Green sea turtle
The green sea turtle, known as the green turtle, black turtle, or Pacific green turtle, is a large sea turtle of the family Cheloniidae. It is the species in the genus Chelonia. Its range extends throughout tropical and subtropical seas around the world, the common name comes from the usually green fat found beneath its carapace, these turtles shells are olive to black. This sea turtles dorsoventrally flattened body is covered by a large, teardrop-shaped carapace, it has a pair of large and it is usually lightly colored, although in the eastern Pacific populations parts of the carapace can be almost black. Unlike other members of its family, such as the sea turtle. The adults usually inhabit shallow lagoons, feeding mostly on various species of seagrasses, the turtles bite off the tips of the blades of seagrass, which keeps the grass healthy. Like other sea turtles, green sea turtles migrate long distances between feeding grounds and hatching beaches, many islands worldwide are known as Turtle Island due to green sea turtles nesting on their beaches.
Females crawl out on beaches, dig nests and lay eggs during the night, hatchlings emerge and scramble into the water. Those that reach maturity may live to 80 years in the wild, C. mydas is listed as endangered by the IUCN and CITES and is protected from exploitation in most countries. It is illegal to collect, harm, or kill them, in addition, many countries have laws and ordinances to protect nesting areas. However, turtles are still in danger due to human activity, in some countries and their eggs are hunted for food. Pollution indirectly harms turtles at both population and individual scales, many turtles die after being caught in fishing nets. Also, real estate development often causes habitat loss by eliminating nesting beaches, the green sea turtle is a member of the tribe Chelonini. A1993 study clarified the status of genus Chelonia with respect to the marine turtles. The carnivorous Eretmochelys and Lepidochelys were assigned to the tribe Carettini, herbivorous Chelonia warranted their status as a genus, while Natator was further removed from the other genera than previously believed.
The species was described by Linnaeus in 1758 as Testudo mydas. In 1868, Marie Firmin Bocourt named a species of sea turtle Chelonia agassizii. This species was referred to as the sea turtle
The Netherlands, informally known as Holland is the main constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. It is a densely populated country located in Western Europe with three territories in the Caribbean. The European part of the Netherlands borders Germany to the east, Belgium to the south, and the North Sea to the northwest, sharing borders with Belgium, the United Kingdom. The three largest cities in the Netherlands are Amsterdam and The Hague, Amsterdam is the countrys capital, while The Hague holds the Dutch seat of parliament and government. The port of Rotterdam is the worlds largest port outside East-Asia, the name Holland is used informally to refer to the whole of the country of the Netherlands. Netherlands literally means lower countries, influenced by its low land and flat geography, most of the areas below sea level are artificial. Since the late 16th century, large areas have been reclaimed from the sea and lakes, with a population density of 412 people per km2 –507 if water is excluded – the Netherlands is classified as a very densely populated country.
Only Bangladesh, South Korea, and Taiwan have both a population and higher population density. Nevertheless, the Netherlands is the worlds second-largest exporter of food and agricultural products and this is partly due to the fertility of the soil and the mild climate. In 2001, it became the worlds first country to legalise same-sex marriage, the Netherlands is a founding member of the EU, Eurozone, G-10, NATO, OECD and WTO, as well as being a part of the Schengen Area and the trilateral Benelux Union. The first four are situated in The Hague, as is the EUs criminal intelligence agency Europol and this has led to the city being dubbed the worlds legal capital. The country ranks second highest in the worlds 2016 Press Freedom Index, the Netherlands has a market-based mixed economy, ranking 17th of 177 countries according to the Index of Economic Freedom. It had the thirteenth-highest per capita income in the world in 2013 according to the International Monetary Fund, in 2013, the United Nations World Happiness Report ranked the Netherlands as the seventh-happiest country in the world, reflecting its high quality of life.
The Netherlands ranks joint second highest in the Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index, the region called Low Countries and the country of the Netherlands have the same toponymy. Place names with Neder, Nieder and Nedre and Bas or Inferior are in use in all over Europe. They are sometimes used in a relation to a higher ground that consecutively is indicated as Upper, Oben. In the case of the Low Countries / the Netherlands the geographical location of the region has been more or less downstream. The geographical location of the region, changed over time tremendously
An aquatic ecosystem is an ecosystem in a body of water. Communities of organisms that are dependent on other and on their environment live in aquatic ecosystems. The two main types of ecosystems are marine ecosystems and freshwater ecosystems. Marine ecosystems cover approximately 71% of the Earths surface and contain approximately 97% of the planets water and they generate 32% of the worlds net primary production. They are distinguished from freshwater ecosystems by the presence of dissolved compounds, especially salts, approximately 85% of the dissolved materials in seawater are sodium and chlorine. Seawater has a salinity of 35 parts per thousand of water. Actual salinity varies among different marine ecosystems, marine ecosystems can be divided into many zones depending upon water depth and shoreline features. The oceanic zone is the vast open part of the ocean where animals such as whales, the benthic zone consists of substrates below water where many invertebrates live. The intertidal zone is the area between high and low tides, in this figure it is termed the littoral zone, other near-shore zones can include estuaries, salt marshes, coral reefs and mangrove swamps.
In the deep water, hydrothermal vents may occur where chemosynthetic sulfur bacteria form the base of the food web, classes of organisms found in marine ecosystems include brown algae, corals, cephalopods and sharks. Fishes caught in marine ecosystems are the biggest source of commercial foods obtained from wild populations, environmental problems concerning marine ecosystems include unsustainable exploitation of marine resources, marine pollution, climate change, and building on coastal areas. Freshwater ecosystems cover 0. 78% of the Earths surface and inhabit 0. 009% of its total water and they generate nearly 3% of its net primary production. Freshwater ecosystems contain 41% of the known fish species. There are three types of freshwater ecosystems, slow moving water, including pools, ponds. Lotic, faster moving water, for example streams and rivers, areas where the soil is saturated or inundated for at least part of the time. Lake ecosystems can be divided into zones, one common system divides lakes into three zones.
The first, the zone, is the shallow zone near the shore. This is where rooted wetland plants occur, the offshore is divided into two further zones, an open water zone and a deep water zone
Kiteboarding is a surface water sport combining aspects of wakeboarding, windsurfing, paragliding and gymnastics into one extreme sport. Kitesurfing is a style of kiteboarding specific to wave riding, which utilizes standard surfboards or boards shaped specifically for the purpose, there are different styles of kiteboarding, including freestyle, downwinders, course racing, wakestyle and kitesurfing in the waves. In 2012, the number of kitesurfers was estimated by the ISAF, the global market for kite gear sales is worth US $250 million. In the 1800s, George Pocock used kites of increased size to propel carts on land and ships on the water, both carts and boats were able to turn and sail upwind. The kites could be flown for sustained periods, the intention was to establish kitepower as an alternative to horsepower, partly to avoid the hated horse tax that was levied at that time. In 1978, Ian Days FlexiFoil kite-powered Tornado catamaran exceeded 40 km/h, in October 1977 Gijsbertus Adrianus Panhuise received the first patent for KiteSurfing.
Although this patent did not result in any commercial interest, Gijsbertus Adrianus Panhuise could be considered as the originator of KiteSurfing, through the 1980s, there were occasionally successful attempts to combine kites with canoes, ice skates, snow skis, water skis and roller skates. Strasilla and his Swiss friend Andrea Kuhn used this invention in combination with surfboards and snowboards, one of his patents describes in 1979 the first use of an inflatable kite design for kitesurfing. In 1990, practical kite buggying was pioneered by Peter Lynn at Argyle Park in Ashburton, Lynn coupled a three-wheeled buggy with a forerunner of the modern parafoil kite. Kite buggying proved to be very popular worldwide, with over 14,000 buggies sold up to 1999, the development of modern-day kitesurfing by the Roeselers in the USA and the Legaignoux in France carried on in parallel to buggying. The KiteSki was commercially available in 1994, the kite had a rudimentary water launch capability and could go upwind.
In 1995, Cory Roeseler visited Peter Lynn at New Zealands Lake Clearwater in the Ashburton Alpine Lakes area, demonstrating speed, balance, in the late 1990s, Corys ski evolved to a single board similar to a surfboard. Bruno Legaignoux has continued to improve kite designs, including developing the bow kite design, in 1997, specialized kite boards were developed by Raphaël Salles and Laurent Ness. By the end of 1998 kitesurfing had become a sport and taught through a handful group of shops. The first competition was held on Maui in September 1998 and won by Flash Austin, starting in 1999, kitesurfing became a mainstream sport with the entry of key windsurfing manufacturers namely Naish and Neil Pryde. Single direction boards derived from windsurfing and surfing designs became the dominant form of kiteboard, from 2001 onwards, twin-tip bi-directional boards became more popular for most flat water riders, with directional boards still in use for surf conditions. In May 2012, the racing style of kitesurfing was announced as a sport for the 2016 Rio Olympics.
Kitesurfing was named as an event at the 2018 Summer Youth Olympics in Buenos Aires
Venezuela, officially the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela, is a federal republic located on the northern coast of South America. It is bordered by Colombia on the west, Brazil on the south, Guyana on the east, Venezuela covers 916,445 km2 and has an estimated population of 31775371. The territory now known as Venezuela was colonized by Spain in 1522 amid resistance from indigenous peoples and it gained full independence as a separate country in 1830. During the 19th century, Venezuela suffered political turmoil and autocracy, since 1958, the country has had a series of democratic governments. This new constitution changed the name of the country to República Bolivariana de Venezuela. Venezuela is a presidential republic consisting of 23 states, the Capital District. Venezuela claims all Guyanese territory west of the Essequibo River, oil was discovered in the early 20th century, and Venezuela has the worlds largest known oil reserves and has been one of the worlds leading exporters of oil. Previously an underdeveloped exporter of commodities such as coffee and cocoa, oil quickly came to dominate exports.
The recovery of oil prices in the early 2000s gave Venezuela oil funds not seen since the 1980s, the Venezuelan government established populist policies that initially boosted the Venezuelan economy and increased social spending, significantly reducing economic inequality and poverty. However, such policies became controversial since they destabilized the economy, resulting in hyperinflation, an economic depression. According to the most popular and accepted version, in 1499, the stilt houses in the area of Lake Maracaibo reminded the navigator, Amerigo Vespucci, of the city of Venice, so he named the region Veneziola Piccola Venezia. The name acquired its current spelling as a result of Spanish influence, where the suffix -uela is used as a term, thus. The German language 16th century-term for the area, Klein-Venedig, means little Venice, Martín Fernández de Enciso, a member of the Vespucci and Ojeda crew, gave a different account. In his work Summa de geografía, he states that they found people who called themselves the Veneciuela.
Thus, the name Venezuela may have evolved from the native word and it is not known how many people lived in Venezuela before the Spanish conquest, it has been estimated at around one million. In addition to indigenous peoples known today, the population included historic groups such as the Kalina, Auaké, Mariche, the Timoto-Cuica culture was the most complex society in Pre-Columbian Venezuela, with pre-planned permanent villages, surrounded by irrigated, terraced fields. They stored water in tanks and their houses were made primarily of stone and wood with thatched roofs. They were peaceful, for the most part, and depended on growing crops, regional crops included potatoes and ullucos
The Caribbean Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean in the tropics of the Western Hemisphere. The entire area of the Caribbean Sea, the islands of the West Indies. The Caribbean Sea is one of the largest seas and has an area of about 2,754,000 km2, the seas deepest point is the Cayman Trough, between the Cayman Islands and Jamaica, at 7,686 m below sea level. The Caribbean coastline has many gulfs and bays, the Gulf of Gonâve, Gulf of Venezuela, Gulf of Darién, Golfo de los Mosquitos, Gulf of Paria, the Caribbean Sea has the worlds second biggest barrier reef, the Mesoamerican Barrier Reef. It runs 1,000 km along the coasts of Mexico, Guatemala, the name Caribbean derives from the Caribs, one of the regions dominant Native American groups at the time of European contact during the late 15th century. During the first century of development, Spanish dominance in the region remained undisputed, from the 16th century, Europeans visiting the Caribbean region identified the South Sea as opposed to the North Sea.
The Caribbean Sea had been unknown to the populations of Eurasia until 1492, at that time the Western Hemisphere in general was unknown to Europeans. Following the discovery of the islands by Columbus, the area was colonised by several Western cultures. As of 2015 the area is home to 22 island territories, the International Hydrographic Organization defines the limits of the Caribbean Sea as follows, On the North. In the Windward Channel – a line joining Caleta Point and Pearl Point in Haïti, in the Mona Passage – a line joining Cape Engano and the extreme of Agujereada in Puerto Rico. From Galera Point through Trinidad to Galeota Point and thence to Baja Point in Venezuela, note that, although Barbados is an island on the same continental shelf, it is considered to be in the Atlantic Ocean rather than the Caribbean Sea. The Caribbean Sea is an oceanic sea largely situated on the Caribbean Plate, the Caribbean Sea is separated from the ocean by several island arcs of various ages. The youngest stretches from the Lesser Antilles to the Virgin Islands to the north east of Trinidad, the larger islands in the northern part of the sea Cuba, Hispaniola and Puerto Rico lie on an older island arc.
The geological age of the Caribbean Sea is estimated to be between 160 and 180 million years and was formed by a fracture that split the supercontinent called Pangea in the Mesozoic Era. It is assumed the proto-caribbean basin existed in the Devonian period, in the early Carboniferous movement of Gondwana to the north and its convergence with the Euramerica basin decreased in size. The next stage of the Caribbean Seas formation began in the Triassic, powerful rifting led to the formation of narrow troughs, stretching from modern Newfoundland to the west coast of the Gulf of Mexico which formed siliciclastic sedimentary rocks. In the early Jurassic due to powerful marine transgression, water broke into the present area of the Gulf of Mexico creating a vast shallow pool, the emergence of deep basins in the Caribbean occurred during the Middle Jurassic rifting. The emergence of these marked the beginning of the Atlantic Ocean
A short takeoff and landing aircraft is an aircraft with short runway requirements for takeoff and landing. Many STOL-designed aircraft feature various arrangements for use on runways with harsh conditions, STOL aircraft, including those used in scheduled passenger airline operations, have been operated from STOLport airfields which feature short runways. Autogyros have STOL capability, needing a ground roll to get airborne. Runway length requirement is a function of the square of the flying speed. For takeoff, large power/weight ratios and low drag help the plane to accelerate for flight, the landing run is minimized by strong brakes, low landing speed, thrust reversers or spoilers. Overall STOL performance is set by the length of runway needed to land or take off, of equal importance to short ground run is the ability to clear obstacles, such as trees, on both take off and landing. For takeoff, large power/weight ratios and low drag result in a rate of climb required to clear obstacles. For landing, high drag allows the aeroplane to descend steeply to the runway without building excess speed resulting in a ground run.
Drag is increased by use of flaps and by a forward slip, normally, a STOL aircraft will have a large wing for its weight. These wings often use aerodynamic devices like flaps, slats, designing an aircraft for excellent STOL performance reduces maximum speed, but does not reduce payload lifting ability. Most STOL aircraft can land either on- or off-airport, typical off-airport landing areas include snow or ice, fields or gravel riverbanks, and water, these areas are often extremely short and obstructed by tall trees or hills. Wheel skis and amphibious floats combine wheels with skis or floats, a number of aircraft modification companies offer STOL kits that can be installed on aircraft to improve their short field performance. Crosswinds STOL of Wasilla, Alaska sells STOL kits for aircraft, including leading edge cuffs, tip spill plates, inboard flap extensions. The company offers kits for Piper PA-12, PA-14, PA-18, PA-20 and 22, Bellanca Champion Model 7 series, the Horton modifications include a drooped leading edge cuff, conical cambered wingtips, control surface gap seals and wing fences.
The company says, On an average you can expect to get a 4-7 knot reduction in stall speeds, flying at these lower stall speeds you can reduce the take-off and landing distances by 10%. Horton STOL kits are available for several Cessna and Piper PA-28 models, Micro AeroDynamics markets vortex generator modification kits for STOL benefits. The Micro kits are small vortex generators that are glued to the leading edge, as well as the underside of the elevator. Kits are available for a number of light aircraft types
Coral reefs are diverse underwater ecosystems held together by calcium carbonate structures secreted by corals. Coral reefs are built by colonies of tiny animals found in waters that contain few nutrients. Most coral reefs are built from stony corals, which in turn consist of polyps that cluster in groups, the polyps belong to a group of animals known as Cnidaria, which includes sea anemones and jellyfish. Unlike sea anemones, corals secrete hard carbonate exoskeletons which support, most reefs grow best in warm, clear and agitated waters. Often called rainforests of the sea, shallow coral reefs form some of the most diverse ecosystems on Earth, coral reefs flourish even though they are surrounded by ocean waters that provide few nutrients. They are most commonly found at depths in tropical waters. Coral reefs deliver ecosystem services to tourism and shoreline protection, the annual global economic value of coral reefs is estimated between US$29. 8-375 billion. However, coral reefs are fragile ecosystems, partly because they are sensitive to water temperature.
Most of the coral reefs we can see today were formed after the last glacial period when melting ice caused the sea level to rise and this means that most modern coral reefs are less than 10,000 years old. As communities established themselves on the shelves, the reefs grew upwards, Reefs that rose too slowly could become drowned reefs. They are covered by so much water there was insufficient light. Coral reefs are found in the sea away from continental shelves, around oceanic islands. The vast majority of islands are volcanic in origin. The few exceptions have tectonic origins where plate movements have lifted the deep ocean floor on the surface. In 1842 in his first monograph, The Structure and Distribution of Coral Reefs, Charles Darwin set out his theory of the formation of atoll reefs and he theorized uplift and subsidence of the Earths crust under the oceans formed the atolls. Darwin’s theory sets out a sequence of three stages in atoll formation and it starts with a fringing reef forming around an extinct volcanic island as the island and ocean floor subsides.
As the subsidence continues, the reef becomes a barrier reef. Darwin predicted that underneath each lagoon would be a bed rock base, where the level of the underlying earth allows, the corals grow around the coast to form what he called fringing reefs, and can eventually grow out from the shore to become a barrier reef
The barracuda is a ray-finned fish known for its large size, fearsome appearance and ferocious behaviour. They are found near the top of the water and near coral reefs, barracuda are snake-like in appearance, with prominent, sharp-edged, fang-like teeth, much like piranha, all of different sizes, set in sockets of their large jaws. They have large, pointed heads with an underbite in many species and their gill covers have no spines and are covered with small scales. Their two dorsal fins are separated, with the anterior fin having five spines, and the posterior fin having one spine and 9 soft rays. The posterior dorsal fin is similar in size to the fin and is situated above it. The lateral line is prominent and extends straight from head to tail, the spinous dorsal fin is placed above the pelvic fins and is normally retracted in a groove. The caudal fin is forked with its posterior edged double-curved and is set at the end of a stout peduncle. The pectoral fins are placed low on the sides, in most cases, a barracuda is dark blue, dark green, white, or gray on its upper body, with silvery sides and a chalky-white belly.
For some species and unorganized black spots or a row of darker cross-bars occur on each side and their fins may be yellowish or dusky. Barracudas live primarily in oceans, but certain species, such as the great barracuda, other barracuda species are found around the world. Examples are Sphyraena argentea, found from Puget Sound southwards to Cabo San Lucas, Sphyraena jello, from the seas of India, adults of most species are more or less solitary, while young and half-grown fish frequently congregate. They kill and consume larger prey by tearing chunks of flesh, barracuda are competitive species and often are seen competing against mackerel, needle fish and sometimes even dolphins for prey. Barracuda feed on an array of prey including fish such as jacks, groupers, small tunas, killifishes and they seem to consume smaller species of sustenance that are in front of them. Like sharks, some species of barracuda are reputed to be dangerous to swimmers, barracudas are scavengers, and may mistake snorkellers for large predators, following them hoping to eat the remains of their prey.
Swimmers have reported being bitten by barracuda, but such incidents are rare, large barracudas can be encountered in muddy shallows on rare occasion. Barracudas may mistake things that glint and shine for prey, handfeeding or touching large barracudas in general is to be avoided. Spearfishing around barracudas can be dangerous, as they are capable of ripping a chunk from a wounded fish thrashing on a spear. Humans are not on their menu, but haste can lead to confusion
Snorkeling is the practice of swimming on or through a body of water while equipped with a diving mask, a shaped breathing tube called a snorkel, and usually swimfins. In cooler waters, a wetsuit may be worn, use of this equipment allows the snorkeler to observe underwater attractions for extended periods with relatively little effort and to breathe while face-down at the surface. Snorkeling is a recreational activity, particularly at tropical resort locations. The primary appeal is the opportunity to observe life in a natural setting without the complicated equipment. It appeals to all ages because of how little there is. It is the basis of the two disciplines of the underwater sport of finswimming. Snorkeling is mentioned by Aristotle in his Parts of Animals and he refers to divers using instruments for respiration resembling the elephants trunk. The snorkel may be an item or may be integrated with a full-face snorkelling mask. The integrated system is suitable for surface snorkelling, but the separate snorkel may be used for free-diving.
It is used for breathing air from above the surface when the wearers mouth and nose are submerged. The snorkel may have a piece of rubber or a clip that attaches the snorkel to the outside of the strap of the diving mask. An alternative technique is fitting the snorkel between the mask-strap and the head, but this practice may increase the chance that the mask leaks, the optimum design length of the snorkel tube is at most 40 centimeters. A longer tube would not allow breathing when snorkelling deeper, since it would place the lungs in deeper water where the water pressure is higher. The lungs would be unable to inflate when the snorkeler inhales, the pressure difference across the tissues in the lungs, between the blood capillaries and air spaces would increase the risk of pulmonary edema. The greater the volume of the tube, and the smaller the tidal volume of breathing, a smaller diameter tube reduces the dead volume, but increases resistance to airflow and so increases the work of breathing.
Occasional exhalation through the nose while snorkeling will slightly reduce the buildup of carbon dioxide, the simplest type of snorkel is a plain tube that is allowed to flood when underwater. The displacement method expels water by filling the snorkel with air, it is a technique that takes practice but clears the snorkel with less effort, clearing splash water while at the surface requires blast clearing. Some snorkels have a sump at the lowest point to allow a volume of water to remain in the snorkel without being inhaled when the snorkeler breathes