σ ν 2 + σ ε 2 The signal to noise ratio is defined as: γ = σ ν 2 σ ε 2 p and γ can be computed from each other: p = γ 1 + γ, γ = p 1 − p We have 0 < p < 1. Small values of p indicate that the signal is small, that the weather is inherently unpredictable. Values of p close to 1 suggest that the weather is predictable if current weather prediction methods do not predict it successfully. Potential predictabilities have been estimated for different aspects of the weather and climate system, including heat transport, the Madden–Julian oscillation, precipitation

Ashland Stakes

The Ashland Stakes is an American Thoroughbred horse race held annually in early April at Keeneland Race Course in Lexington, United States. It and the Ashland Oaks, the Kentucky Association racetrack's predecessor race, were named for Ashland, the homestead and breeding farm of statesman Henry Clay in Lexington, Kentucky. Restricted to three-year-olds fillies the race is run at a distance of one and one-sixteenth miles; the race is a Grade I event with a current purse of $500,000 and has been a prep race to the Triple Tiara of Thoroughbred Racing, including the Kentucky Oaks, the Black-Eyed Susan Stakes and Mother Goose Stakes. Part of the 1936 inaugural events for the new Keeneland Race Course, the first two editions of the Ashland Stakes were open to fillies and mares, 3-years of age and older. Not run again until 1940, it was made a race for 3-year-old fillies. During World War II, from 1943 through 1945 the race was hosted by Churchill Downs in Louisville; the Ashland Stakes was run in two heats in 1952, 1965, 1974 and 1980.

Don Brumfield is the only jockey to have won both heats. In the 1974 edition, Brumfield rode to victory on Winged Wishes, a horse owned by his mother, Viola took the second running aboard Darby Dan Farm's, Maud Muller. Since its inception, the Ashland Stakes has been raced at various distances: 1936-1937, 1981 to present: ​1 1⁄16 miles 1940-1973: 6 furlongs 1974-1980: 7 furlongs, 184 feetIn 2014, the Ashland finished in a Dead heat between Rosalind and Room Service. Speed record at current distance1:41.60 - ​1 1⁄16 miles set by Silverbulletday in 1999. Most wins by an owner3 - Calumet Farm & Cain Hoy Stable Most wins by a jockey3 - Bill Shoemaker 3 - Don Brumfield 3 - Randy Romero 3 - Shane Sellers Most wins by a trainer4 - Woody Stephens Road to the Kentucky Oaks